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Chuck of Beef 


'Re'VUed E^dilion 





Bv S. L. Morse. 

copyright, 1909 
By The Success Co. 

Copyright, 1913 
By Success Company's 

Branch Offices 










We will pay for new household discoveries, including all practical 
recipes and processes, not contained in this volume, one cent a word 
for all we can use in future editions of Household Discoveries. Cor- 
rections of errors or misstatements, utilized by us, will be paid for 
at the same rate. If you have saved money or have been otherwise 
benefited by using one of our recipes, write us all about it. 

Success Company's Branch Offices. 


Household Discoveries is not offered for sale through the book 
stores, and can only be obtained ol our regular authorized solicitors 
or from the publishers direct. Anyone desiring a copy may address 
the publishers at address below and full information will be given by 
mail, or one of our representatives will be asked to call. We are al- 
ways in want of canvassing agents. The price of Household Discov- 
eries, because of its genuine worth (so apparent), sells the book 
readily and it always gives satisfaction. We will pay a good salary 
to the right person. The work is both pleasant and profitable. 

Success Company's Branch Offices, 

Petersburg, New York. 


The main object of this book is economy. If rightly used, it 
will save a great deal of money in every household. It will also 
save time and labor, which are the equivalent of money. 

The publishers have long felt that there is a great need for 
a new book of this sort upon the market. To be sure, there are 
a number of standard dictionaries and encyclopedias of appHed 
science. But these cost from five to ten dollars and upward. 
And they contain a great deal of information about commercial 
processes not suitable to household use. There are also a num- 
ber of popular books of recipes published. But most of these 
are old books. Others are made up scrapbook fashion by the 
republication of old material without proper editorial supervision. 

In the course of the preparation of this volume, our atten- 
tion was necessarily called to the fact that a number of so-called 
" new " books republish, word for word, recipes and processes 
that have been formerly published in six or eight other books, 
some of which appeared before the Civil War, Recent science 
has introduced many new substances and processes then unknown. 
All these have been availed of in the present volume. 

Moreover, the old-fashioned popular book of recipes leaves 
something to be desired in its manner as well as its matter. The 
enormous sale and reputation of a number of old books that 
contain some recipes of great practical value, but accompanied by 
comment which no sane person can possibly read without a sense 
of humor or a feeling of disgust, is the strongest possible evi- 
dence of the value of this kind of information. We believe that 
what has made these old books popular is their practical part 
and not their silly part. We believe that the public will approve 
a volume that sets forth what to do, how to do, and the reasons 
why, in simple, direct, and dignified language, and saves space 
for additional recipes and other information by omitting " horse- 
play " and all mmecessary remarks and commentaries. 

This is a modem book. All who have owned or used one 



of the old-time books of recipes know that hardly a week passes 
that they do not find occasion to refer to it. They will, we be- 
lieve, appreciate the importance of having the latest and best 
information along these lines obtainable. Others, who have no 
good collection of this sort, will appreciate without argument 
the value of purchasing a new book rather than an old one. 

Thus we feel that there is a universal necessity for Household 
Discoveries, and we have therefore put the price so low as to 
bring it within the reach of every family, in the confident ex- 
pectation of distributing at least a million copies throughout the 
continent of North America. 

The Publishers. 


There are a number of other books of recipes, but the pres- 
ent volume is unique in three ways: what it contains, what it 
omits, and the way it is arranged. 


As to the f,rst of these three features, the title Household 
Discoveries is suggestive. We all have our own ways of doing 
things. We learn to do by doing. But we are all the time try- 
ing new ways, to save time, to save money, and to do things 
better. Every now and then, through a happy combination of 
circumstances, we make a " Discovery." We hit upon a better 
way than we have known before. Nothing pleases us more than 
to tell our friends about it. They in turn like to tell us ways 
they have discovered to do this or that. Women thus exchange 
household recipes. Men swap ideas on carpentering, painting, 
tinkering, and odd jobs generally. The value of these homely 
ideas thus passing throughout the country, from lip to hp, from 
friend to friend, and from neighbor to neighbor, is enormous. 
Some persons are able to store up large numbers of such practi- 
cal ideas in memory. Others keep notebooks or scrapbooks in 
which to record them. But the stock of most persons is limited 
to a few score or a few hundreds, whereas others, equally good, 
are in existence to the number of many thousands. 

The present volume is made up of practical ideas of tliis 
character. More than twenty-five thousand persons contributed 
from one to half a dozen of their own tried "Discoveries." All 
were practical housekeepers. Their ideas were the direct product 
of their experience. They were proud of them and they had 
reason to be. The writer appreciated to the full the value of 
this material and obtained permission to edit it and prepare it 
for the press. 

Valuable as are the " Discoveries " of practical housekeepers 
in themselves, they have, in their suggestiveness, an added value. 
They show what kind of information housekeepers need and 
want. But they also reveal the fact that many women of great 
practical experience lack scientific knowledge. It has therefore 
beeij jiecessary to supplement this wealth of ideas derived from 


experience. And this has been done in two ways: First, the 
discoveries contributed by housekeepers have been carefully 
checked against the best scientific authorities, errors have been 
corrected, impractical ideas discarded. Second, the whole has 
been augmented by the addition of the most approved practical 
and scientific formula?. As a result, it turned out to be neces- 
sary to rewrite the entire volume. 

" Discoveries " are usually how to do this or that. But many 
persons also want to know why. And all can work better if they 
understand the nature and properties of the various substances. 
These are of several sorts. In removing stains and spots, for 
instance, what to do depends upon the kind of fabric, whether 
animal or vegetable fiber ; its condition, whether white or colored, 
bleached or unbleached; the nature of the staining substance; 
and the nature of the cleanser to be employed. Hence, the na- 
ture and the properties of the particular kinds of substances in 
common household use are carefully stated. Distinctions are 
made, and closely adhered to, between the treatment of different 
classes of substances, as animal versus vegetable fibers and the like. 
Poisons, explosives, and other dangerous substances are recom- 
mended only with the proper cautions, and all possible safeguards 
have been thrown about the use, by ordinary persons, of the 
various recipes recommended. 


The second feature that makes this book unique is what it 
omits. The writer has closely examined about fifty thousand 
recipes contributed by housekeepers, and more than fifty pub- 
lished books of recipes (embracing all that have appeared in 
the Enghsh language in the past fifty or sixty years) or a 
total (including duplicates) of nearly one hundred thousand 
recipes. This book contains the cream of them all. It is hke 
apple butter boiled down from cider. It is sound wheat winnowed 
free from chaff. It was not necessary to leave out any good 
recipes that were adapted to household use. They are all here. 
Nothing had to be left out but waste words, dupKcates (the same 
thing said in another way), gush, and braggadocio. 

A favorite way of padding books of recipes has been to oc- 
cupy more space boasting about the wonders the recipes will 
do than it takes to give the recipe and the directions. Nearly 
half of one of the most celebrated books of recipes is thus 
taken up with " Remarks " that are of no possible use to any- 
body. If the mass of trivialities contained in some of the most 
widely known tbooks of recipes now in use could be struck out 


and the contents " boiled down " or " churned " or " winnowed " 
in a thorough manner, it would surprise everyone to find how 
little space the recipes themselves take up. 

And a boiled-down book is much more valuable. The recipes 
are still the same and they are a great deal more convenient. By 
thus avoiding unnecessary words, all the best recipes for house- 
hold purposes extant have been combined into one volume. They 
are given on their merits in a plain, direct, and simple way. And 
full information is given in regard to the nature and properties of 
the various substances. Thus anyone can select the best recipe 
for a given use, and he will discover its virtues for himself with- 
out paying extra to read about them beforehand. " The proof of 
the pudding is in the eating thereof." 


The third feature in wliich this book is unique is the way it 
is arranged. The contents are pictorial. Each chapter is a 
picture, or rather a series of moving pictures, from daily life. 
If a moving-picture machine could follow a good housekeeper 
around from morning until night, seven days in the week and 
fifty-two weeks in the year, and then throw the series of pictures 
thus taken upon a screen, the result would be similar to the con- 
tents of this volume. The book goes right with the housekeeper 
when furnishing and decorating all parts of the house, and 
makes a series of pictures that suggest what to do. It gives 
helpful pictures of the best method of heating, lighting, water 
supply, and refrigeration. It goes right through the day's work 
and makes pictures of the different processes, of the kindling and 
care of fires, dishwasliing, cleaning lamps, chamber work, and 
preparations for the night. 

It goes through the week's work and makes a picture of get- 
ting ready for wash day by removing spots and stains from the 
linen and by dry cleaning all sorts of fabrics; of the different 
kinds of soap and how to make them; of wash day, ironing day, 
mending, sweeping and cleaning days, and all of their different 

It goes through the year's work also, the spring and fall 
house cleaning; the fight against moths, cockroaches, ants, fleas, 
mosquitoes, flies, rats and mice, and other household pests; and 
even takes up packing to travel or to move away. 

And on wash day, for example, just when the picture is com- 
plete — including the piles of soiled garments, the utensils of the 
laundry, and the various soaps and other cleansing mixtures — 
aU of the recipes are given that can be found in any published 


book of good repute and many " Discoveries " that have never 
been published elsewhere. Thus, a young bride — or an experi- 
enced housekeeper, too, for that matter — can take up the book the 
night before wash day and read over exactly the information 
she will need to put in practice on the morrow. Or the book 
can be kept at hand in the laundry closet and picked up with 
wet hands if need be. The cover (in one style of binding) is 
made of oilcloth and it will not be damaged in the least. What 
the housekeeper wants to know about any kind of housework can 
be found at the very time she wants it, and all in one place. Con- 
trast with this books that are arranged in a b c order like an 
encyclopedia, and you will see why Household Discoveries is, 
in arrangement, the most practical and convenient book of recipes 
ever published. ^ 

Take, for instance, the family workroom. It is a picture of 
what is needed to make a man handy about the house. Every- 
thing is described in such a simple way that anyone can fix up 
such a workroom and always have at hand paste, mucilage, glue, 
and cement for all kinds of uses ; paints and varnishes ; soldering 
tool and solder and other forms of simple metal work; oils and 
lubricators; and all sorts of similar contrivances. Every recipe 
and process is described in the simplest language. And this part 
of the book alone is worth, to the man of the house, many times 
the cost of the entire volume. It will save the family the price 
of the book several times over every^ year that it is in the house. 

TJpwar3 of one Hundred thousand recipes include a great 
many different ways of doing the same things. And by omitting 
all waste words and boiling down everything to the last degree 
it has been possible to include more of these ways than any one 
person would be likely to want. It has seemed best, however, to 
include them all. Circumstances differ. And many men are of 
many minds. From the variety of the recipes given, it is be- 
lieved that any housekeeper or practical man can, in most cases, 
make up a recipe for a given purpose from what is at hand in 
the house or at any rate what can easily be had in the neigh- 
borhood. And thus the book is adapted to all parts of the coun- 
try, and to the use of every individual and family in the land. 

The Author. 





House Furnishing — Furniture — Wall Coverings — Floor Coverings — 
Curtains, Shades and Draperies — Miscellaneous Objects — Living 
Rooms — Sleeping Rooms — Dining Room — Kitchen, Storeroom, and 
Pantry — Small Economies 33 



Kinds of Fuel — Heating Systems — -Chimneys and Flues — Fire Extin- 
guishers AND Fire Escapes — Fireproofing and Waterproofing — 
Artificial Illumination — Coal Gas, Gasoline Gas, and Acetylene — 
Kerosene Oil — Ice and Refrigeration 69 


HOME sanitation AND HYGIENE 

Location of Buildings — Danger from Artificial Heating Systems — 
Water Supply — Disposal of Household Wastes — Eldjination of 
Flies 99 


infection and disinfection 

Contact Infection — Disinfection — Standard Solutions — Fumigation or 
Gaseous Disinfection — Formaldehyde and Sulphur Fumigation — 
Additional Disinfection 132 


prevention of communicable disease 

Typhoid Fever — The Sick Room — Tuberculosis or Consumption — Small- 
pox — Vaccination — Chickenpox — Malaria — Yellow Fever — Hook- 
worm Disease — Foreign Diseases — Contagious Diseases of Animals. J47 






Save the Babies — Health and Disease — Diseases of the Eyes — Digestive 
Disturbances — Soothing Sirup — Symptoms of Communicable Dis- 
eases — Infantile Paralysis — Cerebrospinal Meningitis — Diph- 
theria—Scarlet Fever — Measles — Chickenpox — Whooping Cough 
— Mumps — Parasitic Diseases 177 


the care of babies 

Before the Baby Comes — The New Born Child — Save the Babies — Gen- 
eral Rules — Breast Feeding — Artificial Feeding — Milk Modifica- 
tion — Materials for Milk Modification — Bottle Feeding — Artifi- 
cial Foods — Other Foods for Infants — Drugs — Care of Milk in 
the Home 202 


outdoor problems of the householder 

The Lawn and Home Grounds — Flower, Fruit, and Vegetable Gardens — 
Trees and Shrubbery — Tree Propagation by Cuttings, Grafts and 
Buds — Pruning Orchard and Shade Trees — The Friends and En- 
emies OF Orchard and Garden — Clearing New Land — Concrete 
Construction — Preservation of Timber and Shingles — Good Roads 
— Lightning Conductors 237 


THE day's routine 

Cleaning and Polishing Stoves — Dishwashing — Care of Kitchen Wares — 
Care of Glassware and Cut Glass — Steel Knives and Forks — Care 
of Silverware — Care of Sinks and Disposal of Garbage — Chamber 
Work — Care of Lamps 302 


removal of spots and stains 

Solvents for Spots and Stains — Kinds of Spots and Stains — Stains on 
White Linen or Cotton — To Remove Stains from Vegetable Fibers 
— To Remove Stains from Animal Fibers — To Clean Colored 
Goods — To Dry-clean Men's Garments — To Dry-clean Women's 
Garments — Cleaning and Care of Gloves — To Clean Feathers, Furs 
AND Straw — Bleaching Vegetable and Animal Fibers .... 324 





Soap and Soap Making— The Laundry— Nature of the Process — Water 
FOR the Laundry — Labor-saving Methods, Washing Fluids, Etc. — 
Colored Goods — Laces and Lace Curtains — Silks and Satins — 
Woolens, Worsteds, and Flannels — Drying Clothes .... 355 


ironing day 

Bluing and Sprinkling — Starch and Starching — Care of Ironing Utensils 
— Ironing — To Do Up Silks, Ribbons, and Woolens — To Do Up 
Laces and Curtains — To Mark and Store Linen 379 


sweeping day 

Utensils for Sweeping — Dust and Dusting — Hard-wood Floors — Rugs — 

Matting — Oilcloth and Linoleum 391 


house cleaning 

Cleaning the Cellar — Cleaning the Attic and Closets — Cleaning the 
Chambers — To Clean Floor Coverings — Cleaning and Repinishinq 
Wood Floors — Cleaning Paint — Whitewashing — Paper Hanging — 
Care of Walls — Windows, Doors, Etc. — Cleaning and Care of Fur- 
niture — Cleaning Picture Frames — Cleaning Bric-a-Brac and 
Miscellaneous Objects — To Clean Marble, Brick, and Stone — 
Cleaning Kitchen Stoves and Other Metals — Packing . . . 401 


household and garden pests 

The Clothes Moth — Carpet Beetle or "Buffalo Moth" — The House 
Centipede — The Common Cockroach or Croton Bug — The Bedbug — 
The House Flea — Rats and Mice — Black and Red Ants — The 
White Ant — The Common House Fly — The Mosquito — Orchard, 
Farm, and Garden Pests 445 




adhbsives, paints, and varnishes 

Adhesives — Pastes — Mucilage — Glue — Cement — Special Adhesives — Spe- 
cial Purpose Cements — Paints and Painting — Uses of Paint — Speci- 
fications FOR Painting — Care of Paints and Brushes — Special Kinds 
OF Paint — Varnishing — Fixed-oil Varnishes — -Spirit or Lac Var- 
nishes — Volatile-oil Varnishes — Special Varnishes — Sealing Wax 
— Oils, Lubricators, Etc. — Furniture Polish — Solder and Solder- 
ing - 473 


leather, ink, and miscellaneous 

Tanning Leather — Tanning and Care of Leather — Boots and Shoes — 
Overshoes — Waterproofing Leather — Blacking Leather — Writing 
Ink — Marking Inks — Colored Inks — Special Inks — Care of Ink — 
Care of Jewelry — Glass and Ivoky — Gypsum, Alabaster, Etc. . 518 


the toilet and bath 

The Skin — Baths and Bathing — Kinds of Baths — The Toilet — Toilet 

Soaps — Medicated Soap — The Hands — Manicuring .... 539 


toilet preparations 

Toilet Preparations — Simple Home Preparations — Almond Milk Cream 
and Paste — Cold Cream — Aromatic Vinegar — Toilet Powders — 
Rouge — Essences and Perfumes 559 


hairdressing both for men and women 

Dandruff and Shampooing — Hair Washes — Hair Tonics — Hair Oils — 
Hair Dyes — Other Hair Topics— The Beard, Mustache, and Shav- 
ing — Toilet Preparations for Men 584 



The Teeth — Dbntifbiceb — The Breath — Toothache — Toothache Rem- 
edies 603 





Human Nutrition — Dietary Standards — Kinds of Nutrients — Problems 
OF Diet — Meat in the Diet — J'ish as Food — Poultry and Dairy 
Products — Sources of Carbohydrates — Food Adulterations — 
Canned Vegetables and Fruits — Flavoring Extracts and Condi- 
ments — Baking Chemicals — Tea and Coffee — Dairy and Meat Prod- 
ucts 616 


preserving and canning fruit and vegetables 

Canned Goods for the Market — Utensils and Materials — The Process- 
Preserves and Preserving — Small Fruits — Large Fruits — Purees 
AND Marmalade — Jelly Making — Canning Vegetables . . . 646 


vinegar, pickles, and pickling 

Special Vinegars— Pickles and Pickling — Mixed Pickles — Pickled 

Vegetables, Nuts, and Fruits 6GJ 


preservation of meat and vegetables 

Fermentation — Fresh Meat and Fish — Salting and Pickling Meat — 
Curing Hams, Tongues, and Bacon — Making and Keeping Sausage- 
Preservation of Cooked Meat — Trying Out and Storing Lard- 
Preserving, Testing, and Packing Eggs — Storing and Preserving 
Vegetables, Fruit, Nuts, and Herbs 691 


candies and candy making 

Kinds of Candies— Boiling Sirup for Candy — The Seven Degrees — 
Cream or Fondant — Cream Candies — Fruit and Nut Creams — 
Bonbons — Taffy and Molasses Candy for Candy Pulls — Sirup 
Candies — Pastilles or Candy Drops — Candied Fruits, Fruit and Nut 
Candies — Caramels — Kisses and Marshmallows — Nougats — Popcorn 
Candy — Lozenges — Cough Candies — To Color and Flavor Candy — 
Ices and Icing — Honey and Beeswax 715 

xviii eoNtENt^ 


weights and measures 

Weights and Measures — Linear or Long Measure — Square or Super- 
ficial Measure — Surveyor's and Land Measure — Cubic or Capacity 
Measure — Wood, Lumber and Board Measure — Measurement of 
Stone and Brick — Dry and Liquid Measure — Measures of Weight — 
Cooks' Table of Proportions — Circular Measure — Longitude and 
Time — Measures of Value — United States Money — English or 
Sterling Money — Metric System of Weights and Measures . . 747 


Coffee — Tea — Chocolate — Lemonades — Fruit Punches .... 789 

chapter' XXIX 


Directions for Bread Making — Breads of a Large Variety — Small 

Breads Made from Yeast 796 


baking-powder breads 


Biscuits — Muffins — Gems — Waffles — Griddle Cakes — Pancakes — Scones 

— Sour-milk Breads — A Talk About Baking Powder .... 809 


stale bread 
Toasts — Brewis — Griddlecakes — Croquettes 820 



How to Make Sandwiches — Sandwiches of Meat — Fish — Cheese — Nut 

and Vegetables 824 


cereals and flour paste 
Breakfast Cereals — Rice — Macaroni — Spaghetti 829 




Rice Dishes and Breads — Macaroni^ — How to Utilize Cold Dishes . . 835 



Poached — In Sauces — Fried — Soft Boiled — Souffl^is — Hard Boiled — 

Omelets 840 



Directions for Soup Making — Stocks — Broths — Vegetable Soups — 

Meat Soups — Fish Soups — Bouillons — Cream Soups — Chowders . 846 



How to Choose Fish — General Directions for Cooking — Methods for 

Cooking Different Fish — Fish Dressings 861 


FISH left-overs 

How to Use Remains of Cold Fish — Soups — Croquettes — Salads — How 

to Cook Salt Fish 869 


Clams — Oysters — Lobsters — Crabs — Scallops — Shrimps. . . . 875 



How TO Market — Different Cuts — ^Best Methods for Cooking — Economy 
in Buying Large Cuts — Broiling — Braising — Roasting — Steaks — 
Tongue — Tripe — Kidneys — Heart 880 


left-overs of beef 

Best and Most Economical Ways for Cooking Remains of Beef — Hashes 

— Stews — Deviled Dishes — Sandwiches 891 





Roasts — Stews — Chops— Boiled — Kidneys — Liver 895 


lamb left-overs 
Lamb Left-overs 899 



Roasts — Stews — Cutlets — ^Heart — Liver — Sweetbreads — Kidneys . . 900 


veal left-overs 
Veal Left-overs 905 



Roasts— Chops — Ham Sausage 907 


pork and ham left-overs 

Pork and Ham Left-ovebs 911 



How to Choose Poultry — Dressing and Trussing — Braising — Roasting — 

Casseroles — Pie — Turkey — Duck — Poultry Dressing ... . 913 



Dainty Dishes Made from Cold Fowl 917 


meat or fish sauces 
Meat or Fish Sauces 919 



Classified Vegetables — The Value of Vegetables in Our Diet — Mar- 
KETUSTG — The Best Methods for Cooking — ^Lentils — Roots — Bulbs 
— Fruit Vegetables — Greens 922 






Soups — Hashes — Soups — Souffl:es — Cubbies — Scallops 936 



Boiled — Baked — Feied — Sweet Potatoes « 940 



To Reheat Potatoes— Fried — Creamed — Hashed — Curried — Sweet Po- 
tatoes — Croquettes 943 



How TO Make a Salad — Oil Mayonnaise — Boiled Dressings — French 
Dressings — Flavored Dressings — Salads of Vegetables — Meat — 
Fish — Poultry — Potato — Fruit 946 


puddings made from stale bread and cake 

Puddings Made from Stale Bread and Cake — Apple Puddings — Puddings 

Made from Gelatin — Fruit — Tapioca 956 


pudding sauces 
Hot and Cold Sauces 968 


frozen desserts 

Directions for Freezing — Water Ices — Sherbets — Frappes — Punches — 
Frozen Fruits — Ice Creams — Mousses — Parfaits and Fruit Pud- 
dings — Sauces for Ice Cbeam— Glaces 971 


puff paste 

How to Make Puff Paste — Puff Paste Dainties — Plain Pastry fob Pies — 

Pies of Every Variety — Mincemeat ........ 987 


cookies, cakes, and doughnuts 
Small Cakes of Every Sort — Cakes Made from Sour Milk ... . 994 





How TO Make and Bake Cake — A Kitchen Table of Recipes — Butter 
Cakes — Sponge Cakes — Fbuit Cakes — Spice Cakes — 'Nut Cakes — 
Cakes Raised by Yeast 1001 


cake fillings and icings 

Cake Fillings and Icings 1014 


fireless cookery 

The Advantages of a Fireless Cooker — How to Use It — Endorsement by 
Mrs. S. T. Rorer— Time Table for Cooking Various Foods — Rec- 
ipes for Cooking Various Dishes 1017 


favorite dishes in famous homes 

Recipes from Mrs. Taft, Mrs. Sherman, the Wives of United States 

Senators and the Governors from Various States .... 1024 


SOME kitchen kinks 

Kitchen Kinks . 1032 


economical use of meat in the home 
General Methods of Preparing Meat for the Table 1039 


cheese and its economical uses in the diet 
Kinds of Cheese Used in American Homes 1061 


preparation of vegetables for the table 
General Principles 1083 

INDEX 1115 





The subject of house furnishing is 
more imjiortant than is often realized. 
It lias a moral and social as well as 
an economic side. The relation is 
very close between the character, or 
at least the reputation, of men and 
their surroundings. Everyone is free 
to change his surroundings. Hence 
the furniture and the decorations of 
a house, and the condition of the 
house and grounds, are properly con- 
sidered an index to the character of 
its occupants. 

Furniture, decorations, and other 
surroundings that are disorderly or 
in bad taste tend to keep refined and 
thoughtful people away from such 
homes. They have an even worse 
effect on the character of the in- 
mates. Those who live in such cir- 
cumstances become used to them, and 
no longer notice their badness. But 
the worst effect is upon the impres- 
sionable minds of growing children. 
Young children naturally take their 
own homes as models. What they see 
in childhood tends to fix their stand- 
ards for life. Hence, neat, tasteful, 
and orderly homes, but not neces- 
sarily expensive in their appoint- 
ments, have a very important educa- 
tional influence. 

The problem of furnishing and 
decorating comes up in two ways: 
originally, as in the formation of a 
new home, in the furnishing of addi- 
tional rooms, or in moving into a new 
and larger dwelling; or, secondarily, 
in refurnishing from time to time, 
and purchasing additions to the fam- 

ily stock, usually in connection with 
the semiannual housecleaning. 

All of these occasions give rise to 
many problems that require good 
judgment. But these can usually be 
referred to a few simple rules that 
are not difficult to understand or to 
apply. Styles and fashions in these 
matters change more slowly than 
some other fashions, as in dress; but 
they do change, and while it is 
proper and desirable that the fur- 

"Simpliciti/, Harmon!/, and Durabilitu." 

nishings in the home should be to 
some extent original and express the 
individuality of its owners, it is nat- 
ural and convenient for everyone to 
conform in a general way to the ten- 
dencies of the times in which he lives. 
Hence it is important to know in 
what direction the current of thought 
is moving, so as to keep in advance 
or abreast of it, rather than to lag 

Simplicity, harmony, and durability 




are the keynotes of the modern tend- 
ency. The general intention seems to 
be to avoid everything that is super- 
fluous, everything that has a tendency 
to catch and hold dust or dirt, or to 
add to the discomforts and dangers 
of dust and dirt by quickly wearing 
out. Hence carpets are being large- 
ly replaced by hard-wood floors and 
rugs; wooden bedsteads, by beds of 
iron or brass; stuffed and upholstered 
furniture, by articles of plain wood 
or wood and leather. Wall papers are 
often discarded for walls tinted or 
calcimined with washable materials. 
" Bric-a-brac," flounces, valances, and 
all other superfluous articles are much 
less fashionable than formerly. 

Good and Bad Taste. — The same 
trend can be seen in decoration. Wall 
papers in solid colors, and hard-wood 
floors or solid-colored floor coverings, 
with rugs of Oriental patterns, are 
preferred to the large figured carpets, 
rugs, and wall papers with their so- 
called " cheerful " or bright and con- 
trasted colors. Stuffed plush, and 
other upholstered articles of furniture 

"Much Less Purchased than Formerly." 

in bright colors, or large figured de- 
signs, are being much less purchased 
than formerly. 

All this is a result of the Arts- 
and-Crafts movement originating in 
England with William Morris, invent- 
or of the Morris chair. A number of 
popular magazines are devoted to 

these and kindred subjects, which oc- 
cupy a good deal of space in general 
periodicals of all classes. 

Formerly there was little oppor- 
tunity for persons in small towns and 
remote rural districts either to be- 
come familiar with the right stand- 
ards or to obtain the more approved 
styles of furniture. But the general 
prosperity of recent years has re- 
sulted in many country homes being 
tastefully and elegantly furnished. 
The possibility of buying desirable 
styles on the mail-order plan has 
forced local dealers to keep better and 
more up-to-date stocks of all house- 
hold articles. Moreover, the great 
demand for simplicity of design has 
reduced the cost. There is now a 
good selection of household furniture 
in the less expensive grades upon the 
_same models as the most costly and 
tasteful articles. 


Furniture should be chosen for sim- 
plicity and durability. The most 
simple designs are usually the most 
artistic, and the most durable arti- 
cles are likely to be the most san- 
itary. Quiet and subdued colors and 
dull finishes are the most restful and 
generally satisfactory, although the 
high polish of such furniture as ma- 
hogany is preferred by many people. 
To produce a soothing and restftil ef- 
fect all the colors in a given room 
should be in harmony. The artistic 
quality that makes an article of fur- 
niture an object of beauty as well as 
of use should be sought in the lines 
of the design itself, rather than in 
additions by way of decoration. Cheap 
furniture stamped with scrolls and 
other designs in imitation of carving 
or the torturing of the natural lines 
of a piece of furniture into various 
fanciful knobs, curves, and scrolls, 
sometimes facetiously called " ginger- 
bread," have little to recommend 
them. The modern Craftsman and 
Mission styles of furniture indicate a 
change in the right direction. Not all 
of these designs are of equal value; 



but for the most part they are simple, 
durable, and derive their beauty from 
their appropriateness and the natural 
lines on which they are constructed. 
Dainty white and gold spider-legged 

"Modem Craftsman and Mission Styles.'' 

furniture has no place except in draw- 
ing-rooms of wealth and extreme con- 

Antique Furniture. — The craze for 
second-hand or antique furniture is, 
on the whole, rather absurd. Very 
few persons indeed are able to distin- 
guish a real antique from an imita- 
tion. Dealers in these goods may not 
only willfully deceive, but are often 
deceived themselves by persons who 
have so-called antiques, manufactured 
in America, shipped abroad and re- 
shipped to this country. The wood is 
not infrequently given the appearance 
of age by being buried in the ground, 
eaten with acids, or riddled with fine 
shot in imitation of worm holes. 

Even the cloth or leather in which 
the goods are upholstered may be 
given the effect of wear by mechan- 
ical means, and the whole may be 
placed on the marljet by fraud in 
such a way as to suggest that the 
articles are heirlooms. 

Modern furniture, made on the same 
models, can be obtained at nmch low- 
er prices, and is much more satisfac- 
tory than these supposed antiques. 

But, as a rule, antique pieces are not 
desirable unless a room can be fui*- 
nished with them and can have all its 
appointments in harmony with the 
antique style. 

Furnishing. — William Morris says: 
" Have nothing in your home that you 
do not know to be useful or believe 
to be beautiful." It is a good rule in 
furnishing a new home to buy first 
only what is absolutely necessary, and 
not to buy an article that is not im- 
mediately required because it is beau- 
tiful or cheap, or for any other rea- 
son. After living for a while with 
only the few articles that are abso- 
lutely necessary, it will be easier to 
see just what is required that will 
harmonize with the articles already 
purchased and their surroundings and 
help to make a satisfactory whole. 

Moreover, the longer one lives with- 
out unnecessary furnishings the more 
he is likely to appreciate the wisdom 
of simplicity. Every new article pur- 
chased is a new care, and a few ob- 
jects of good quality in a room give 
a much more elegant effect than a 
large number of less desirable pieces. 
Hence there is no reason why any 
family, whether in the city or the 
country, cannot furnish their home in 
a thoroughly modern way that will 
always be in good taste and will be 
in good style for many years to come. 

Refurnishing'. — It would, of course, 
very rarely happen that a family could 
afford or would wish to discard serv- 
iceable articles because they are not 
in good style or good taste according 
to present fashion. But as such arti- 
cles wear out and have to be replaced, 
or as additions are made from time to 
time, it is quite possible to refurnish 
in such a way that in comparatively 
few years the entire contents of the 
home will be modernized. Hence the 
importance of some knowledge of the 
subjects of harmony and color, sim- 
plicity, design, and durability in ma- 
terial and in modes. 

Color Schemes. — Tlie most pleasing 
effects in decoration are obtaineo by 
treating each room or group of con- 
nected rooms in such j* w»J as to get 


a harmonious general effect or color 
scheme. And the color scheme must, 
of course, be chosen with reference to 
the purpose for which the room is 
intended, its shape and size, and the 
amount of sunlight it receives. Rooms 
can be so treated as to seem higher 
or broader than they are, the amount 
of liglit can be increased or subdued, 
and each room can be given a distinct 
tone and individuality appropriate to 
the uses to which it is put. This way 
of decorating does not necessarily cost 
any more than any other. It merely 
requires some knowledge and skill that 
can easily be acquired. 

The basis of the color scheme is, of 
course, in the background provided by 
the wall and floor coverings and the 
woodwork. But aU the furnishings 
should be selected so as to form, with 
the background, a harmonious whole. 
Hence the subject naturally divides it- 
self into the separate topics of wood- 
work, wall coverings, floor coverings, 
and furniture. And the last topic can 
be best taken up in connection with 
each of the different rooms, as the liv- 
ing room, dining room, bedrooms, etc. 

Color and Li^ht. — Some colors re- 
flect a large part of the light that falls 
upon them; others absorb it. The 
variouiS' shades of green are the great- 
est thieves of light. A dark-green wall 
will absorb about 85 per cent of the 
light; a dark brown perhaps 70 per 
cent; a light green, 50 per cent; an 
orange or yellow, 25 or 30 per cent; 
light blue, 35 per cent; and soft, deli- 
cate tints about 10 per cent. But of 
course these figures are only approxi- 
mate. Pure white absorbs about 15 
per cent of the light thrown upon it. 
Hence suitable color schemes for rooms 
facing south that need toning down 
are greens or the dull shades of blue, 
^cru, or tan. 

For rooms facing west the lighter 
shades of green, with rose, terra cotta, 
or white, are appropriate. White 
enamel furniture with brass trimmings 
is suitable for such apartments. 

North and east rooms require warm 
tones of yellow, with which yellow oak 
furniture harmonizes, or warm shades 

of red, which harmonizes with Mission 

Most men would agree to Eugene 
Field's remark that " almost any color 
suited him, so long as it was red." 
Hence red is a suitable color for the 
furnishing of a man's room or den. 

For the dining room, provided it is 
a bright, sunny room, a suitable color 
is blue or grayish blue, harmonizing 
with the tones of delft china. Or, if 
the dining room is less well lighted, a 
rich warm tone of yellow gives a sun- 
ny atmosphere to the room. But avoid 
yellow of a greenish or lemon cast. 

For the hall, a suitable color is 
green. And for the living room, green 
or a warm shade of russet brown, to 
harmonize with the green of the hall. 

Bedrooms should be preferably in 
light and delicate colors. 


The materials commonly used for. 
wall coverings are chiefly of three 
sorts, paper, cloth, and paint, or 
washes applied direct to the walls. 
The last method is much more gen- 
erally used than formerly. Wall pa- 
pers are cheaper but less durable than 
cloth. Suitable tints and stains in 
water colors and calcimine are cheaper 
than either, and also more durable. 

Wall Papers. — Perhaps the com- 
monest wall coverings are the wall 
papers of various grades, from the 
ordinary wood-pulp paper costing but 
a few cents a roll, to the highest 
grades of cartridge, ingrain, or duplex 
papers, imitations of leather, and 
other specialties. 

Wall papers are very cheap, and 
anyone can readily learn how to hang 
them. Hence there is no reason why 
rooms should not be repapered as 
often as is necessary to keep them 
fresh and clean. 

Wall papers are especially suitable 
to walls that are rough or uneven, and 
to walls of houses that are not suffi- 
ciently well built. By suitable treat- 
ment paper can be hxmg on almost 
any wall, and it assists in keeping the 
rooms tight and warm. 



Colors and Patterns. — The plain 
cartridge, ingrain, or duplex papers in 
solid colors are the most approved and 
among the most satisfactory wall pa- 
pers, especially for living rooms in 
general use. The absence of any pat- 
tern or design brings out in full relief 
the pictures upon the walls and other 
ornaments, and helps to give a quiet 
air of luxury to the apartment. But 
these arre somewhat more expensive 
than ordinary wall papers, and require 
a smoother wall surface and better 
care in hanging. The edges must be 
trimmed on both sides and " butted," 
or brought together side by side, tight 
enough not to show the wall between 
them, instead of being overlapped, as 
with ordinary papers. Otherwise the 
thickness of the paper would make a 
ridge which, on account of the solid 
color, would be plainly visible. This 
requires some skill, but with a little 
practice can be done by anyone. The 
edge should be trimmed with a sharp 
knife by means of a straightedge 
rather than with shears. 

Next to the ingrain papers, the two- 
toned or double-toned papers, having 
a subdued pattern in another shade or 
tint of the same color as the ground- 
work, are preferred for the living 

Good taste demands the selection of 
a paper having a comparatively small 
and simple design, and without large 
figures or striking and glaring con- 
trasts of color. Large-figured papers 
deprive pictures and other ornaments 
of all artistic effect and make the wall, 
which should be merely a background, 
stand out obtrusively. 

How to Choose Wall Paper. — The 
effect of wall papers cannot be well 
judged from small samples. Hence 
when possible choose from the stock 
itself and have two or three widths 
unrolled side by side to get the gen- 
eral effect. Remember that vertical 
stripes make a room seem higher than 
it is, that large figures and dark col- 
ors make it seem smaller, and that a 
simple design in natural outlines, as 
a landscape or flowers and foliage^ has 
perspective and tends to give an effect 

of greater width. Hence it may be 
suitable for halls or narrow apart- 

Figured papers in dainty patterns, 
as poppies, roses, or other natural 
blossoms, are more suitable for bed- 
rooms than for living rooms. They 
can be selected to suit almost any kind 
of color scheme. Solid colors seem to 
make the walls retire; hence they give 
the effect of broadening and enlarging 
the apartment. This is especially true 
of the lighter shades. Mother Goose 
and other figured papers in suitable 
designs may be had for children's 
rooms and nurseries, imitation leather 
for dining rooms and halls, and water- 
proof oilcloth papers for bathrooms, 
kitchens, etc. 

Ceilings. — Various desirable effects 
may be produced in wall coverings by 
the treatment of the ceiling. Low 
rooms may be given an effect of great- 
er height by the use of a two-toned 
paper in narrow, vertical stripes, car- 
ried clear to the ceiUng without a 

" Vertical Stripes Carried Clear to the CeiJivg." 

border, and by fastening the picture 
molding as close to the ceiling as it 
will go. On the other hand, rooms 
that are too narrow in proportion to 
other dimensions may be given a bet- 
ter effect by lowering the picture 
molding one to two feet or more and 
papering up to the molding, but not 
above, the upper part of the wall be- 
ing whitewashed or calcimined in the 
same materials as the ceiling. 

Ceilings that have rough or crooked 



places which cannot be repaired may 
be hung with a paper of the same 
quality as the walls, but usually of a 
lighter tint. The border may be put 
on around the edge of the ceiling in- 
stead of around the top of the wall, 
thus giving the room the effect of 
greater height. 

Or ceilings may be whitewashed or 
calcimined, or tinted with water col- 
ors, with or without stenciled borders 
or frescoes. 

Dadoes. — The effect of any room may 
be improved by a chair rail around the 
walls three feet from the floor. Suit- 
able material can be procured from 
dealers in picture moldings. This will, 
of course, be painted the same color 
as the woodwork. 

On the wall below hang cotton or 
linen cloth previously painted with 
boiled linseed oil and well dried, or 
cheap ingrain paper, and when dry 
paint this wall covering the same color 
as the woodwork. 

Or this dado may be developed with 
picture molding, the corners being 
mitered the same as picture frames. 
With the aid of a homemade miter- 
box anyone who is handy with tools 
can do this work. 

Test for Wall Paper.— To test green 
wall pa^er for the presence of arsenic 
in dangerous quantities dip a sample 
in aqua ammonia. If arsenic is pres- 
ent, the paper will turn from green 
to blue. 

Or light a piece of the paper with 
a match, and when burning briskly 
blow it out. The presence of arsenic 
ma_y be detected by an odor similar to 
that of garlic. 

Wall Coverings — Cloth. — ^^^arious 
grades of prepared cloth wall cover- 
ings are obtainable, as silk, linen, and 
burlap. These are more expensive 
than paper, and are objected to by 
some on the ground that they catch 
dust and are tmsanitary, unless regu- 
larly swept and dusted every day. But 
these materials when of good quality 
are very durable, and furnish perhaps 
the most artistic of all backgrounds 
for pictures and other decorations. 
Burlap is more suitable for outer halls 

or rooms furnished with heavy oak or 
Mission furniture. Silks and linens 
harmonize with mahogany and with 
the lighter and more graceful furni- 
ture of parlors and drawing-rooms. 

To Color Walls. — The Arts-and- 
Crafts movement is introducing the 
custom of tinting walls in waterproof 

" Stencil Added Above." 

colors without the use of cloth or pa- 
per hangings, either in solid colors or 
with the addition of designs by means 
of stencils. The wall is usually tinted 
in a solid color, and the stencil added 
above the picture molding by way of 

"Protected hy Means of a Dado." 

Or the walls may be painted for 
half or two thirds of their height and 



sanded and tinted above, a light 
molding of simple design being used 
to divide the two surfaces. The 
molding should be painted the same 
coloi* as the woodwork. 

Or a chair rail and painted dado 
may be used, and the waUs tinted 

Stairways. — Paper for stairways 
may be the same as the hall paper. 
It often becomes soiled along the bot- 
tom, and may be protected by means 
of a dado about three feet high car- 
ried around the hall and up the 
stairway, and surmounted by a light 
wooden molding painted to corre- 
spond to the adjacent woodwork^ 


The principal kinds of floor cover- 
ings in common use are rugs of vari- 
ous kinds, both Oriental and domes- 
tic; carpets, and oilcloths, including 
linoleum. Of carpets, the most im- 
portant in the order of their value 
and desirability are Chenille Axmin- 
ster, Wilton Axminster, Moquette, 
Velvet, Brussels, Tapestry Brussels, 
Ingrain or Kidderminster, two or 
three ply, Venetian, and old-fash- 
ioned rag carpet. 

Chenille Axminster is an imported 
carpet, consisting of worsted chenille 
woven in strips upon a jute backing. 
It comes three fourths of a yard wide 
in rolls, and may also be obtained in 
whole rugs or carpets specially de- 
signed for any kind of room. Thesj 
are imported, principally from Scot- 

Domestic Axminster and Moquette 
are much alike. They have a thick, 
high, tufted pile, which is very dur- 
able. The Axminster is usually of 
better material and construction than 
the Moquette. The groimdwork of 
these carpets is jute or cotton. The 
pile consists of tufts of soft woolen 
yarn fastened upon the groundwork 
so as to make the design. As each 
color in the design of these carpets is 
furnished from a separate roll, acting 
independently, any number of colors 
may be employed. Hence the most 

elaborate patterns and shadings of 
color may be had in these carpets. 

Wilton and Brussels are made upon 
a groundwork of linen with a face of 
worsted in raised loops. In Brus- 
sels carpet these loops remain uncut, 
whereas in Wilton they are cut and 
the pile is sheared smooth. These 
loops are formed of woolen threads of 
continuous colors which, to form the 
design, are thrust through the warp 
threads at intervals by means of wires. 
As each color comes to the surface 
independently of the others, the de- 
signs are exceptionally clear and per- 
fect, but the number of threads that 
can be employed conveniently is lim- 
ited ; hence there are fewer colors and 
much less shading in these carpets 
than in Axminster or Moquette. 

Velvet and Tapestry Brussels are 
constructed on the same principle as 
Wilton and Brussels, except that the 
worsted threads which form the sur- 
face are not of continuous colors, but 
have the colors forming the design 
printed upon them before the fabric 
is woven; hence, without any addi- 
tional expense, any number of colors 
may be employed. For this reason 
the designs of Velvet and Tapestry 
Brussels are much more* elaborate in 
color and shading than the Wilton or 
Brussels carpets. Tapestry carpets 
are more commonly used than any 
other kind except Ingrains, and hence 
they give rise in this country to the 
most important branch of carpet 

Ingrain or Kidderminster carpet is 
the only kind of which both warp and 
woof is of wool. Hence it may be 
turned and worn on either side, al- 
though it shows a right and a wrong 
side in point of color. Its name of 
" Kidderminster " is derived from the 
city in which it was formerly manu- 
factured on a large scale. The names 
"Ingrain" and "three-ply" arise from 
the fact that there are two grades, 
one of which consists of two layers 
interwoven or " ingrained " to cause 
the colors of the design to change or 
mingle, whereas the other has three 
layers similarly put together. 



Venetian is made on a coarse 
ground of hemp filling with a woolen 
warp. It usually comes in stripes and 
is largely manufactured for stair cov- 

Oilcloth consists of a foundation of 
burlap covered with a number of coat- 
ings of coarse paint. The pattern is 
printed on the surface with wooden 
blocks, one for each color. Oilcloth 
may be obtained in any width from 
three feet to twenty-four feet, but is 
ordinarily sold in narrow widths and 
mediiun weights. 

In purchasing oilcloth first look at 
the back and choose a grade of cloth 
the background of which is closely 
woven. Next see that the coating of 
paint is of good weight or thickness, 
and choose a cloth having a smooth 
surface rather than one which is 
coarse or has a raised pattern. These 
portions are the first to wear. 

Oilcloth improves with age as the 
paint hardens; hence select, if pos- 
sible, a piece which has been a long 
time in stock. 

Linoleum is a coined word for a 
floorcloth consisting of a mixture of 
oxidized linseed oil and pulverized 
cork. This is laid upon a foundation 
of coarse burlap and made to adhere 
by pressure. Linoleum was invented 
by an Englishman, William Walton, 
and was formerly sold at rather high 
prices on account of a monopoly in 
the use of the patents in the United 
States. The patents have now expired 
and linoleum is being sold in competi- 
tion with oilcloths for floor coverings. 
It presents a better appearance, is 
much more durable, and hence is 
cheaper in the long run. Oilcloths 
and linoleums, if of good quality and 
properly laid, are perhaps the best of 
all floor coverings for kitchen, pantry, 
laundry, or any other room where wet 
or greasy substances are likely to be 
spilled or where there is a great deal 
of wear. A good grade of linoleum in 
a solid color also makes a desirable 
background for Oriental or other rugs 
as a substitute for a hard-wood floor. 

To Lay Oilcloth. — The floors of 
many rooms, especially in houses that 

have been standing for many years, 
become very rough. The cracks widen, 
and some boards wear or settle more 
than others, making the surface un- 
even. This condition presents two 
difficulties: the cracks admit draughts 
from beneath, and the sharp and un- 
even edges wear the floor coverings. 
Linoleums and oilcloths being stiff 
and brittle are especially liable to 
wear and break along these cracks; 
hence, before laying these floor 
coverings, put down a number of 
thicknesses of newspapers. These 
will also prevent the floor covering, 
when heated by the sun or by the 
heat of a stove, from sticking to the 

Or use carpet felt or cai'pet linings 
obtainable from dealers for this pur- 

Or cover the floor evenly with saw- 
dust by working it into the cracks as 
much as possible. 

Or spread over the floor a rather 
thick coating of fine dry sand. 

Any of these methods makes a solid 
filling that increases the life of the 
oilcloth many years. 

To Varnish Oilcloths. — Oilcloth and 
linoleum may be much improved in 
appearance, and also indefinitely pre- 
served by an occasional coat of var- 
nish. To apply a fresh coat once in 
three months is not too often. This 
freshens the colors, prevents the oil- 
cloth from cracking, and, by lessening 
friction, makes it much easier to clean. 
If linoleum is used as a background 
for rugs in bedrooms or living rooms 
it may be painted, in imitation of va- 
rious colors of wood, with any of the 
modern varnish paints which contain 
stains, and dry with a smooth, glossy 
surface. When so treated a good lino- 
leum makes an imitation of a hard- 
wood floor, which can hardly be ex- 
celled either for beauty or durability. 
It is especially useful in those cases 
where a large rug is used for the cen- 
ter of the room with an open border 
about it. It is, of course, much bet- 
ter in such cases to cover the entire 
room with linoleum, and to lay the 
rug upon this. 



To Renew Linoleum. — Old pieces of 
linoleuin may often be made as good 
as new by first washing them with a 
strong solution of sal soda, ammonia, 
and soapsuds to remove the original 
color. Then apply a coat of any good 
light-colored paint, and lay over this 
any desired color of varnish paint in 
imitation of the woodwork. Instruc- 
tions as to what paint to use may be 
had from the dealers. Always allow 
paint and varnish to become thor- 
oughly dry and hard before walking 
upon it. 

Use of Floor Coverings. — Floor cov- 
erings doubtless originated in the use 
by our primitive ancestors of the skins 
of animals as rugs, and the earliest 
floor coverings used by civilized na- 
tions were in the form of rugs. This 
usage still continues in the Orient. 

The later custom of manufacturing 
carpets and other floor coverings in 
long, narrow strips, to be joined to- 
gether, grew out of the desire to 
cheapen the process of naanufacture 
by adapting the size of the fabrics to 
the uses of the loom. The custom of 
covering the entire floor of a room 
with carpet or other floor covering 
doubtless arose, in great degree, from 
the desire to cover cracks, knots, and 
other unsightly defects in cheap and 
badly made floors, to prevent soft- 
wood floors from wearing, and also to 
lessen draughts from the cracks be- 
tween floor boards. 

The present tendency among well- 
to-do people is back to the original 
idea of scattering rugs upon a smooth, 
polished surface. The ideal floor is 
undoubtedly of hard wood, properly 
laid and highly polished. This is the 
most sanitary, durable, and beautiful 
of all floors. It is the easiest to clean, 
and furnishes an ideal foundation as 
a basis for any interior decoration. 
The growing wealth of farmers as a 
class throughout the great central 
West and elsewhere, by reason of im- 
proved machinery and modern scien- 
tific methods of agriculture, has re- 
sulted in the building and furnishing 
of many homes having floors of this 
sort in the smallest towns and rural 

districts throughout the United States. 
Moreovei", modern means of transpor- 
tation, as trolley systems, interurban 
electric railways, automobiles, and the 
upbuilding of local telephone systems, 
have promoted the building in rural 
neighborhoods of a vast number of 
summer homes. There is hardly a 
community in the United States where 
modern houses constructed with pol- 
ished hard-wood floors and furnished 
with Oriental or domestic rugs as floor 
coverings is not to be seen. 

Another great educator has been the 
periodicals devoted to home making 
and especially catering to the class of 
suburban residents above mentioned. 
These models have set the fashion 
for bare floors and rugs, and there is 
no doubt but that as time goes on 
this custom will become increasingly 

Hard-wood floors may be laid under 
certain conditions over old floors, and 
be all the better for having another 
flooring beneath them, but they are 
somewhat expensive. Hence numerous 
ingenious methods have been used to 
secure the same result by imitation. 

To Imitate Hard-wood Floors. — Ob- 
tain a suitable hard-wood filler, and 

"Apply a Good Stain." 

press it into the cracks in the floor 
according to directions. Take care to 



smooth the filler exactly level after 
the cracks have been filled. When this 
substance hardens, the floor will be 
smooth and even, and all danger from 
draughts will be permanently done 
away. Next apply a good stain of 
any desired color to match the wood- 
work, or apply a suitable paint mixed 
with varnish that will dry, leaving a 
hard, smooth, glossy surface. 

Soluble Glass for Eloors. — Instead 
of the old-fashioned method of using 
wax for polished floors, etc., soluble 
glass is now employed to great advan- 
tage. For this purpose the floor is 
first well cleaned, and then the cracks 
are well filled up with a cement of 
water glass and powdered chalk or 
gyijsum. Afterwards a water glass of 
60° to 65°, of the thickness of sirup, 
is applied by means of a stiff brush. 
Any desired color may be imparted to 
the floor in a second coat of the water 
glass, and additional coats given until 
the requisite polish is obtained. A 
still higher finish may be given by 
pumicing off the last layer, and then 
putting on a coating of oil. 

Or denim of good quality in solid 
colors may be laid upon the floor as a 
background for the rugs. But when 
this material is used the rugs must be 
large chough and numerous enough to 
cover most of the surface and receive 
the greater part of the wear. 

Or use heavy building paper pasted 
smoothly to the floors, and apply to 
this two or more coats of varnish 
paint. This material wears well and 
presents a good appearance. 

Or heavy unbleached cotton or denim 
may be treated by tacking it against a 
building or laying it on a floor which 
is not in use, and applying with a 
paint brush one or two coats of lin- 
seed oil. After this is dry, apply a 
coat of varnish or " lac " paint, let 
dry and apply a second coat. After- 
wards apply a coat of varnish. Let 
the cloth dry thoroughly before using. 
This is a good and cheap substitute 
for oilcloth and linoleum for kitchen 
floors and all other purposes. 

Or matting may be used, especially 
in bedrooms, sewing room, sitting 

room, and even in the parlor if the 
rugs are of the right size and number 
and of sufficiently good quality. 

Or the floor may be covered, espe- 
cially in the sitting room, where there 
is more or less tracking in of mud 
and dirt, and in bedrooms, with a 
good quality of linoleum, which may 
be stained and painted in imitation 
of a hard-wood floor, or to correspond 
with the woodwork. 

The great advantage offered by the 
bare wood or a smooth surface such 
as linoleum is that it can be readily 
kept clean and free from dust, dirt, 
and all sorts of vermin. Rugs may 
be taken up and beaten out of doors 
and thoroughly aired on the line, and 
every particle of dust and dirt can be 
readily removed by wiping over the 
floor with a damp cloth drawn bag 
-fashion over the head of a broom. 
Good rugs, both Oriental and domes- 
tic, are no more expensive than the 
same grades of carpet, and their use 
is to be decidedly recommended for 
artistic and sanitary reasons as well 
as from a labor-saving standpoint. 

Denim. — Denim is perhaps the most 
generally popular floor covering as a 
background for rugs when cost is 
taken into account. But it is not, of 


ill |!|»! 


"Filling . . . Transfarmed into Rugs." 

course, as durable as carpet, and does 
not come in fast colors. When partly 
worn, however, denim may be woven 
into rugs or converted into carpet rags. 
Filling. — An all-wool ingrain " fill- 
ing" in greens and other solid colors 
is another popular floor covering much 
used as a background for rugs. This 
is very durable, but like denim tends 
to fade in comparatively few years, 
and must then be redyed or trans- 
formed into rugs. 



To Choose Carpets. — The effect of 
design in carpets is much the same as 
in wall paper. Large patterns tend 
to make a room seem small, and bor- 
ders about the carpet have the same 
effect. The present tendency favors 
carpets in solid colors or having small 
and delicate patterns. Large patterns 
and all sorts of glaring contrasts of 
color should be avoided. Both very- 
dark and very light carpets are diffi- 
cult to keep clean, and carpets con- 
taining blue, green, or other delicate 
colors, when exposed to sunlight, tend 
to fade. 

As to color, carpets should, of 
course, harmonize with the general 
color scheme of the room. But as 
they cannot be changed as frequently 
as the wall coverings, they should, as 
a rule, be in neutral colors that will 
harmonize with almost any other 
scheme that may be adopted. 

A point in favor of carpets having 
small patterns is that the two webs of 
which the carpet consists are much 
more closely interwoven if the design 
is small than if the pattern is a large 
one. Hence the carpet having a small 
design is likely to be more durable. 
Moreover, where there are no large 
patterns to attract the eye the results 
of wear are not so noticeable. 

As to material, ingrain or three-ply 
carpets being of wool and capable of 
being turned and worn on both sides, 
probably give most wear for the 
money of any carpets on the market. 
But Brussels and tapestry carpets, 
which are somewhat more expensive, 
are also, on account of their beauty 
and excellent wearing qualities, in 
very general use. 

Rag Carpet. — This is the cheapest 
carpet of all and can readily be made 
on a hand loom at home. It makes a 
thick and serviceable covering for the 
floors of kitchen or living rooms in 
winter. To make rag carpet, use a 
warp of strong cotton thread, and 
weave in any kind of rags twisted 
into small rolls. 

To Color Eag-carpet Warp. — First 
use a strong cotton yarn reeled into 
skeins of five knots. About one skein 

to the yard of carpet will be required, 
with about three knots additional for 
binding at the end of each breadth. 

For tan color first soak the warp 
thoroughly with lime water; next boil 
it in a brass or copper kettle in a 
strong solution of extract of hemlock 
bark in water. This is used by tan- 
ners for making leather, and may be 
obtained through a tanner or dealer 
in dye stuff. 

For black color soak the warp in 
strong copperas water instead of lime 
water, and use iron or tin vessels in- 
stead of brass or copper. Afterwards 
boil in the hemlock solution. 

For slate color use weaker solu- 
tions of copperas and hemlock. 

For brown use a weak solution of 
copperas and a strong solution of 
hemlock. Thus, by a little experi- 
menting, the shades of color may be 
varied at will. 

Carpet Rags. — The contents of the 
rag bag should be first picked over, 
and rags intended to be used as car- 
pet rags shoiild be washed and ironed 
and afterwards ripped apart. Seams 
and worn spots should be rejected. 
They should then be sorted according 
to the colors of materials, and if not 
needed at once, stored away for fu- 
ture use in paper bags. Woolen rags 
should be protected against moths by 
pasting the tops of the bags together. 

Rags of fast and satisfactory col- 
ors need not be dyed. But better 
effects may often be obtained by dye- 
ing all rags to suitable colors. 

To cut carpet rags, trim around the 
outside of the rag, clipping off square 
corners, and continue cutting round 
and round until the rag is all cut up. 
By this means small pieces may be 
utilized, the rags will be of satisfac- 
tory length, and will require less sew- 
ing. Cotton rags and rags of fine 
dress goods make a smoother and bet- 
ter-looking carpet than rags of heavy 
woolen colors. Hence the latter had 
better be kept separate and made 
into rugs or kitchen carpets. 

The quantity of rags required for a 
carpet may be estimated by weight. 
For each yard one and one half to two 


pounds of rags, depending upon the 
material, will be required. In sewing, 
it is better to mix the different shades 
of the same color so that the stripes 
will be of an even and uniform shade. 
Thus the breadths will present the 
same appearance. But if the pepper- 
and-salt pattern is desired all the 
colors may be mixed together. For 
this kind of carpet short pieces may 
be utilized. Rag carpets also come 
by the piece and may be bought in 
shops by the yard, the same as others. 
But when made at home or woven to 
order they can be ordered to fit the 
room, the breadths being made exact- 
ly to measure and bound up at the 
ends. Allowance in ordering should 
be made for shrinkage, as the breadths 
tend to become a little shorter and 
wider with wear. 

To Cut Carpets. — Before cutting a 
new carpet, unroll a little more than 
twice the length of the room, double 
this in the middle so that the edges 
will come side by side, and work it 
back and forth so as to match the 
pattern at a length a little longer than 
that of the room. The required num- 
ber of strips can thus be cut in such a 
way that the pattern will be matched 
exactly without waste. 

Try 'both ways on the floor before 
cutting, as it may be more economical 
to cut the lengths for the short way 
of the floor. Any pieces wasted in 
matching the pattern may be used to 
make rugs or foot stools, or to fill in 

To Sew Carpets. — Sew with the 
through-and-through stitch, very close 

Straw Matting. — ^When purchasing 
straw matting it is advisable to buy 
the best grade of fine white or uniig- 
ured matting for all rooms alike; thus 
as it wears out it can be readily 
matched or replaced by putting good 
matting from two rooms together in 

Matting Rugs. — Cut suitable lengths 
of matting and hem with twine string 
for use as summer rugs. Two or more 
breadths may be attached together if 
desired to make wide rugs. Use plain. 

or apply paint, or stain of any desired 
color. A large square rug can be 
made in this way to occupy the center 
of the flooi-, a border being made by 
l^ainting or staining the floor, or cov- 
ering with green denim or drugget. 

Rag Rugs. — Very durable and use- 
ful rugs may be made of all sorts of 
old rags in the same fashion as a rag 
carpet, or by braiding, or they may be 
knitted or drawn through burlap or 
canvas as in embroidery. Small pieces 
may be utilized by commencing at one 
side and cutting the width of a car- 
pet rug almost to the end, then turn- 
ing a corner and cutting along the 
side, and so going around the outside 
until the piece is cut up. After clip- 
ping off the square corners the rag 
will be foiuid to be of convenient 
length. Carpet rags should be wound 
'into balls of uniform size. They catch 
less dust, and do not become tangled. 
When ready to tack them, have a sew- 
ing bee, or run them up on the sewing 
luachine. This will enable you to do 
them very quickly. 

Old stocking legs make especially 
pretty rugs. 

To Make Drawn Rugs. — First pre- 
pare a frame by nailing together four 
pieces of lathe or other light pine 
stuff, and stretch on this a piece of 
strong burlap or coarse canvas. Pre- 
pare the rags by cutting them in a 
uniform width of one half inch or less, 
and wind each color in a separate ball. 
Draw the rags through the burlap by 
means of a hook, that can be extem- 
porized from a piece of wire. Insert 
the hook from above between the warp 
and woof of the burlap, and draw the 
rag up from below so as to form 
loops projecting at uniform heights 
above the burlap. This is the prin- 
ciple upon whicli Axminster carpet is 
made. A design may be traced on 
the burlap by means of chalk or char- 
coal, and the outlines drawn with two 
or three rows of rags in different col- 
ors. A little experience will indicate 
how closely together to draw the loops, 
which should project a half inch or 
less above the burlap. If desired, the 
loops may afterwards be clipped, as 



is done with the Wilton carpets, by 
means of a sharp pair of scissors. 


The use of curtains originated be- 
fore the invention of glass, when win- 
dows were either open or imperfectly 
protected against draughts. They 
originally hung straight down across 
the sash. 

At present the object of window 
shades and curtains is primarily to 
regulate the amount of light in the 
room, and to screen the interior, when 
desired, from observation from with- 
out. It is a prime rule of good taste 
in decoration that it must not be al- 
lowed to interfere with the purpose 
for which a thing is intended. Hence 
curtains and draperies that cannot be 
drawn aside to admit the light, or let 
fall to exclude it, are objectionable. 
Curtains for French windows shovdd 
be arranged with cords and pulleys 
so as to be brought out of the way 
when the windows are opened, or ad- 
justed on rods long enough so that 
they can he drawn to one side. 

Window Curtains. — Some city 
houses have three or four sets of 

"Simpler Methods . . .Are Gaining Favor.** 

curtains, but the simpler methods of 
country houses are gaining in favor. 
One set is suflBcient, and more than 

two are undesirable. A thin semi- 
transparent curtain of lace, net, or 
muslin, in white or ecru, may be used 
next the glass. This may either be 
crossed at the top and hang straight 
down or be draped at the middle sash 
with a band. This is a question of 
taste and depends upon the propor- 
tions of the room and the window. 
When an inner curtain of heavy ma- 
terial is used the lace or net curtain 
should usually be draped to soften the 
outlines. Lace or net curtains are 
usually, but not always, used down- 
stairs, and less expen^jive curtains of 
muslin are used for bedrooms and 
other upstairs windows. 

Materials for Window Curtains. — 
Lace curtains may be purchased ready 
made. Or curtains may be made of 
bobbinet or similar material and edged 
with ruffles or suitable lace. Or Cluny 
lace may be used by way of insertion. 
Plain scrim, with no other decoration 
than hemstitched hems, makes hand- 
some curtains. They launder easily 
and well. If they bleach with time 
they can be restored to their original 
color by being dipped in dilute coffee. 
The best materials for bedrooms are 
dotted Swiss or other muslins. Other 
serviceable materials are India linen, 
Aberdeen linen, Persian cotton, cre- 
tonnes, and linen taflPetas. The reps 
of various fabrics — cotton, wool, and 
silk — all hang well and are soft and 

Any suitable material may be scal- 
loped along the edge by means of a 
tumbler. Mark around this with chalk 
or pencil. Buttonhole the scallops and 
work in them polka dots or other sim- 
ple design. 

Muslin Curtains. — For bedroom 
curtains it pays to buy various cotton 
materials like dimity and muslin bj' 
the piece, and to make them all the 
same style. It is wise to keep to the 
same pattern, as dots or small rings, 
and to buy new pieces the same a^ 
the old, or as nearly so as they can be 
matched. Then new curtains can be 
used with the old. As the curtains 
begin to wear they can be put to- 
gether as pairs, or changed from 



room to room as long as any two are 

Or when curtains from the living 
rooms wear on the edges, trim them 
off, hem them neatly, and turn the 
edged border toward the sash. They 
will make good curtains for bedrooms 
or other inconspicuous windows that 
will last for years. 

Dyeing Curtains. — All cotton mate- 
rials can be readily dyed by dipping 
them in dye stuff after they have been 
washed and rinsed in the laundry. 
Thus the curtains can be made to 
conform to any desired color shade. 

Cheese cloth when dyed in suitable 
colors makes pretty and inexpensive 
curtains. Hemmed bands or borders 
of striped silkoline or other suitable 
material add a decorative effect. Dark 
green trimmed with a stripe in Orien- 
tal design and coloring makes a very 
pretty curtain. 

Or take cheese cloth or unbleached 
sheeting which may be any old mate- 
rial as old sheets, from which pieces 
of suitable size can be cut for cur- 

" Decorative Border in Oil Paints." 

tains, and dye them in any suitable 
shade. White cotton dipped in a deep 
brown dye and afterwards in a deep 
green gives a beautiful gray-green 

Or unbleached cotton sheeting can 
be stenciled or hand painted with a 
decorative border in oil paints thinned 
slightly with turpentine, and thus 
given a very artistic effect. Cut the 
curtain wide enough so that the inner 

edge of each pair may be turned over 
eight inches. Fold this strip top and 
bottom into squares. Mark the squares 
by means of a stencil and paint any 
design to form the border. 

To Hang Lace Curtains. — To hang 
lace curtains without assistance, first 
adjust the pole; throw the top of the 
curtain loosely over the pole; then, by 
means of a common pin or tack, fas- 
ten each scallop to the skirting board 
just above the carpet or along the 
floor. The curtain may then be drawn 
up rather firmly over the pole so that 
when the pins are removed the cur- 
tain will have been stretched just 
enough to lift it off the floor. This, 
without jumping down to look, in- 
sures the curtain hanging evenly. 

To Mend Lace Curtains. — To mend 
delicate lace and net curtains when 
fliey first show a tear, take very fine 
thread and a hook and fill up the 
space with a single crochet stitch. 
When laundered the mend will defy 

Or when lace curtains are much 
worn, take one or two of the worst 
for patches, and after the others are 
laundered cut a patch to match the 
design of the torn part, dip it in thick 
starch, lay it carefully over the rent, 
and iron it down. The starch wUl 
cause it to adhere until the curtains 
are laundered again. Strips of net or 
illusion may also be used in the same 

Sash Curtains. — Use p'artly worn 
muslin or silk curtains for sash cur- 
tains. The tops and bottoms of old 
curtains that have not had the direct 
rays of the sun will usually be found 
best for sash curtains. The middle 
part can be discarded. Make a wide 
hem top and bottom through which to 
run the rod. A wide hem is not so 
likely to tear, and the curtains can be 
used either end up. Slip a rounds 
headed hat pin into the hollow of the 
rod to run them in the hems, and they 
will pass easily through. Rods may 
be fixed inside the sash so as to be 
elevated with the window and not to 
lean against the screen. Cords tacked 
across the window will prevent the 



sash curtain from beating against the 

Or instead of rods use quarter-inch 
iron wire painted over with gold paint 
or otherwise gilded or silvered. This 
makes the wire look better and pre- 
vents it from rusting. This wire is 
suitable for shams, mantels, and closet 
curtains, and many similar purposes 
in house decoration. It answers the 
same purpose as brass rods, and is 
much cheaper. It can be purchased 
at any hardware store, cut to any de- 
sired length. 

riour Sacks. — Large flour sacks 
may be utilized for sash curtains by 
carefully washing out the print and 
finishing with a suitable design in 
fancy work. 

Curtains for Broad Windows. — Di- 
vide a broad, low window, or two win- 
dows together, by running two shelves 
across, one at the top of each sash. 
Paint or stain these to match the 
woodwork. Fit sash curtains to both 
shelves by means of rods or quarter- 
inch iron or copper iron, and hang 

"Divide a Broad Low Window." 

from brass rings. Let the hangings 
match the woodwork or conform to 
the color scheme of the room. The 
upper shelves may be treated as a 
plate rail, and the lower shelf may 
hold pots of ferns or other green 

Window Shades.— A double set of 
window shades — an inner dark shade 
to harmonize with the color scheme of 
the room, and an outer white shade — 
are desirable, but both are not neces- 
sary. It saves carpets and other things 
from fading to exclude the sunshine 
when a room is not in use, and also 
assists in keeping sunny rooms cool in 
summer. Hence, a dark or tan shade 
is to be preferred, unless the house is 
fitted with blinds. In that case only 
the white shade is necessary. 

To Renew Window Shades. — Trim 
off the soiled or worn part at the bot- 
tom, make a new hem, and put back 
the stick. To do this lay on an iron- 
ing board, curled side down, th^ part 
of the shade that has been curled up 
over the roller and press it with a hot 
iron. This makes it easy to turn a 
hem, which may be stitched on the 
sewing machine. Let the stitch out as 
far as it wiU go so that the fabric 
will not pucker. 

Or, if the shade is too short to trim, 
change the ends by opening the hem 
at the bottom, taking the shades from 
the roller and tacking the bottom of 
the shade to the roller. Make a new 
hem and put back the stick. 

To Hang Window Shades. — To ad- 
j ust the spring on new window shades, 
roll them tight, fasten them into the 
sockets, and draw them down full 
length. Take them out of their sock- 
ets, roll them up again by hand, and 
again draw them down until the spring 
is as strong as desired. 

To Prevent Blowing' Window 
Shades. — To prevent the window 
shades from being drawn out at the 
top of the window or blowing back 
and forth when the upper sash is low- 
ered for ventilation, attach the cord 
from the bottom of the shade to the 
back of a chair, and move it a suffi- 
cient distance from the window to 
give a free circulation of air under- 
neath it. 

Substitute for Window Shades. — 
To economize on window shades, the 
upper rooms of a house may be fitted 
with shades of white cotton, having 
the selvage on one side and a very 



fine hem on the other. By the addi- 
tion of a little glue size or gum ara- 
ble to the starch, they can be made 
very stiff. They look from outside 
almost equal to ordinary shades of 
Holland linen. They can, of course, 
readily be laundered when soiled. 

Draperies. — Portieres and other 
draperies must be selected with due 
regard to the size and shape of the 
room, as well as to the color scheme. 
Heavy, thick drapferies make a small 
room look close and stuffy. But 
light, airy hangings are equally out 
of place in a large room. To im- 
prove the effect of a room that is 
too narrow and high between joints, 
or a room having too high and nar- 
row doors and windows, lower the 
window shades twelve or fifteen 
inches from the top and fill in the 

'Lower the Bod." 

space with a grill, a rope network, 
a shirring of silk, or similar decora- 
tion. If the doors open outward, or 
if a door is taken down and hung 
with draperies, lower the rod twelve 
or fifteen inches and fill in above with 
shirred silk or silkoline to harmonize 
with the portieres or draperies. 

Or run a shelf or plate rack across 
the top of the door on a level with 
the top of the window shades; by 
these means the room is made to seem 
lower and larger in proportion to its 

Or lower the curtain from the pole 
by means of cords to match the dra- 
pery. Lace over the pole and through 
the hooks on the pins. 

Portieres. — In addition to the vari- 
ous grades of draperies on the mar- 
ket, burlap and other suitable fab- 
rics may be made up for this purpose 
at much less expense. 

Or brown leather scraps may be 
purchased from bookbinders at a few 
cents a pound, cut in strips about 
half an inch wide, and tied in lots 
after the manner of carpet rags. 
These make very cheap and effective 
'draperies for libraries and living 

Choose preferably materials that 
will not catch and hold dust more 
than is necessary, and avoid flounces, 
fringes, and tassels coarse enough to 
allow dust to accumulate in them. It 
is a good plan in summer to take 
down heavy draperies, shake and 
clean them, and pack them away un- 
til fall in a moth-proof box or chest. 
They will last longer, and the house 
will be much cleaner, more airy, and 
comfortable without them. 

Or, if desired, replace the winter 
draperies with cheap draperies of 
dark green or other color of burlap. 
Lower the pole a foot or more from 
the casing to let the air pass through, 
and let them swing clear of the floor. 

Curtain Hings. — Rub the curtain 
poles occasionally with a rag dipped 
in kerosene oil to make the rings 
slip easily. 

To Clean Draperies — Draperies and 
tapestries hung upon the walls may 
be cleaned by pouring gasoline into a 
shallow pan, and brushing them M'ith 
this by means of a soft brush or whisk 


The old custom of setting apart a 
"best room" or parlor to be used only 



on special occasions, as for weddings, 
funerals, or the entertainment of com- 
pany, is happily passing away. Only 
very wealthy people now have draw- 
ing rooms reserved for state occa- 
sions. The present tendency is to call 
all the lower rooms of the house "liv- 
ing rooms," and to have all the mem- 
bers of the family use them freely. 
A room set apart from ordinary use, 
and hence shut up much of the time 
from sun and air, is not good for the 
physical or moral health of the house- 
hold. Hygiene demands that sun and 
air should be admitted freely to all 
parts of the house. The furnishings 
themselves, if good care is given 
them, will be improved rather than 
injured by ordinary wear, and guests 
will receive a far pleasanter impres- 
sion from the easy and graceful at- 
mosphere imparted to a room by 
daily use, than from the stiff and 
formal restraints imposed by the old- 
fashioned parlor. A hostess who 
takes her friends into a sitting room 
and tells them frankly that she pre- 
fers to "live in her own parlor" will 
have more friends than critics. The 
arrangement is plainly for the good 
of the family, and all who visit such 
a home will enjoy being taken into 
the wholesome family life. 

When possible, it is pleasant and 
convenient to have two living rooms 
thrown together by folding or sliding 
doors, with a grill and portieres or 
other suitable draperies across the 
opening. The effect of many country 
homes could be greatly improved by 
cutting an arch or square opening 
abowt the width and height of two 
ordinary doors placed side by side or 
slightly wider, so as to throw two 
living rooms into one. Suitable fold- 
ing or sliding doors, while desirable, 
are not necessary, as the oj^ening can 
be closed by means of heavy hang- 
ings sliding on a rod, 

"Front Room." — Large houses and 
ample means will, of course, suggest 
other living rooms, as the library, 
music room, a special sewing room, 
and the like. But these are neither 
necessary nor possible in ordinary 

households, and the "front room" 
may be made not only more habitable 
but also more attractive to callers 
and guests by the presence of a 
piano or other musical instrument, 
and by low bookcases built along the 
walls, three or four shelves high, to 
hold the family collection of books, 
and stained or painted to match the 
woodwork. Tlie top of these book- 
cases may be finished by a shelf 
about breast higli, or slightly lower, 
on which plaster-of-Paris casts, vases, 
or flowers and other appropriate ob- 
jects may be displayed. A "front 
room" having the walls hung with 
suitable cloth or paper in solid col- 
ors, or two-toned shades of brown or 
green, with shades of green or tan, 
and hangings to match the M^all cov- 
erings; a hard-wood floor waxed and 
oiled, or floor stained or painted in 
imitation of hard wood, or a solid- 
color floor covering of denim or in- 
grain filler, with rugs of Oriental 
patterns and appropriate furniture, 
will have a. distinctly modern and 
artistic atmosphere. 

Couch. — Couches and sofas having 
a raised headpiece or arms at either 
end are giving place to plain couches, 
after the fashion of the Oriental di- 
van, without head or arms, and cov- 
ered by appropriate couch covers. 
An ordinary folding canvas cot bed 
and a common cotton top excelsior 
or hair mattress thick enough to pre- 
vent sagging in the middle is really 
superior to a sofa or davenport cost- 
ing much more money. Imitation 
Bagdad or other suitable couch cov- 
ers in cotton fabrics are inexpensive, 
and a row of fancy pillows can be 
readily made of washable material 
at slight expense. Thus the entire 
couch and furnishing may be had at 
the cost of but a few dollars. 

On the otlier hand, by purchasing 
an iron or steel couch with wire- 
spring top and hair mattress, and 
adding a real Bagdad or other Ori- 
ental couch cover and pillows to cor- 
respond, a couch may be had that 
will be in keeping with the most lux- 
urious surroundings. 



Center Table. — Have a low center 
table, with a reading lamp or a hang- 
ing lamp suspended over it, drawn out 
from the wall, and covered with books 
and periodicals, so that all the mem- 
bers of the family can gather about 
it. Cover this with a suitable cloth to 
harmonize with the color scheme of 
the room. The opportunity thus sug- 
gested of drawing up a number of 
chairs invites- just the sort of infor- 
mal social life that is so much needed 
in every community, and that cements 
the family bond as well as strengthens 
the ties of neighborliness. 

work are graceful, comfortable, and 
satisfactory. Of course, mahogany and 

'Have a Low Center Table. 

Tea'Table.— Have, if possible, in one 
corner of the room a small, low table 
with an alcohol lamp and suitable tea 
things for making a cup of tea with- 
out going for it to the kitchen. This 
simple expression of hospitality gives 
a note of good cheer that is much 
needed in modern social life. There 
need be no formality suggested by a 
cup of tea offered to a caller even in 
the most quiet neighborhoods, and 
having all of the needful articles at 
hand helps to give the serving of tea 
an air of grace and naturalness. 

Chairs. — Select chairs as other fur- 
niture for simplicity and durability, 
and avoid complicated affairs such as 
the patent rockers, carved or stamped 
furniture, and all elaborate designs 
and decorations. Tlie lines of the 
Morris chair suggest ease and comfort, 
and they are to be strongly recom- 
mended. Chairs of willow and wicker 

" The Lines of the Morris Chair." 

other hard woods will be selected by 
those v/ho can aiford them. As to 
design, the Colonial models and the 
Craftsman and Mission styles of furni- 
ture are among the most satisfactory. 

Taboret. — The low stand or taboret 
holding a graceful fern or other potted 
plant in a suitable jardinifere adds an 
agreeable touch of grace and color to 
the living room. 

Music. — 'The modern invention of 
the mechanical piano player has un- 
locked many a dusty piano and opened 
the whole world of music to thousands 
of homes. Heretofore the cost of a 
musical education has restricted the 
natural love of music in most families 
to but a few simple hymns and tunes 
that almost anyone could play. Hence 
the piano need no longer be regarded 
as necessarily confined to homes where 
some member of the family has a pro- 
nounced musical talent. Certainly 
nothing signifies more, with the pos- 
sible exception of a collection of good 
books, than a musical instrument in 
the family living room. 

Care of Piano.— To keep the piano 
or organ in good condition, arrange to 
have the atmosphere of the room dry, 
but not too dry, and at a moderate 
and even temperature. If the atmos- 
phere is damp, there is a tendency for 
the wires to rust and the keys to stick. 
A dry heat without any moisture in 
the air will tend to check the varnish 
and also to injure the adjustment of 
a musical instrument. Hence, if rooms 
are heated by hot air, hang a smaii 
galvanized iron pail containing water 



from the under side of the register, 
so that the heated draught in coming 
up will bring a small amount of mois- 
ture with it. 

Or, if gas or coal stoves are used for 
heating, place a suitable vessel of wa- 
ter on the top of the stove. The slight 
resulting moisture will be beneficial to 
all the furniture, although the piano 
will perhaps suffer most from the lack 
of it. The slight humidity is also good 
for the health of the family. 

Do not stand the piano close against 
an outer wall, which may be damp or 
chilled from frost in winter, and if pos- 
sible keep it out of a direct draught. 
If an upright piano, tack a dust cover 
of denim or other suitable material 
across the back to exclude dust, leav- 
ing flaps wide enough to be thrown 
over the piano when sweeping. These 
can hang down behind the piano when 
not in use. Take care that no small 
articles laid on the keys find their way 
inside of the instrument. Have a mu- 
sic cabinet, so as to keep the top of 
the instrument free from books and 
sheet music. Keep the piano closed 
when not in use, and have it tuned 
three or four times a year, or oftener, 
if necessary. If it is not kept up to 
pitch it will not stay in tune when 
required. An hour or two of practice 
on a piano each day will keep it in the 
best condition. But, if possible, every 
key on the keyboard should be struck 
at least once daily. 

Care of Sheet Music. — Have a music 
cabinet, homemade if necessary, with 
shelves large enough for a piece of 
sheet music, and close enough together 
to admit of keeping the pieces classi- 
fied. Bind two or more pieces of mu- 
sic of the same general kind together 
as desired by means of brass brads 
sold by stationers. The use of these 
is very simple. Lay the sheets one 
upon the other in the order desired, 
cut a slot top, bottom, and middle a 
half inch from the back edge with a 
penknife, insert the brad and turn 
down the edges. 

Or, to bind music together, take a 
piece of strong manila or other tough 
paper two inches or more in width. 

and as long as the music is high. Fold 
this lengthwise in the middle and 
paste one side to one piece of music, 
the other to another. Run over this 
with a hot flatiron to insure its dry- 
ing quickly and evenly without wrin- 
kles. If the sheets tear apart, insert 
a similar strip between the torn sheets, 
and when all have been reenforced in 
this way take a similar strip of tough 
paper or muslin wide enough to go 
round the back of the whole collection 
and lap over an inch or more on either 
side. Slush the back well with paste 
or glue, lay on this strip, rub down 
tightly, and let dry under a weight. 
A manila folder or cover the same 
size as the music itself may be " drawn 
on" in a similar way to correspond 
to the cover of a bound book. 

Pictures — Good and Bad Taste. — A 
good illustration of what to avoid is 
found in the family photographs en- 
larged by the carbon or imitation nas- 

"Much Less Seen than Formerly." 

tel process, and surroimded by massive 
frames at the recommendation of en- 
terprising manufacturers, whose prof- 
its are in proportion to the size of 
the frame and the elaborateness of the 
molding. Only the eloquence of the 
venders could give such pictures even 
a temporary popularity, but they are 
seen everywhere. Family photographs 
should be, as a rule, confined to sleep- 
ing apartments rather than displayed 
in living rooms, and much better re- 



productions can be had in smaller sizes 
than upon a large scale. Carbon and 
other reproductions have little deco- 
rative value, and even when enlarged 
should be framed as simply and un- 
obtrusively as possible. This work can 
usually be done at a lower rate and 
of a better quality by a local photog- 
rapher. The difference in expense will 
usually furnish the living room with 
a good photographic reproduction of 
one of the masterpieces of the world, 
that will be equally interesting to 
strangers and instructive to the in- 
mates of the home. Happily, public 
taste is rapidly improving in these 
matters. Heavy and elaborate mold- 
ings with intricate designs made of 
putty and covered with gilt paint, or 
oak molding stamped in imitation of 
hand carving, and the like monstrosi- 
ties are much less seen than formerly. 
The object of picture molding is, of 
course, twofold — to protect and to de- 
fine the picture ; hence the frame itself 
should be unobtrusive and should in 
no way attract the eye to itself. If 
the wall coverings are in solid colors 
or quiet two-toned effects, and the 
picture frames are simple and appro- 
priate, the picture itself stands out 
in all of its natural beauty. Thus the 
object 'Is attained for which the pic- 
ture was hung. A few pictures of 
reasonable size and real merit, simply 
but appropriately framed, give a much 
more artistic eflfect than does a wall 
crowded with a large number of sub- 
jects among which those that are in- 
ferior must necessarily suffer by con- 

Pictures to Choose. — Select for liv- 
ing rooms landscapes, reproductions 
of still life,, ideal heads and faces, and 
reproductions of masterpieces por- 
traying scenes, or subjects that might 
properly be the subject of conversa- 
tion in the social circle. 

For the music room, photographs of 
eminent composers and other musi- 
cians, or reproductions of paintings 
suggested by the use of the room, are 

For the library, photographs of lit- 
erary and other public men, and re- 

productions of public buildings of all 
ages and in all parts of the world, are 
in order. 

Reserve for the privacy of sleeping 
apaitments photographs of friends or 
relatives of the family, children, and 
all ither pictures that, however inter- 
esting they may be to the owner, can 

The Frame Should Be Unobtrusive.' 

be of no general concern to those who 
are not members of the family. 

To Hang Pictures. — Do not make 
the common mistake of hanging pic- 
tures above the line of sight, so as to 
make it necessary to strain the ej'^es 
in looking up at them. Pictures should 
not, as a rule, hang more than five 
and one half feet from the floor — 
about on a level with the eyes of a 
person of average height when stand- 
ing. But, of course, the different pic- 
tures, for the sake of variety, are 
hung slightly above or below this line, 
according to their size and other cir- 
cumstances, and not at a uniform 
level. Remember that in looking at 
a picture the eye falls, not at the ex- 
act center, but at a point about in- 
termediate between the center and 
the top of the picture, or at about 
one third of its depth from the top. 
Hence, if a picture is hung so that 
the line of sight of a person of aver- 
age height when standing falls on 
this point, it is displayed to the best 



Do not hang a picture in direct 
light, as exactly opposite a sunny 
window. When possible, a picture 
should be located with reference to 
windows and other openings so that 
it will be lighted as the artist in- 
tended; that is, the shadows in the 
picture should appear to be cast by 
the light that falls upon it. 

Suspend large and heavy pictures 
from a picture molding which may 
be as near to the ceiling as possible 

On a Level toith the Eyes." 

to give a low room the eifect of 
greater height, or lower it from the 
ceiling to give a high room a broader 
effect. Use as little picture wire as 
may be. Two wires and hooks, one 
near either end of a large picture, 
rather than a single hook with wire 
running from it diagonally in either 
direction, are to be preferred. Sus- 
pend small pictures preferably from 
small hooks or tacks driven into the 
wall behind the picture itself, and by 
means of rings or screw eyes in the 
back of the frame, all of which will 
be concealed from sight when the 
picture is hung. That is, have as 
little picture wire visible as possible. 
Ordinary woven picture wire is now 

inexpensive and can be used again 
and again. It not only looks better 
but is safer than cord. Ordinary 
"silver" wire is suitable for most pur- 
poses. It can be touched up with 
a little bronze paint to hang gilt 
frames, or wlien it becomes tarnished. 
Picture hooks of brass may be painted 
white or otherwise, to conform to the 
color of the picture molding and thus 
be less conspicuous. 

In order to get the most effective 
arrangement, when in doubt where to 
hang pictures, do the experimental 
grouping on the floor. Thus the pic- 
tures may be shifted about until the 
most tasteful way is found. This 
saves many trips up and down the 
stepladder. When taking down pic- 
tures from the molding, make a dot 
with a pencil point on the wall back 
of the molding, where it will not show, 
exactly where the hook was hung, or 
leave the hook in place so that the 
picture when cleaned may be re- 
turned to its place without the neces- 
sity of measuring again. But if the 
wall coverings are of material that 
shows the effect of fading, as do 
most solid colors, especially greens 
and browns in ingrain papers, burlap, 
and the like, change the position of 
the pictures occasionally. Otherwise 
the wall covering behind the picture 
will not fade, and when for any rea- 
son a change becomes necessary the 
outlines will be unsightly. 

Mats for Pictures. — Use common 
ingrain or moire wall papers of 
various colors in place of mats or 
picture mounts. It is cheaper and 
equally effective. Mount the pictures 
on the mats as photographs are 

Magazine Covers. — The cover de- 
signs and full-page illustrations of 
several of the leading monthlj' and 
other periodicals are reproductions of 
the best works of prominent artists 
and illustrators. These are freely 
used in many homes to decorate the 
walls of libraries, dens, and some- 
times living rooms, either framed or 
bound in passepartout binding or 
merely neatly trimmed with a straight- 



edge, and attached to the ' wall by 
means of brass-headed tacks or thumb 
tacks. A series of cover designs of 
one or more periodicals makes a very 
interesting and attractive frieze for 
the den or library. 


The objects and nature of sleep 
should be understood as a basis for 
the intelligent furnishing and care of 
the bed and bedroom. Perhaps no 
other subject in connection with the 
household is more important or less 
understood. Where more than one 
person occupies a sleeping room each 
individual should have a separate bed, 
even if the requirements of space or 
other conditions make it necessary for 
two or more beds to stand side by 
side. It is especially important that 
children, after a very early age, 
should have separate cradles or cribs 
provided for them and be taught to 
occupy them. The reason for this 
custom is that individuals vary greatly 
in the amount of heat required to 
keep the body in a normal condition 
during sleep. Children require less 
covering than grown persons, and 
aged persons require much more cov- 
ering tKan those in middle life. Sep- 
arate beds admit of each individual 
adjusting the covering to his own re- 
quirements. Again, while the bodily 
sensations are dormant during sleep, 
they are not absent, or else a person 
could not be awakened. The body is 
still sensitive to outer impressions. 
Hence the motions of another sleeper 
or the changes in temperature pro- 
duced by the addition or removal of 
coverings to accommodate a bedfel- 
low may awaken a sleeper who by his 
restless motions will keep his com- 
panion awake, and no sound sleep 
may be enjoyed by either person. 
Fortunately, the invention of cast-iron 
and other cheap metallic bedsteads 
that may be obtained in half and 
three-quarter sizes makes it possible 
for many families to afFord separate 
beds, a luxury which would formerly 
have been denied them. 

The introduction of iron and brass 
bedsteads in many homes on sanitary 
and hygienic grounds, and the con- 
sequent discarding of old-fashioned 
wooden bedsteads that are heavy, dif- 
ficult to clean, and that by collecting 
dust and furnishing harboring places 
for vermin are constantly contribut- 
ing to the labor of the housekeeper, 
gives an opportunity to introduce this 

"The Introduction of Iron and, Brass 

cleanly, healthful, and agreeable cus- 
tom. Moreover, single or half beds 
can be readily moved from one room 
to another and from place to place, 
and are easier to care for. 

Ventilation of Bedrooms. — The ef- 
fect of entire lack of ventilation is 
illustrated by the celebrated case of 
the "Black Hole of Calcutta." About 
150 Europeans taken at the capture 
of Fort Williams in Calcutta in 1756 
were confined in a dungeon about 
twenty feet square, haviftg two small 
windows. The following morning only 
twenty-three remained alive. In a 
similar case, on the steamer London- 
derry, 150 passengers were confined 
in a small cabin for a number of 
hours. Of these, seventy died from 
constantly rebreathing the air con- 
taminated in the lungs and by various 
exhalations of the human bodJ^ In 
breathing (and also in the combustion 
of fuel, as wood or coal, or of oil or 
gas for illumination), a part of the 
oxygen of the air which is necessary 
for human life is converted into car- 
bonic-acid gas. The atmosphere con- 
sists of about 78 per cent of nitrogen, 
20.96 per cent of oxygen, 1 per cent of 



argon, and .04 per cent of carbonic- 
acid gas mixed together. Each breath 
converts about one fourth of the 
available oxygen in the air into car- 
bonic-acid gas; hence in an air-tight 
space death from suffocation would 
very quickly ensue. 

Ordinary dwellings are, of course, 
by no means air-tight, and are par- 
tially ventilated through the narrow 
openings about window frames, by 
the occasional opening of doors, and 
through various cracks and crevices. 
But these sources are not sufficient to 
supply the volume of pure air required 
for human breathing. Rooms occu- 
pied by a number of persons are al- 
most invariably so close that a great 
deal of air is necessarily breathed 
again and again. The results upon 
bodily health are in their nature the 
same as those which produce death by 
suffocation. Only the exhaustion is 
more gradual and extends over a lon- 
ger period of time. 

The effects of insufficient ventilation 
are perhaps less during our waking 
hours than during sleep. Most per- 
sons move about a good deal during 
the day and are in and out of doors. 
Moreover, the lungs are active, and if 
the air is impure, they may make up 
the deficiency by more frequent respi- 
ration. When a person is conscious, 
the discomfort of close air, resulting 
in headaches and a sense of incipient 
suffocation, affords warning that it is 
time to change the air in the room or 
take a walk outside. But a sleeper is 
usually unconscious of any warning 
sensations. The respiration is slower, 
and there is nothing to check the evil 
effects of breathing again and again 
the air that has been robbed of its 
oxygen. The result is the impairment 
of all the vital processes that normally 
make up during sleep for the daily 
wastes of the body. Hence sleeping 
in poorly ventilated rooms leads im- 
mediately to headaches, a sense of 
having rested badly, with exhaustion 
and fatigue, and eventually to such 
wasting diseases as consumption, ca- 
tarrh, and other affections of the head, 
throat, and lungs. 

The Fresh-air Cure. — It is now well 
known that consumption, the most 
wasting and fatal of all human dis- 
eases, can be cured in many cases by 
simply breathing pure air out of doors, 
both day and night. Modern sani- 
tariums have sleeping porches of can- 
vas or tents in which patients sleep 
out of doors, even in cold climates in 
winter, the body being protected by 
suitable covering. The contrast be- 
tween slow suffocation from lack of 
ventilation and the cure of consump- 
tion by breathing pure air both day 
and night should impress upon every- 
one the absolute necessity of thor- 
ough ventilation, especially in sleeping 

When to Ventilate. — It is a sure 
indication that, when the air in a room 
seems close and has a musty odor to 
a person coming in from outdoors, it 
is so impure as to be injurious to 
health. If, after stepping into the 
open air in the morning and taking a 
few deep breaths, «^ne returns to a 
sleeping room and finds the air insuf- 
ferably close, the room has not been 
sufficiently ventilated during the night, 
and evil consequences are sure to 

Or place a shallow glass dish con- 
taining lime water in a room to de- 
termine the presence of carbonic-acid 
gas. If there is much of this sub- 
stance present the water will quickly 
become cloudy. 

Or, to test for marsh gas, sewer gas, 
and the like containing sulphureted 
hydrogen, expose to the air moist car- 
bonate of lead, which will turn black 
if this substance is present. 

Night Air. — There is a superstition 
prevalent in many parts of the country 
that night air is injurious. There may 
be some ground for this belief where 
the Anopheles mosquito is abroad in 
malarial districts, or the vicinity of 
swamps wherever a mist may arise at 
night and spread contamination. But 
in most localities this notion is en- 
tirely groundless and misleading. If 
we do not breathe night air at night, 
pray what shall we breathe? Either it 
is necessary to breathe over and over 



the air that has been in the sleeping 
room all daj% or else to admit fresh air 
from outdoors, and whatever the dan- 
ger in breathing night air, it is certain- 
ly less immediate than quick or slow 
suffocation from lack of ventilation. 

To Ventilate Bedrooms. — The prob- 
lem of ventilation is twofold: first, to 
let in the pure air; second, to let out 
that which is impure. There should 
be windows on two sides of the bed- 
room, and also, if possible, a fireplace 
for ventilation. The bed should be 
located so that the air will circulate 
freely around and beneath it without 
a draught. If possible, the door when 
open should screen the bed, or a screen 
should be interposed when necessary 
between the bed and the open door or 

The simplest means of ventilation is 
to lower the upper sash of a window 
for several inches and raise the lower 
sash either of the same window or of 
one on the opposite side of the room. 
If there is an open fireplace in the 
room, it will remove the impure air 
by creating a draught and causing 

Or lower the, upper sashes of two 
windows opposite one another. 

Or open the bedroom door and ad- 
mit the fresh air to an adjacent room 
or hall by means of two or more win- 
dows in such a way that a draught 
passing near the bedroom door will 
create suction and draw the impure 
air out of it. The direction of these 
air currents may be determined by 
holding a lighted match or candle in 

Just before retiring open all the 
windows and change the air in the 

To Prevent Draughts. — To prevent 
a direct current of air crossing the 
bed on raising a window sash, take a 
piece of any firm, tightly woven cloth, 
as duck or light canvas or strong flan- 
nel goods, the width of the windov/ 
and about eighteen inches deep. Make 
a heading at top and bottom to admit 
sash-curtain rods. Adjust one rod at. 
the bottom of the window frame and 
the other about twelve or fourteeu 

inches higher up. Thus when the sash 
is lifted as high as the upper rod the 
entering current of air will cause the 
cloth to belly out into the room, and 
the current will be turned on both 
sides and driven along the wall. A 
current of air, like a current of watei, 

" The Air Will Follow Along the Wall." 

has a tendency to stick to any surface 
over which it flows; hence the air will 
follow along the wall, and even to 
some extent around the corners of the 
room, as can be seen by testing with 
the flame of a candle. 

Or either end of this cloth screen 
may be closed by means of a pin or 
buttonhole and button, and the entire 
current turned in the opposite direc- 
tion. Ordinary sash-curtain rods or 
even rollers such as are used for cur- 
tain shades or sticks used for the 
lower part of curtain shades may be 
ad j usted permanently for this purpose 
in sleeping rooms. 

Or the patent spring sash-curtain 
rods, that have a spring inside and 
rubber tips at the end to keep them 
adjusted, may be utilized to make one 
or more removable screens. These can 
be adjusted according to conditions 
from time to time on any windows in 
any part of the house. 

Or stretch a piece of cheese cloth 
over the opening and tack it fast. 



Or tack cheese cloth on a small re- 
movable frame that will fit into the 

Or put a sheet of finely perforated 
metal in place of one of the upper 
panes of glass in one of the windows. 

Or tack a strip of thin wood or stiff 
cardboard eight to twelve inches wide 
across the lower part of the window 
frame, an inch or two from the glass. 
When the sash is raised the current 
striking this obstruction is turned up- 
ward into the air and may, be thrown 
entirely over the bed, just as a cur- 
rent of water might be thrown from 
a hose. 

Or place a piece of board in the 
window casing below the bottom of 
the sash. When the window is closed 
down upon this board a space is left 
between the upper and lower sash 
which admits a current of air. 

Or place an ordinary fire screen or 
wooden frame covered with cloth or 
paper between the window and the 
bed, as is often done in hospitals. 

Or make a little curtain of sheeting 
to fit the head of the bed and tie at 
the four corners by means of tape. 

Any of these devices may be used 
to ventilate other than sleeping apart- 

Sleeping Porch. — In the vicinity of 
the great sanitariums where sleeping 
out of doors has been proved to be a 
cure for consumption and other dis- 

' The Porch Should be Screened. 

eases, many persons have formed the 
habit of sleeping thus. Any porch 
somewhat excluded from view and in 
a sheltered location can be utilized. 
The porch should be screened and pro- 

vided with storm curtains of tent can- 
vas that can be drawn and buttoned 
like the curtains of a carriage. If 
the porch is used during the day a 
bunk or folding bed may be hinged 
to the wall on one side, with legs that 
will let down on the other. When 
folded up this may be concealed by a 
waterproof curtain. Or one of the so- 
called hammock beds may be suspend- 
ed by hooks from the ceiling. 

If suitable blankets are provided it is 
possible to sleep out of doors the year 
round in most parts of the United 
States, with the exception of a very 
few nights, and probably no practice 
would be more invigorating, healthful, 
or pleasurable, especially in the sum- 
mer months. 

Bedrooms. — Furnishings and decora- 
tions of bedrooms should conform to 
the object for which the room is in- 
tended. Simplicity should be the key- 
note. Wall coverings in geometrical 
designs or large-figured patterns of 
any sort and all bric-a-brac and use- 
less flounces and decorations should 
be avoided. The fewer objects not 
actually necessary in the room the bet- 
ter. Finish the woodwork in natural 
colors, oiled or stained, and preferably 
with oil paint or varnish. Tint the 
walls or hang them with &. colid col- 
ored or double-toned paper, or a sim- 
ple stripe. Hang at the windows light 
muslin or cheese-cloth curtains, either 
white or dyed to conform to the gen- 
eral color scheme. If the floors are 
smooth, oil and wax them, or stain 
or paint them with any of the lac 
paints or varnishes. Floors not smooth 
may be covered with either linoleum 
or matting as preferred. Avoid, as a 
rule, the use of carpets in bedrooms. 
A plain stained or painted wood floor 
with rugs is much easier to keep clean 
and is more sanitary. 

Beds. — Iron or brass beds fitted with 
woven wire or other suitable wire 
springs are to be preferred. The iron 
beds in white enamel harmonize well 
with birch and other light-colored 
woods and enameled furniture; and 
brass beds with mahogany, walnut, 
and other hard woods in darker col- 




ors. The furniture should be of sim- 
ple design, without carving or un- 
necessary decoration. The mattress 
should be of hair or cotton felt, of 
good quality, and made in two parts, 
for convenience in turning and airing. 
The bed clothing should be light and 
warm, consisting of linen or cotton 
sheets, blankets, and a white spread. 

Beds and Bedding. — The ideal bed 
for health and comfort is of metal, 
either white enameled iron or brass, 
with a box spii'al shelf spring or 
woven wire spring having enough spi- 
ral springs through the middle so that 
it will not sag. Iron and brass beds 
are now so cheap that they are being 
rapidly substituted for wooden bed- 
steads in all parts of the country. In 
choosing enamel beds see that the 
brass fittings are of good quality and- 
well put on. The brass parts are the 
first to show wear, especially if they 
are loosely adjusted; and if they come 
ofl', the loss will spoil the appearance 
of the bed. 

Enameled beds may be renovated 
by going over them with white or 
black enamel paint; to make them 
look like brass use gilt enamel. Any 
of these can be washed with soap and 
water. Thus a metal bed can be easily 
kept in perfect sanitary condition, 
free from dust, dirt, or vermin. Hap- 
pily, the old-fashioned slat and cord 
bedsteads are rapidly becoming things 
of the past. 

Mattresses. — The bed should not be 
softer than is necessary for comfort, 
and the surface should be smooth and 
nearly level. Feather beds are advisa- 
ble for healthy adults only in ex- 
tremely cold weather or cold climates, 
and in unheated rooms. They may be 
used for children or the aged in ordi- 
nary temperatures, but they should 
rather be packed tightly in thin ticks 
than loosely in large masses. Mat- 
tresses with suitable springs and bed 
coverings are to be preferred in most 
cases. Tlie best material for mat- 
tresses is curled hair, although the 
much-advertised modern mattresses of 
felted cotton are also good and cheap- 
er. Mattresses of excelsior and husks 

with cotton tops and ticks filled with 
clean hay or straw, or even beach-tree 
and other leaves are still used in many 

" The Much Advertised Modern Mattress." 

parts of the country. Any of these 
are hygienic and comfortable, and are 
to be preferred for adults in good 
health to feather beds. 

The best material for pillows is 
curled hair, but if feathers are used 
the pillows should be tightly packed 
so that they will not allow the head- 
to sink into them. The use of thick 
pillows is inadvisable. The pillow 
should be of just about the right 
thickness to support the head in its 
natural position when lying on the 
side, or to allow it to incline slightly 

Bed Springs. — The upholstered or 
box springs are the best. Make a 
cover of heavy unbleached drilling 
slightly larger than the springs, or 
cover them with a worn sheet or faded 
quilt. Fasten brass rings in the cor- 
ners of the cover and attach them to 
brass-headed tacks or nails driven into 
tlie under side of the spring. This 
prevents the cover from slipping, but 
makes it removable for dusting. Or 
with a darning needle and cord tack 
the cover neatly and firmly in place. 
This prevents the springs from stain-> 
ing the mattress with rust. 

Bed Covers. — As the muscles are 
entirely quiescent during sleep the 
body generates much less heat than in 
waking hoiirs. Hence tlie bedclothes 
should furnish greater warmth than 
the ordinary clothing. On the other 



hand, the bed should not be warm 
enough to interfere with normal evap- 
oration or overheat the body so as to 
cause undue perspiration. 

Light bed covers of a suitable non- 
conducting material, as wool or eider- 
down, are much better than hea\y or 
numerous covers of cotton, as home- 
made quilts and comforters. Wool 
blankets are perhnps the best of all 
bed covers, and nothing else except a 
suitable coverlet for the purpose of 
decoration should be used if blankets 
can be afforded. Linen sheets are 
preferable to cotton for the reason 
that they are more absorbent. Hence 
they take up more readily the per- 
spiration of the body. For the same 
reason they are much cooler in sum- 
mer. They are more durable and it 
will be found a wise economy in the 
long run to purchase sheeting of un- 
bleached linen rather than of cotton 

Bedspreads. — Net, with lace inser- 
tion and edges, over an inexpensive 
lining of any color to match the other 
furnishings, makes an attractive bed- 

Or dimity or dotted muslin may be 

Or an old pair of lace curtains may 
be utilized by sewing the scalloped 
edges together to form the middle of 
the spread, and lining with any suit- 
able colored fabric. 

Valances. — The use of a valance is 
much less customary than formerly, 
as it is nov/ thought more sanitary to 
allow the sunlight to penetrate to ad 
parts of the room and the air to cir- 
culate freely. But if a valance is used, 
it should not be fastened to the frame 
of the bed, but so adjusted as to be 
easily removable for the laundry. 
Hence, to make a valance, cut a sheet 
to the size of the top of the mattress; 
make the valance in four sections, one 
for each side and for the top and bot- 
tom of the bed, and just long enough, 
allowing for the hem, to reach from 
the bottom of the mattress to the 
floor. Baste these sections to the 
edge of the sheet like a ruffle. Do not 
join the top and bottom to the sides. 

but leave the corners open. Try this 
on to see that it fits exactly before 
stitching. When completed, spread 
the sheet over the springs, and put the 
mattress on over it, so that the val- 
ance will hang down on all sides like 
a ruffle. Thus the valance always stays 
in place, but can easily be removed 
for washing, and the old sheet to 
which it is attached serves to protect 
the mattress from the springs. Deli- 
cate Swiss or other light washable 
fabrics are more suitable for this pur- 
pose than cretonne or other heavy 
figured material. 

Use of Feather Beds. — Formerly 
feather beds were much-valued lux- 
uries, and the possession of a store 
of them was a matter of family pride. 
Happily, however, they are rapidly 
being replaced by mattresses, which, 
on account of improved methods of 
manufacture and the use of new ma- 
terial, are much better and cheaper 
than they were formerly. Feather 
beds are open to many objections. 
They are difficult to keep clean and 
they conform too closely to the shape 
of the body; hence they heat the body 
and do not admit of proper ventila- 
tion. Their use is always debilitating, 
and can only be justified by extreme 
cold weather, or for infants or very 
aged persons. 

Feathers for Beds and Pillows. — 
The best feathers for this purpose are 
live geese feathers or other feathers 
plucked from the live birds; but 
chicken, goose, or duck feathers may 
be preserved and used for beds or pil- 
lows by putting all the soft feathers 
together in a barrel as they are picked 
from the birds after scalding. Leave 
the barrel open to the sun and rain, 
simply covering it with an old screen 
to prevent the feathers from blowing 

Or purchase the feathers in quan- 
tity from the nearest poulterer and 
purify them yourself. Thus you can 
obtain plenty of feathers for pillows 
and feather beds at very little expense. 

Feather Pillows. — Feathers arc open 
to the same olijections when used in 
pillows as in feather beds. By con- 



forming to the sliape of the head 
they i^revent ventilation and tend to 
overheat the scalp. This wealvens it 
and may lead to premature baldness 
or other affliction. Curled hair should 
be substituted for feathers whenever 

To Fill Feather Pillows. — To trans- 
fer feathers from an old feather bed 
to pillow ticks, or from one pillow 
tick to another, open a small part of 
the seam in the tick containing the 
feathers, draw over it the opening in 
the tick to be filled, and tack it to 
the full tick with basting thread, using 
large stitches. Feathers can then be 
shaken from one tick to the other 
without the white fluff getting about. 
Remove the basting threads and pin 
the openings together until you have 
time to stitch them firmly. This can 
be done in such a way as not to lose 
a single feather. 

To Make Pillow Cases. — Pillow slips 
and bolster cases usually give out first 
at the corners from being hung on 
the line with clothespins and from 
the impact of irons against the sewed 
ends. Hence, by leaving both ends of 
the case open, you can distribute the 
wear over it all and double its life. 
Such sases are also much easier to 
iron. Both ends may be trimmed with 
lace or insertion, and two or three 
buttons and buttonholes may be left 
at each end to button the pillow in. 
Pillows thus trimmed will not need 
pillow shams. 

To Protect Ticks.^ — To protect mat- 
tresses and pillow cases from becom- 
ing soiled make covers for them of 
unbleached cotton cloth or any suit- 
able washable material, cut the cloth 
to measurements of the mattress and 
pillows, and finish one side or end 
with buttons and buttonholes, so that 
the cover can be easily slipped off 
and cleaned when necessary. Or the 
mattress protector may be tied on 
with tape. Bed linen often falls short 
of covering the mattress completely 
while in use, hence the extra slip, is 
needed, especially to protect from 
the dust the under side of the mat- 
tress. These slips can be removed 

and laundered twice a year or oftener 
when housecleaning; the pillow covers 
may be removed oftener if desired. 
Ticking treated in this way will be 
fresh and clean at the end of a 
dozen years' hard usage, when other- 
wise it would be so worn and soiled 
as to be unfit for use. A dozen or 
two yards of cheap material will 
make cases for all the ticks in an 
ordinary household. 

Or old sheets, jjillow cases, or 
wornout garments may be utilized for 
this puri^ose. Cloth flour sacks make 
excellent jjillow covers. Of course, 
the usual bed linen will be needed in 
addition to these. 

Mattress Top. — A soft top for a 
husk or excelsior mattress may be 
made of old cotton or woolen blankets 
.that have outworn their original use. 
Place between the blankets several 
thicknesses of cotton batting and tie 
the same as for comforters. 

Sheets. — Linen is, of course, the 
best material for sheeting, for com- 
fort, appearance, and durability, but 
cotton sheeting is more commonly 
used, because it is less expensive. 
Buy unbleached linen or cotton 
for sheets and pillow slips, as 
it is not only less expensive, 
but much more durable and can 
be easily bleached when being laun- 

To Make Sheets. — When making 
sheets, tear off one length, pin the 
first end of this length to the sheet 
and measure off the next. Then sew 
up as you have pinned. Thus the 
threads run the same way and the 
sheets will never pucker in the middle 
when washed. 

Look over sheets before they go 
to the laundry and mend any tears at 
once. Sheets usually wear first and 
split in the middle. When this hap- 
pens tear them down the middle, sew 
together the outer selvage edges to 
make the middle of new sheets, and 
hem the torn sides. This should be 
done as soon as tlie sheets begin to 
wear thin, without waiting for them 
to tear. It will double the life of the 



Bathroom. — "When possible, cover 
the floor of the bathroom with tile, 
cement, or other washable material, 
but linoleum is a good substitute for 
these. Or use cork carpet, which is 
warm to the feet and is washable and 
desirable, although it spots easily. 

Hang the walls with waterproof 
paper. Or tint the walls with a 
natural cement that has no glue and 
does not require a glue size. 


Besides the regular dining-room 
furniture, tables, chairs, sideboard, 
and serving table, the addition of a 
plate rail or rack for plates, pitchers, 
and other decorative china objects, 
and of a china cabinet with glass 
doors for displaying the best china, 
help to give a room character and 
beauty. The effect of these articles 
will be very much heightened if the 
wall coverings are in solid or double- 
toned colors, and, as in other living 
rooms, hard-wood floors or floor cov- 
erings in solid colors, with a large rug 
or drugget coming within a few feet 
of the wall all around, make perhaps 
the most effective treatment. The 
color scheme of the dining room 
should preferably be in cheerful tones, 
as blues, yellows, or reds, according 
to the amount of light the room re- 

China Closet. — The china cabinet is 
a useful and beautiful article of fur- 
niture, but in the absence of such a 
cabinet any ordinary closet opening 
into a dining room may be utilized 
as a china closet by removing the 
door and replacing it with a decora- 
tive door with diamond panes of 
glass, and lining the interior with 
denim to correspond in color with the 
furnishings of the room. 

Or the door may be removed and 
replaced by a suitable drapery hang- 
ing from a rod, and drawn aside when 
the dining room is in use. Screw 
hooks on the inside of the shelves of 
the china cabinet or closet from which 
to hang cups to display them, save 
space, and prevent breakage. Tack a 

narrow strip of board two or three 
inches from the back of each shelf, 
as a rim to hold up the plates. Or 
23ut in a row of brass tacks standing 
an eighth of an inch above the shelf 
for this purpose. 

Table Pad. — A pad of table felt 
sold for the purpose should be laid 
over the dining-room table, both to 
protect the polish and to save the 
linen tablecloth. But an old blanket 
or thick cotton flannel may be used 
for this purpose, or clean carpet lin- 
ing can be utilized by covering it with 
white muslin smoothly pasted on. 
This will last for months and can be 
readily replaced. 

To Store Table Leaves. — Fasten un- 
der the lower shelf of the pantry the 
frame in which the extra boards of 
the extension dining table come, and 
slide the boards in. Thus they take 
up no extra space and are always at 

China. — Select a stock pattern when 
buying china, and preferably a stand- 
ard design of some sort, as the well- 
known willow or onion design, or 
some other that can be readily re- 
placed as pieces are broken. When 
possible it is, of course, a good plan 
to have two sets of china, one for 
best, to be displayed in the china 
cabinet and only used upon special 
occasions, and another for ordinarj'' 
wear, which may be less delicate and 


The kitchen, as the workshop of the 
house, is the room in which many 
housekeepers spend most of their 
waking hours. Hence it should be 
perhaps the lightest, airiest, and 
most cheerful room in the house. It 
is safe to say that much more atten- 
tion might well be given to the matter 
of kitchen conveniences than they 
usually receive. There are very few 
housekeepers indeed who could not, 
by intelligent forethought in plan- 
ning and arranging the contents of 
the kitchen, pantry and storeroom, 



save themselves daily miles of useless 
traveling to and fro. 

Color for Kitchen. — Try to make 
the kitchen a room in harmonizing 
tints by painting or tinting the walls 
in light greens and the floor in dark 
green. Or a clear, light yellow is a 
good color for the kitchen walls, with 
the floor in brown. Or, if the room 
has a southern or western exposure, 
gray walls, vidth the floor in drab or 
slate color, will give a cooler effect. 

Kitchen Walls. — Kitchen walls 
should be covered with washable ma- 
terials; hence ordinary wall paper 


/\ /\/\>x/ 

" The Cracks May be FillecL*^ 

and calcimine are less suitable in tlie 
kitchen than in other parts of the 
house. If the walls are new and 
smooth, tint them in waterproof ce- 
ment or paint them with water colors 
and coat with soluble glass. Both 
these processes are inexpensive. 

Or washable paper is excellent. It 
can be washed and kept perfectly 
clean, and does not absorb grease or 

Or paint the walls with common oil 

paint of good quality and finish with 
a coat of enamel paint or soluble 
glass, so that they can be mopped the 
same as the floor. For this purpose 
fit a large sponge into a mop handle. 
But paint is not as easy to wash down 
as washable paper or oilcloth, hence, 
where the walls are in good condition, 
the latter is preferable. 

Kitchen Floor. — A tight, smooth 
floor of unpainted wood, hard enough 
not to splinter and to admit of being 
scrubbed, is perhaps the best floor for 
a kitchen. But if the floor is of soft 
wood, or is uneven and has unsightly 
cracks in it, the cracks may be filled 
and the floor painted with oil paints, 
and varnish or " lac " paints contain- 
ing varnish may be used. 

Or the floor may be covered with 
linoleum, which is perhaps, all things 
"considered, the most satisfactory floor 
covering. Before laying the linoleum 
on a rough floor, cover the floor with 
a layer of sand, or sawdust, or old 
newspapers, to prevent its being worn 
by the cracks, and give the linoleum 
a coat of paint and varnish three or 
four times a year. When thus treated 
it is practically indestructible. 

Or oilcloth may be substituted for 
linoleum and cared for in the same 
fashion. This is inexpensive, and with 
proper care will last a long time. 

Kitchen Sinks. — The sink may be of 
iron or other metal, with or without 
enamel, or of stone, or even of wood 
lined with lead, tin, or zinc. But it 
should stand on four legs, and all the 
waste pipe should be exposed to sun 
and air. Take away all woodwork 
from about the sink, and paint the 
pipes and under part the same color 
as the walls and woodwork. 

If the air is admitted freely to all 
parts, no moisture can accumulate to 
cause the decay of organic matter 
which produces diphtheria, typhoid 
and other fevers. Physicians say that 
when these diseases occur in any 
household, the first thing they look at 
is the sink and the arrangements for 
drainage about the kitchen door. Each 
day rinse the dishpan with boiling 
water in which dissolve a tablespoon- 



ful or more of washing soda or aqua 
ammonia, and pour it dov/n the spout 
boiling hot. Once a week flush the 
pipes by filling the sink with boiling 
water, in which dissolve a teacup ful 
of chloride of lime. Use a quantity 
of water great enough so that it will 
run through the pipes with force. 
This is the best disinfectant, is cheap, 
and just as good as any patent 

Have the drainage carried to a suf- 
ficient distance from the house into a 
covered cesspool, whence it will leach 
off into the soil, and see that it does 
not leach into the well. Never throw 
dishwater from the kitchen door. 
Have a receptacle for all garbage, 
and feed it regularly to the chickens, 
or, if no fowls are kept, see that it is 
burned, buried, or at least removed to 
a distance from the house. Scald the 
garbage receptacle with a solution of 
chloride of lime — half a teacupful to 
a quart of water — twice a week. 

Kitchen Table. — A bench or table, 
homemade if necessary, at the left of 

"Homemade if Necessary." 

the kitchen sink and as large as the 
room will admit, is indispensable to 
saving steps in the kitchen. Have this 

overlap the edge of the sink and cover 
with zinc, which will not rust. Turn 
up the zinc over a molding around the 
sides of the table, except at the end 
over the sink, so that water will drain 
back from it into the latter. Carry 
the zinc, if possible, eighteen inches 
or two feet up the kitchen wall be- 
hind the table and the sink. This is 
lasting, easily kept clean, and is not 
injured by hot pans or kettles. If 
scrubbed clean it can be used as a 
molding board. Particles of dough 
which adhere to it can easily be 
scraped off with a knife. Zinc that 
has done duty under a stove may be 
used for a kitchen table. Cut a V 
out of the corners, lap over the edges, 
and nail closely with long, sharp steel 

Or cover the kitchen table with oil- 
cloth. This will last a long time if 
the table is padded with sheet wad- 
ding or several thicknesses of news- 
paper covered with an old sheet. 
Draw the padding smooth and tack 
it under the edge of the table. 

Kitchen Rack for Utensils. — Cover 
the wall back of the kitchen table and 
sink with zinc or oilcloth about two 
feet in height, tacking a strip of inch- 
thick pine or other soft wood about 
three inches wide along the top. Along 
the middle of this fasten a narrow 
strip of leather or a strip of doubled 
oilcloth, with tacks at intervals of one 
and a half or two inches, making 
loops through which cooking spoons, 
knives, forks, can openers, etc., may 
be thrust. Thus these articles are 
always in sight and ready for use. 
Above put up a number of six- or 
eight-inch shelves to any desired height 
to hold breakfast foods, coffee, salt, 
pepper and other spices, glass jars or 
tin cans containing nuts, rice, beans, 
sugar, and various dry groceries. On 
the upper shelves can be stored soap, 
canned goods, and the like. Insert 
hooks on the under side of the lower 
shelf to hold measuring cups, tin pails, 
or anything that can be hung up out 
of the way. Cover the shelves with 
oilcloth so that they can be kept clean. 
Hang from the cleat against the wall 



a board of any desired size, say 16 by 
24, which may be of weathered oak 
or any hard-wood stuff cleated to pre- 
vent warping. In this screw small 
brass hooks on which to hang the 
strainer, baking spoon, egg whip, 
roasting fork, meat cleaver, bread 
toaster, etc. These shelves and the 
rack save thousands of steps to the 
pantry and take the place of a costly 
kitchen cabinet. 

Blotters in the Kitchen. — Obtain a 
supply of ordinary desk blotters and 
have a place for them on the rack 
above the kitchen table. If fruit juice 
or grease spatters or spills on cloth- 
ing or table linen apply the edge or 
corner of a clean blotter, and most of 
the liquid will be taken up. 

Or, if gi-ease is spilled on the floor, 
a blotter will take it up quickly while 
warm and save the labor of removing - 
a grease spot that has soaked into the 

Tin Hack. — Hang near the range a 
plate rack, which may be homemade, 
or fasten a cleat against the wall for 
tin lids, kettle covers, pie tins, and 
the like. Thus these are always dry 
and convenient. 

Pantry Shelves. — Paint the pantry 
shelves white, or cover them with a 
coat t- of white enamel. Wash the 
shelves with cold water as soon as 
the enamel dries, and it will harden 
quickly. Such shelves will not require 
oilcloth or paper, can be easily wiped 
off with a damp cloth, and always 
show M^hen perfectly clean. 

Or cover the shelves with white oil- 
cloth. Cut the oilcloth to exactly fit 
the shelf, turn down over the edge, 
and paste on. While somewhat ex- 
pensive, this lasts for years, cleans 
easily, and always looks well. 

Or use ordinary building paper, 
which is better than newspaper and 
by the roll is very cheap. It can be 
wiped off with a damp cloth almost 
as easily as paint. 

Or use washable paper, the same as 
kitchen walls are hung v/ith, pasting 
it to the shelves. 

Or, if newspapers are used, fold a 
whole newspaper the longest way of 

the full sheets and place the fold in 
the front of the shelf. Then when 
cleaning the pantry it is only neces- 
sary to slip a paper cutter in the fold 
of the outer sheet, cut it clear across, 
and take off the soiled upper part. 

Tack a narrow strip of wood (any 
left-over pieces of picture molding 
will do) along the back of the pantry 
shelves, about three inches from the 
wall. To save space, stand platters 
and large plates with their edges rest- 
ing against this. 

Run a one-inch strip of wood against 
the wall, held away from it by wooden 
brackets; in this put kettle lids and 
covers of all sizes. 

Screw suitable hooks on the under 
side of the shelves for dishes having 
handles, as pitchers, cups, and the like. 

Dampness in Closets. — Place a bowl 
of quicklime in a damp pantry, cup- 
board, or closet. This not only re- 
moves dampness, but kills all odors. 

Range Shelves. — Have near the 
range a shelf to hold the many things 
needed in cooking, as pepper, salt, 
and other seasonings, flavorings, and 
the like, to save steps to the pantry 
or to the shelves over the kitchen 
table. Have another shelf covered 
with zinc on which to put down hot 
kettles and articles taken fresh from 
the baking oven. 

"Mounted on Large Casters, 

Rolling Table. — Have made at home 
or by a carpenter a small, strong table 
about 3 feet or i?^ by 3 feet, mounted 



on large casters or small wheels, which 
can be bought at small expense at a 
hardware store. Have a shelf part 
way down in addition to the top. 
When clearing or setting the dining- 
room table load this serving table and 
draw it to and from the kitchen. 
Thus one trip will do for all. 

Kitchen Slate. — Try making a pro- 
gramme each morning of the things 
to be done through the day. Or jot 
down from time to time those that 
must be done at the first opportunity. 
You will be surprised to find how 
quickly these things will be disposed 
of. When cooking or preparing com- 
pany dinner, make a list of the arti- 
cles to be prepared, and glance at it 

Homemade Receipt Book. — Have at 
hand a blank book in which to paste 
or copy valuable recipes. Cover this 
with white oilcloth neatly pasted on. 
Have a special part of this book or a 
separate book for menus. This will 
help to solve the problem of what to 
have for dinner. 

Kitchen Lounge. — Remove the old 
sofa to the kitchen, and put in its 
place a modern couch with an artistic 
couch cover. 

Or make a homemade lounge out of 
a long packing box or tack together 
two of the right height. Put on a 
cover with hinges. Line with wall 
paper or building paper. Make a 
suitable mattress which may be stuffed 
with straw, husks, or any convenient 
material, and cover with any suitable 
material as cretonne, baize, or calico. 
Or use washable material, as red-and- 
white bed ticking. The mattress may 
be adjusted so that the lid can be 
lifted and the inside used as a re- 
ceptacle for various purposes. While 
waiting for the kettle to boil, for 
bread to rise, and the like, drop down 
on the kitchen lounge and rest. It is 
just such little economies of strength 
that in the long run save time and 
preserve health. 


The reason many things are wasted 
in every household is that the family 

has not formed the habit of making 
uses for them. The following ways to 
use string, paper bags, wrapping pa- 
per and newspapers, lard pails, and 
various cans and bottles that come 
into the house every day from the 
grocers and other merchants, will be 
found not. only useful small econo- 
mies but also valuable household con- 

Uses of Common Twine. — Save all 
bits of string or twine, and teach the 
children to sort them and knot the 
different sizes together. Roll the com- 
mon white twine up into a ball, drop 
it inside a box, with the end protrud- 
ing through a hole in the lid. Or use 
the accumulated twine to knit or cro- 
chet dishcloths eight to twelve inches 
square. Bath slippers can also be 
made of it. 

Wind coarse twine on a roller or 
fishline reel and hang it up on the 
back of the pantry door. 

Paper Bags. — These are not only 
convenient to wrap up articles, but 
are especially useful to polish stoves 
and lamp chimnej'^s, to wipe up milk, 
grease, or what not, as they can be 
quickly disposed of by burning when 

Tissue Paper. — This is useful for 
polishing glass, wrapping up laces, 
ribbons, and other delicate articles. 

Oiled Papers. — Oiled papers that 
corr.e over butter and lard may be 
used for papering cake tins. The 
waxed papers that come on the inside 
of cracker or biscuit boxes are useful 
to wrap up cheese and other articles 
which will deteriorate if exposed to 
the air, also for wrapping lunches, for 
school and factory lunch pails, and 

Wrapping Paper. — This may be used 
to slice bread and cake upon, roll 
crackers, pare apples or potatoes, and 
dress chickens on, after which it may 
be rolled up and dropped into the 
garbage pail. 

Or it may be spread over the gar- 
bage pail and all garbage ])laced on 
it to save trouble in cleaning. 

Flour Bags. — Large paper flour 
bags are useful for bleaching gloves 



and other small articles with the 
fumes 01 sulphur, and dry cleaning 
with magnesia, corn meal, and similar 
substances. The cloth sacks may be 
used for dish towels and dishcloths. 

When emptying flour sacks, a small 
amount of flour will adhere to the 
sack. Turn the sack inside out, lay it 
over the molding board, and knead 
the bread upon it. This will cleanse 
it eifectually. 

Newspapers. — Spread clean news- 
papers under the carpet, especially if 
the floor is rough. They make a 
smooth surface, prevent wear, and 
also check draughts through the floor 
cracks. Also use them for polishing 
windows, mirrors, lamp chimneys, 
stove tops, and nickel. 

Spread a newspaper before the stove 
when taking up ashes. Light news- 
paper in the open grate when taking. 
up ashes, or shaking down a grate 
fire. The resulting draught will carry 
the dust up the chimney. 

Cover plants on frosty nights with 
newspapers, or if indoors, put them 
between the plants and the windows. 
Fold a newspaper across the chest 
and attach with safety pins under the 
cloak or coat when exposed for a long 
time in cold winds, as in sleigh- 

Also use newspapers for wrappin?^ 
furs, velvets, and other articles when 
storing them to protect them from 

Tin Cans. — Lard, kerosene, and 
other oils are sold in various parts of 
the country in five-gallon cans. These 
can be obtained from the grocer for 
a small sum and make excellent boil- 
ers to wash out small articles too 
dainty for the regular wash. They 
can also be used with a small wash- 
board as tubs. 

Or they may be used as flour bins, 
bread or cake boxes, and the like. 

Or, by removing the top and making 
holes at each side and attaching short 
pieces of copper wire with a broom 
handle between, convenient ])ails may 
be made out of them. These pails 
may be made of any desired depth by 
cutting off the can with a cold chisel 

and hammer and turning back the 
sharp edges. 

Such cans are also convenient to salt 
down pickles, steam fruit, etc. 

Lard Pails. — These may be used for 
storing sugar, coffee, cereals, anc rice. 
Or for potting plants, especially as 
hanging baskets. They are also use- 
ful both in five- and ten-jDound sizes 
for steaming brown bread and Indian 
puddings. A five-pound lard pail 
placed inside a ten-pound pail, and 
slightly raised from the bottom of 
the latter by small stones or otherwise, 
forms a good substitute for a double 

Or an earthen j ar or common sauce- 
pan may be used for the outer recep- 
tacle, and rice, cracked wheat, oat- 
meal, prunes, etc., may be cooked 
without danger of burning. 

They are also useful for storing 
and carrying milk, butter, and eggs. 

Baking-powder and Cocoa Cans. — 
One of these cans, with a few nail 
holes in each end, is a good soap 
shaker. This will utilize all the scraps 
of soap. 

Or soak off the wrappers, paint 
these cans with any color of enameled 
paint, and label them with gilt or any 
other colored letters. Use these for 
all sorts of spices, which may be 
bought in bulk much cheaper than in 
cans. These cans are air-tight and will 
preserve the sti'ength of the contents. 

Or use for this purpose empty vase- 
line and cold-cream jars with screw 
tops. These being of glass, their con- 
tents can be seen at a glance, and no 
labeling is required. 

Cereal Boxes. — The stiff pasteboard 
boxes in which breakfast foods are 
sold may be labeled and set in a row 
on the pantrj^ shelf. When paper 
bags of dry groceries come from the 
grocer's, they may be dumped in the 
proper box, thus saving the time and 
trouble of opening first one sack and 
then another to find the right article. 
Use these for rice, beans, tapioca, corn 
meal, oatmeal, starch, salt, hominy, 
buckwheat, sugar, etc. 

Labels. — Everything should be la- 
beled for the convenience of every 




member of the family. Beat up the 
white of an egg and dilute with a pint 
of warm water. On ironing day ap- 
ply this both to the label and to the 
glass or tin, and afterwards run a hot 
iron over the surface to set it. Tack 
pasteboard tags on wooden boxes, and 
on bags containing pieces of cloth of 
all descriptions tie cloth labels. 

Kitchen Cabinet. — A good kitchen 
cabinet, with metal bins for flour, 
meal, and other substances that mice 
are fond of, is an investment which 
will save time and strength for the 

".d Good Kitchen Cabinet. 

housekeeper and will be a money 
saver in the long run. These bins 
should be removable, so that they can 
be regularly washed, scalded, and 

To Order Groceries. — A child's school 
slate hung on a nail in the wall of a 
kitchen, with a slate pencil attached 
by a strong cord, will be found a 
great convenience in ordering gro- 
ceries. When any supplies run low, 
make a note on the slate of what is 
wanted. The whole family will soon 
get into the habit of making these 
memoranda, and many steps in run- 
ning errands will be saved. Also make 
an alphabetical list of groceries in a 
little indexed alphabetical memoran- 
dum book and hang this up on the 
same nail. When the grocer calls 

run over this list to refresh your 

If the various dry groceries, as tapi- 
oca, rice, raisins, etc., are kept in glass 
jars, it will be easy to see what is 
wanted, and they will be protected 
from mice and insects. Fruit jars 
of various sizes are useful for this 

Or use a pad and pencil to keep 
memoranda of articles wanted. The 
paper can then be detached when go- 
ing to market and forms a convenient 

Storeroom. — A cellar having a ce- 
ment floor and water-tight walls, if 
kept clean and sanitary, makes an 
ideal storeroom, but many houses do 
not have one. A small storeroom can be 
made in a corner of the cellar at much 
less cost than is commonly supposed, 
by putting up walls of concrete made 
of sand or gravel and cement. Rough 
boards may be knocked together with 
very little trouble to make a mold. 
The cellar walls, if they are tight and 
dry, will make two sides; or they can 
be faced with cement by building a 
board-retaining wall an inch or two 
from the siu'face of the cellar wall 
and pouring the cement back of it. 
The whole, including the floor, can 
thus be made solid concrete at a 
trifling cost. When furnished with a 
suitable door, this storeroom will be 
damp proof and free from dust, 
germs, and all other unsanitary pests. 
There should be a cellar window pro- 
tected on the outside by wire netting, 
and having on the inside a removable 
screen of cheese cloth to keep out the 

Slat shelves painted with white 
paint and a coat of enamel may be 
built up in this storeroom in the same 
manner as book stacks in a library, 
i. e., back to back, with just enough 
room between them tor a person to 
walk. On these shelves preserves, 
pickles, canned goods, butter, eggs, 
and other groceries can be stored the 
year round in perfect safety. 

In a cellar thus equipped can be 
stored canned goods and other gro- 
ceries bought at wholesale when prices 



are low, thus saving in many cases 
25 per cent of the cost of such 

Door Mat. — A great deal of mud is 
tracked in at the kitchen door. Make 
door mats of several thicknesses of 
old carpets, turning in the raw edges 
and sewing them together with carpet 
tacks. Attach stout loops to the cor- 
ners and fasten these over strong nails 
on the porch floor. These keep the 
mat in shape and place, and allow it 
to be readily removed and cleaned. 

Verandas. — One of the most notable 
changes that have come over American 

''Living Gut of Doors.' 

life hi recent years is the increase in 
the custom of living out of doors. 
The old-fashioned porch, formerly a 
mere rain shed over the doorstep, or 
small outer vestibule, is being gener- 
aily replaced by a wide structure ex- 

tending a considerable distance along 
one side of the house, if not entirely 
along two or more sides. The words 
" porch " or " piazza " are often im- 
properly applied to these improve- 
ments in place of the right name, 
" veranda," a word coming from India, 
which suggests a kind of living room 
out of doors. It is becoming more 
and more customary to furnish the 
veranda with suitable furniture that 
will not be harmed by exposure to the 
air, and use it in summer as a living 

Many verandas have regular win- 
dow casings fitted with removable 
hinged frames for glass and screens, 
and with ordinary roller shades, so as 
to admit, when desired, of all the 
privacy of an indoor apartment. By 
means of one or more suitable low 
tables, chairs, and other necessary ar- 
ticles, tea or lunch may be served on 
the veranda, sewing may be done, call- 
ers entertained, and social entertain- 
ments given. 

Suitable vines, as the clematis, Ma- 
deira vine, woodbine, or passion flower 
may be trained to run around the 
veranda and furnish grateful shade 
and privacy. A box couch in a shel- 
tered spot against the v/all will be 
found useftil as a receptacle for ham- 
mocks, old shoes, and various articles 
used about the lawn and grounds. It 
may be fitted with a suitable padlock, 
and chained or otherwise fasiened to 
the wails. 





The principal kinds of fuel used in 
this country are anthracite or hard, 
and bituminous or soft, coal, coke, 
gas, petroleum or kerosene, and wood, 
either hard or soft. Peat or turf 
fuel is quite common in European 
countries, and some attempts have 
been made to introduce it in the 
United States in the form of 
"briquettes" and "eggettes," but thus 
far without much success. The cost 
of the various kinds of fuel naturally 
varies according to local conditions, 
but where all kinds are equally plenti- 
ful, wood is the most expensive. 
About eighteen cords of the best hard 
wood is required to heat the home 
of an average family for a year. At 
six dollars a cord this would cost 
nine dollars a month. Anthracite or 
hard coal is the next most expensive 
fuel; its first cost is higher and it 
is not an economical fuel to use, the 
estimated cost of heating an average 
home with hard coal being about 
seven dollars a month. The cheapest 
forms of fuel in common use are 
bituminous or soft coal and coke. 
Where plenty of coke is available it 
may be regarded as perhaps the 
cheapest fuel, its cost being estimated 
on an average of about five dollars 
a month in temperate latitudes. Bi- 
tuminous coal is, ton for ton, cheaper 
than coke, but as somewhat more is 

required for fuel, the cost may be 
regarded as practically the same. 
Gas is, perhaps, the ideal fuel. It is 
clean, convenient, and M'hen the price 
is not unduly advanced by monopolis- 
tic control, it is cheaper than any 
other fuel. Under present conditions 
it is usually somewhat more ex- 
pensive, although the extra cost is, 
perhaps, more than made up by in- 
creased convenience and efficiency. 

Coal as Fuel. — Coal in its natural 
state consists of solid carbon com- 
bined with various proportions of 
hydrocarbons (or compounds of car- 
bon with hydrogen, which may be 
driven off in the form of illuminating 
gas) and various impurities. Thus 
coal is really made up of two kinds of 
fuel: coke — which is jiractically all 
carbon — and ordinary illuminating 
gas. It is much more convenient and 
satisfactory to use coal in these two 
separate forms than in its natural 
state. Very little bituminous or soft 
coal is used for domestic purposes 
in most parts of the United States, 
notwithstanding its cheapness, be- 
cause of the dirt, dust, coal gas, and 
cinders consequent upon its use. 
Anthracite or hard coal is somewhat 
less troublesome, but its use is waste- 
ful because little more than the hydro- 
carbons driven off as gas is really 
consumed, the remainder being left in 
the form of cinders, which are usually 
thrown away. 




Sizes of Coal. — The large sizes of 
coal are the most wasteful, as the 
volatile gases are rarely all driven off 
and the heart of the large chunks is 
not usually consumed. The result is 
a residue of cinders and clinkers that 
choke up the grate and create a great 
deal of labor and discomfort. By the 
use of suitable grates and some care 
and attention, the smallest sizes of 
coal (which are also ton for ton much 
cheaper) may be utilized. 

Coal — Small Sizes to Use. — The 
smallest size of coal in ordinary use 
is known as " pea coal." This requires 
a special grate, but after a fire has 
been kindled in an ordinary grate, and 
a good bed of coals has been made, 
pea coal may be used if care is taken 
not to shake down all the ashes at 
once. There is a still smaller size 
known as " buckwheat coal," which is 
even cheaper than pea coal. This may 
be used in place of cinders to bank 
down the fires at night, the advantage 
being that when coke or larger coal is 
added to the fire next morning, the 
buckwheat coal will be entirely con- 
sumed, whereas a bank of cinders tends 
to deaden the fire during the day. 

Coke as Fuel. — Coke is produced in 
large quantities as a by-product of 
illuminating gas, and in the vicinity 
of gas plants in cities it is usually 
sold at low prices. Coke is cleaner 
than coal (whether hard or soft), 
easier to kindle, burns more freely, 
and leaves a much smaller residue of 
ash, with practically no cinders or 
clinkers. The principal objection to 
its use is, that unless care is taken it 
may produce too hot a fire. But this 
difficultj' may be overcome by bank- 
ing the fire after it is well kindled 
with buckwheat or pea coal. 

Gas as Fuel. — The advantages of 
gas as fuel are manifold, and its use, 
especially for cooking purposes, is be- 
ing rapidly extended. It is clean, 
convenient, and eificient, and will be 
the most economical fuel when proper 
arrangements are made for selling it 
to the public at a reasonable profit. 
It is probable that good gas can be 
manufactured and sold to the public 

in most localities in the neighborhood 
of fifty cents a thousand, and that 
under stress of competition new and 
approved appliances might be pro- 
duced that would decrease still fur- 
ther the cost of manufacture. Even 
at prices ranging from $1 to $1.50 
and upward per thousand, the use of 
gas, if proper care is observed, must 
be regarded as economical. 


The principal systems of heating 
dwelling houses are the use of steam, 
hot water or hot air, generated by 
furnaces (located usually in a base- 
ment or cellar), and the use of closed 
coal, oil, or gas stoves, or of open 
grates, which may be placed in stoves 
or in fireplaces. Each of these sys- 
tems has its advantages and disad- 
vantages, but, disregarding the first 
cost, it is probable that, from the 
double standpoint of efficiency and 
economy, they may all be rated about 
as follows: First, steam; second, hot 
water; third, hot air; fourth, the 
open grate; fifth, the closed coal 
stove; sixth, closed oil stove; seventh, 
closed gas stove. 

Furnaces. — Fiu-naces vary greatly 
in the amount of coal that they con- 

"Most Notable is the Underfeed System." 

sume to produce a given temperature. 
At best only a small ^percentage of 


the actual heat value of the fuel is 
realized, and the future will doubtless 
witness great improvement in this di- 
rection. At present a number of new 
devices are on the market, of which 
one of the most notable is the under- 
feed system. This furnace is so con- 
structed that the fuel is deposited in 
a chamber below the fire box, where 
it is gradually warmed before being 
forced from below by means of a 
lever into the fire box. Thus the heat 
is saved which is wasted in other types 
of furnaces by raising fhe tempera- 
ture of cold fuel thrown directly upon 
the blaze, and less fuel is consumed 
to produce a given increase of tem- 
perature. There is also less imneccs- 
sary combustion. The difference may 
be illustrated by the burning of two 
candles, one right side up and the 
other upside down. The former coii- 

The saving in the use of these devices 
would far exceed the difference in the 
first cost, even if they were much 

"An Inevitable Waste." 

sumes no more fuel than is necessary; 
the latter produces an inevitable waste. 

Another device consists in a perfo- 
rated plate of metal, placed across 
the fire box so that the flame is broken 
up into a large number of small jets 
of burning gas. The plate also be- 
comes exceedingly hot and thus assists 
the combustion of the gases. 

Other important devices •'.re means 
to prevent heat from being wasted by 
radiation in the cellar or basement or 
by escaping up the chimney. The in- 
direct-draught furnace contains a de- 
vice which causes the heated products 
of combustion to circulate in such a 
way, before going up the chimney, as 
to heat every part of the furnace. 

Hot-water Radiation." 

more expensive than other types of 
heating apparatus, which is not neces- 
sarily the case. Hence, their univer- 
sal use is to be recommended. 

Steam and Hot-water Heating Sys- 
tems. — The first cost of installing a 
steam or hot-water system is consid- 
erable, and both require a good deal 
of care to produce satisfactory results. 
They also demand some provision for 
ventilation, which is an additional ex- 
pense. Both steam heat and hot wa- 
ter are difficult to adjust to sudden 
changes of temperature. In mild 
weather, steam heat is not economical, 
because the furnace must be kept hot 
enough to boil water in order to pro- 
duce any steam at all, and hot-water 
heat is inconvenient, since, if the 
weather becomes suddenly mild when 
the pipes are filled with hot water, the 
house will be too warm. On the other 
hand, if the water is allowed to cool 
and the temperature again changes, 
considerable time is required in either 
system to reheat the boiler. 

Thermostat. — The most satisfactory 
results with the steam and hot-water 
systems are obtained by the installa- 
tion of the thermostat, an instrument 
which can be adjusted at any given 
temperature, so that if the heat falls 
below this standard the furnace 
draught will be automatically opened; 
if it rises above, the furnace draught 
will be closed. Thus a imiform tem- 
perature can be maintained v/ith the 
least possible attention. 



The Ideal System. — Probably the 
ideal system of heating is the so-called 
vacuum steam system, by which a par- 
tial vacuum is formed in the steam 

"7/ the Heat Falls 

the Draught Opens." 

pipes. Thus, steam may be produced 
in the pipes at a temperature below 
213°. An attachment, known as the 
automatic vacuum valve, which pro- 
duces a similar effect, can be supplied 
to ordinary steam radiators. Prob- 
ably, then, an underfeed, indirect- 
draught furnace with a system of 
ventilation and a suitable thermostat, 
while somewhat expensive to install, 
would give the most perfect and sat- 
isfactory results. 

Hot-air Systems. — The advantages 
of the hot-air systein of heating, after 
the first cost of installation, are that 
it does not require a supplementary 
system of ventilation, can be easily 
cared for, and readily adjusted to 
changes in temperature. The disad- 
vantages oftenest complained of are 
the dust and gases that sometimes rise 
from the register, the difficulty caused 
by high winds blowing into the cold- 
air boxes, and dryness of the atmos- 
phere caused by delivering the heated 
air at too high a temperature. But 
these disadvantages may be overcome 

by proper construction and installa- 

To Prevent Dust. — Dust may find 
its way either from above or from 
below into the stream of warm air 
that rises from the register. To pre- 
vent its rise from below, the outer 
opening of the cold-air box may be 
screened with cheese cloth or other 
thin fabric, and over the seams of the 
cold-air box and flues may be placed 
a metal protector with tightly soldered 
joints. Thus the gases and any foul 
air that may be in the cellar will be 
excluded from the draught, and the 
supply of air coming in from out of 
doors will be fresh and pure as well 
as warm. To prevent dust from en- 
tering the flue from above, the regis- 
ters should be closed while sweeping 
and should be removed each day after 
sweeping and dusted out of the win- 
dow; one or more thicknesses of cheese 
cloth or netting should be stretched 
under the register and across the flue 
so as to screen the current of air as 
it rises. Registers set in the wall 
naturally receive less dust from sweep- 
ing than floor registers do. They also 
give the warm air a somewhat better 

How to Hegulate Hot Air. — Hot 
air is a misnomer. Overheated air 
is detrimental to health and also in- 
jurious to woodwork and furniture. 
The term " warm air " is preferred by 
most authorities, and the best results 
are secured by having a relatively 
large furnace that, by delivering a 
large quantity of air at a moderate 
temperature, will heat the house com- 
fortably in the coldest weather. The 
air should not be delivered at a tem- 
perature greater than 120°, and under 
no circumstance should the fires be 
allowed to rage imtil the fire box is 
red hot. 

To Overcome Dryness. — The dry- 
ness of the atmosphere caused by the 
warm-air furnace may be overcome 
by keeping a supply of water in the 
receptacle usually furnished for that 
purpose inside the jacket of the fur- 
nace; or by hanging a small tin pail 
of galvanized iron from a hook below 



one or more of the registers in the 
room, so that the current of air there- 
from will receive a small amount of 

Hot Air — To Prevent Waste. — A 
great saving can be effected by casing 
the jacket of the furnace and the 
hot-air pipes with several thicknesses 
of asbestos paper to prevent direct 
radiation in the basement. Heat 
which would otherwise be wasted may 
also be utilized by the addition of a 
hot-water attachment. This combina- 
tion of the hot-air and hot-water sys- 
tems affords, perhaps, the greatest 

" The Same Flue Will Serve Two Registers." 

possible economy in fuel. The hot- 
water piping may be used in distrib- 
uting the heat to any parts of the 
house not equipped with the hot-air 
system. When possible, the hot-air 
flues should be so adjusted that the 
same flue will serve two or more reg- 
isters. Thus, by closing the register 
in the lower rooms, the heat can be 

diverted through the same flue to the 
upper part of the house, with the least 
possible number of pipes and waste 
of heat. 

The Franklin Stove. — The cele- 
brated device invented in 1783 by 
Benjamin Franklin, and called by him 
the " Pennsylvania fireplace," is still 
in some respects the most satisfactory 
contrivance in existence for heating 
individual rooms. Oddly enough, in 
modern stoves of this pattern a prin- 
cipal feature of Franklin's invention 
has been neglected. The Franklin 
stove had an air chamber behind the 
grate, communicating with tiie outer 
air through a pipe passing beneath 
the hearth; by this means a current of 
pure, warm air was admitted to the 
room for ventilation. If this device 
could be revived and widely adver- 
tised, there is no doubt that its supe- 
rior advantages would be generally 
recognized. The modern Franklin 
stove is similar to an ordinary closed 
stove except for its open hearth. It 
combines the cheerful open grate of 
a fireplace with economy of the heat 
lost in a fireplace by passing up the 
chimnej^ The Franklin stove can be 
connected by means of stovepipe with 
an ordinary flue. 

Closed Stoves. — Closed stoves burn- 
ing coal, oil, or gas as fuel are, of 
course, in very general use for heat- 
ing individual aj^artments. Of these, 
the coal stove has the very decided 
advantage that the products of com- 
bustion pass through the stovepipes 
into the chimney, whereas both gas 
and oil stoves vitiate the air with car- 
bonic-acid gas and other injurious 
substances. For this reason, gas logs 
and gas grates should not be used ex- 
cept immediately under a chimney 
flue, nor should small gas stoves or 
oil stoves be used in living rooms 
or bedchambers without abundant ven- 

Open Grates. — The old-fashioned 
open fireplace is the most cheerful 
and sanitary means of heating, and 
would be by all means to be preferred 
were it not that so much of the heat 
escapes up the chimney. It has been 



estimated that only 5 per cent of 
it is thrown into the room. A re- 
cent invention known as the venti- 
lating grate overcomes this difficulty. 
This is an open furnace, to which 
fresh outdoor air is introduced by 
pipes which pass below the hearth and 
are heated by circulating around the 
grate, and flues through which the 
l>roducts of combustion escape. The 
pure air thus warmed is admitted into 
the rooms through registers. By a 
suitable arrangement of the flues, the 
warm air from the ventilating grate 
can be distributed through the walls 
to adjacent or upper rooms, and thus 
two or more of these grates can heat 
a house of six or eight rooms at less 
cost than a furnace. 

Open fireplaces may also be profit- 
ably utilized for supplementary heat 
in connection -with different systems, _ 
as they afford the most perfect system 
of ventilation obtainable. 

Economy of Stove Heat. — The heat 
from an ordinary stove or a Franklin 
stove may be economized and utilized 
in upper rooms by adjusting a mod- 
ern drum radiator to the stovepipe. 
A number of small tubes within the 
drum absorb the heat and radiate it 
into the apartment. The open flames 
of lamps and gas jets also give a good 
deal of heat which can be utilized by 
equipping them with small detachable 
radiators that operate on the same 

Gasoline Stoves. — Those who have 
generator gasoline stoves often com- 
plain that the gasoline smokes and 
ruins wall paper. To avoid this gen- 
erate the fire with wood alcohol. Keep 
the alcohol in a glass bottle holding 
about a quart. Or a machine-oil can 
holding about a pint will be found 
convenient. If the latter is used, a 
piece of cork should be inserted in 
the end of the spout to keep the gaso- 
line from evaporating. Or use a piece 
of Irish potato for this purpose. 

Pour a little alcohol in the gen- 
erator cup, and light it the same as 

Gas Stoves. — These are of two sorts, 
adapted for heating and cooking re- 

spectively. Gas stoves for heating 
may be obtained in a variety of sizes, 
from small cylinders to large-sized 
stoves of the radiator pattern. These 
are cleanly, cheap, and efficient, and 
have nothing about them to get out 
of order. Gas stoves for cooking may 
be had in all sizes, from the one- 
burner stove of the hot-plate type, 
costing about $1, to the gas kitchen 
range, ranging in price up to $50. 
The average type is a two-oven range 
that will broil, roast, or bake, and can 
be fitted with laundry conveniences. 
The standard size has two 16- or 18- 
inch ovens, and is provided on top 
with one double and three single burn- 
ers. These are equal to every require- 
ment of a complete kitchen range, and 

"Demonstrate Superiority in Summer. 

unlike the latter have no fire brick to 
burn out, or other parts likely to be- 
come warped, cracked, or injured, A 
gas range has every possibility of 
service of a coal range except heat- 
ing, but of course demonstrates its 
greatest superiority in the summer 
months, when cooking can be done 
with a minimvun of heat and fuel con- 

The temperature of a gas oven can 
always be accurately gauged, and it is 
possible to have a slow fire and a hot 
fire at the same time, on different 
parts of the gas range, which is im- 


possible with a coal range. Further, 
a gas range is always clean, requires 
no blacking, kindling, or carrj'ing of 
coal, removal of ashes, and similar 

Gas Water Heaters. — A gas water- 
heating appliance attached to an or- 
dinary kitchen boiler will consume 
about thirty feet of gaS in an hour 
for a thirty-gallon boiler, or forty to 
forty-five feet for a sixty- to eighty- 
gallon boiler. A smaller quantity of 
hot water for ordinary household pur- 
poses can be heated in ten or fifteen 
minutes at a cost of less than one 
cent. A similar appliance may be put 
into the bathroom, which would heat 
water sufficient for a bath at a cost 
of from two to three cents. This is 
an ideal summer arrangement. But 
care must be taken that accidents do 
not occur with these, by persons lock- 
ing the bathroom door and being over- 
come by the gas. 


Chimneys have a twofold object — 
to remove the smoke and gases pro- 
duced by combustion, and to produce 
a draught to increase the rate of com- 
bustion. They were first introduced 
in Europe about the twelfth century. 
The first chimney in Rome was built 
in 1368. Chimneys did not come into 
general use in Europe until the seven- 
teenth century. Formerly — and to this 
day in many parts of the world — firss 
were built on stone or earthen hearths 
in the center of the room, the prod- 
ucts of combustion being allowed to 
escape through a hole in the middle 
of the roof. 

The draught produced by a chimney 
depends iipon its height and propor- 
tions. The higher the chimney, the 
better the draught. The flue should 
be about one fifth or one sixth the 
area of the grate. 

Chimneys are the best of ventila- 
tors, hence there should be one or 
more extending from the bottom of 
the cellar and opening by means or 
suitable flues and fireplaces into every 
living room in the house. 

To Prevent Dampness in Chimneys. 
— Let the chimney start from the bot- 
tom of the cellar, or, if built at the 
side of the house, from the foundation 
wall, and rest on a flat stone laid in 
water cement. This will prevent the 
bricks from absorbing moisture. A 
chimney resting on a foundation in 
the upper part of the house may ac- 
cumulate water during a rain storm, 
which will saturate the bricks and 
communicate dampness to adjacent 

Chimneys — To Prevent Soot. — Mix 
salt freely with the mortar in which 
the bricks on the inside of a chimney 
are laid. This Avill cause tliem to at- 
tract moisture in drmp weathei', which 
will loosen the soot and cause it to 
fall. It will also prevent the chimney 
from becoming infested with chimney 

To Ventilate Chimneys. — An open 
fireplace communicating with the chim- 
ney is an ideal ventilator; or a chim- 
ney may be built double, having two 
columns side by side or one within 
the other, one being reserved for ven- 
tilation and communicating with each 
room through an opening in the ceiling. 

Or a double chimney may have one 
column within the other, the air space 
between the two being connected with 
the rooms by ventilators. 

Chimneys — To Prevent Smoke. — 
Build a long, narrow flue 4 or 5 inches 
deep and 15 to 18 inches wide, thus 
having an opening of 60 to 90 square 
inches. Let the flue open into an air 
chamber in the chimney of twice its 
size, i. e., an area of 120 to ISO square 
inches or 11 to 16 inches square, but 
this may be reduced toward the top 
of the chimney if desired. Carry the 
chimney as high above the roof as 
good taste will permit, and let the 
flue approach the chimney at an angle, 
or, if possible, by a number of turns. 
Usually the more crooked the flue the 
better the draught. A straight fun- 
nel does not usually draw well. 

To Cure a Smoky Chimney. — First 
note the cause. Either too much air 
is admitted below, or the draught is 
insufficient, or the wind blows dov^Ti 



into the chimney from above. Hence, 
according to circumstances, contract 
the draught by narrowing the entrance 
to the grate or fireplace, or increase 
the height or crookedness of the flue 
and shaft, or place on the top of the 
chimney a wind shield or turn cap, 
which will revolve with the wind in 
such a way as to prevent the gusts 
from blowing down the chimney. 

The draught is caused by the fact 
that hot air rises and tends to create 
a vacuum, which by suction draws 
cold air after it. Hence, anything 
that chills the column of air in the 
chimney tends to check the draught. 
Therefore avoid admitting, across the 
top of the fire in a grate or fireplace, 
enough cold air to cool the flue. The 
fire should be located in such relation 
to the flue that the rising current of 
hot air will have the right of way and 
tend to fill the flue, to the exclusion 
of the cold air of the room; thus the 
latter will be sucked up through the 
fire itself, assisting the combustion 
and strengthening the draught. 

To Kindle Fires without Smoke. — 
To start a draught without smoke, on 
kindling a fire in an open grate when 
the air in the chimney is cold and the 
first flame is feeble, use a sufficient 
quanti>ty of very combustible sub- 
stances, as kindlings, to create flames. 
These will heat the air in the chimney 
before cold or solid fuel is added, 
which burns less perfectly. 

Or reduce the opening to the grate 
or fireplace by means of a blower or 
light screen lined with asbestos and 
placed across the opening so as to 
admit air only in the required quan- 
tity and beneath the grate. 

To Prevent Smoke. — A hot fire will 
consume its own smoke. Hence, to 
prevent the formation of smoke, heat 
a hot bed of coals and add fresh fuel 
in such limited quantity as not to 
lower the heat of the fire below the 
smoke-consuming point. Push the 
coals back and put on fresh fuel so 
that the smoke will pass over the bed 
of live coals, where it will be con- 

Or adjust a wire screen having 

forty or more wires to the inch, to 
prevent the escape of smoke. 

To Clean Chimneys. — Prepare a bed 
of hot coals in the stove, throw open 
the draughts and dampers, and throw 
on the coals some pieces of old zinc, 
as the zinc from an old washboard. 
This will clean out all soot from the 

Or the chimney may be swept if the 
shaft is straight by attaching a heavy 
stone or other weight to the butt of 
a small pine or hemlock sapling and 
fastening a rope to its upper part. 
The weight will carry the sapling 
down the chimney, and when it is 
dragged back the extending branches 
will sweep clean the soot. Care must 
be taken to use a rope sufficiently 
strong and a sapling not too large, so 
as to prevent the rope from parting 
or the brush from lodging in the shaft. 

To Stop Leaks in Chimneys. — Make 
a cement of coal tar and sand, and 
apply as may be convenient within ov 

To Put Out Fires in Chimneys. — 
Throw sulphur on the fire so that the 
fumes will ascend the flue. Take pre- 
cautions not to breathe the fumes of 
burning sulphur. 

Or ascend to the roof and throw 
salt down the chimney. Or shut off 
the draught from below if possible by 
covering the opening to the fireplace 
with wet blankets or otherwise. Or, if 
the fire is not too strong, put a tight 
cover over the top of the chimney. 



To Extinguish Fires. — The objects 
to be attained in putting out fire are 
principally two: to cut oif its source 
of supply in the oxygen of the air, 
and to lower the temperature of the 
burning substances below the point of 
combustion. Drenching the burning 
parts with water accomplishes both 
objects. It prevents the access of air 
and chills the burning parts. 

A heavy woolen cloth thrown over 
or wrapped about burning objects 
smothers the fire by shutting off the 


air, and if wet, also assists by lower- 
ing the temperature. 

Chemical fire extinguishers produce 
noninflammable gas, as carbon dioxide, 
which flows over the burning parts the 
same as water, temporarily shutting 
off the supply of air; hence the fol- 
lowing suggestions for extinguishing 

Close the doors and windows to pre- 
vent draughts. Seize the burning ob- 
jects if small and movable, as lamps, 
curtains, and the like, and throw them 
out of the window, or wrap them in 
rugs or woolen table covers or bed 

Or, if solid, heavy objects are on 
fire, seize a woolen blanket or other 
heavy woolen article, and if possible 
beat out the flames. If a small quan- 
tity of water is at hand, dip the 
woolen cloth into it and beat the fire 
with that. A single pail of water will 
go further if soaked up in a blanket 
than if dashed directly on the flames. 

Or, if plenty of water is at hand, 
dip a mop in it and beat the flames, 
or dash it on the fire in small quanti- 
ties from a dipper, directing it in- 
telligently to cover as much space as 

To Put Out Burning Garments. — 
If a person's clothing takes fire, he 
should be rolled up in a woolen rug, 
overcoat, table cover, or blanket to 
smother the fire. 

Or, if alone, he should roll himself 
up in one of these articles as quickly 
as possible; roll over and over on the 
floor or bed; or tear up the carpet 
and roll up in that. 

To Extinguish Fire with Chemicals. 
— To make a chemical fire extinguish- 
er, prepare a mixture of substances 
that will produce carbonic-acid gas in 
the presence of water, and arrange so 
that a stream of mingled gas and 
water will be thrown upon the flames 
by the expansive power of the gas. 
This is the celebrated patent of Will- 
iam A. Graham of Lexington, Va., 
that was contested during nearly fifty 
years in the United States courts. It 
is the principle of most chemical fire 
extinguishers now upon the market. 

The substances most commonly 
mixed to produce carbonic-acid gas 
are common soda and sulphuric acid, 
or oil of vitriol. Numerous practical 
devices have been patented for stor- 
ing these two, or other substances, in 
a suitable receptacle side by side, but 

" The Celebrated Patent of Graham. 

so arranged that they will not minglf 
until wanted. Then, by turning the 
receptacle upside down, or turning 
a stopcock, tlie acid is precipitated 
into a solution of bicarbonate of soda 
in water and the water is thereby 
charged with carbonic-acid gas, which, 
by its expansive power, ejects the 
stream of mingled gas and water 
through a flexible rubber tube and a 

One device consists of a tank or jar 
containing a strong solution of bicar- 
bonate of soda or common baking 
soda in water in which is immersed a 



tightly stoppered bottle containing oil 
oi vitriol. The stopper of the bottle 
may be pulled out by means of a wire 
running through the cover of the tank, 
thus allowing the acid to mingle with 
the soda solution and produce car- 
bonic-acid gas. To imitate this device, 
take an old milk can or a five-gallon 
oil can and have a tinsmith fit it with 
a screw top and a stopcock fitted with 
a flexible rubber tube and a nozzle. 
Plain rubber tubing or flexible gas 
pipe is suitable for this purpose. The 
longer, the better. Fasten to the re- 
movable screw top by means of wire 
a glass bottle containing sulphuric 
acid and having a glass stopper. Fas- 
ten another wire about the neck of 
this stopper, let it protrude through 
the cover, and end in a ring by means 
of which the stopper may be with- 
drawn. But care must be taken to use 
wires strong enough so that, should 
the stopper stick, the bottle may be 
broken off if need be without remov- 
ing the screw top of the can. When 
required, carry the extinguisher to the 
vicinity of the fire, pull out the stop- 
per, and shake the can to mix the oil 
and soda solution. Turn the stop- 
cock and direct the resulting stream 
of water charged with carbonic-acid 
gas ifpon the flame. 

Or an ordinary pair of pliers or 
nippers used to handle wire may be 
set in the screw top of the can to hold 
the neck of the bottle of acid between 
their teeth. Then by closing the han- 
dle of the nippers the neck of the vial 
may be broken, allowing the acid to 
drop into the soda solution. This 
should be a little below the mouth of 
the can, so that the pliers themselves 
will not be immersed. They may be 
protected from rust by coating with 
rust-proof varnish. 

Or get a cylinder or pipe of tin, 
zinc, or other suitable material, and 
by means of a perforated partition 
neo* one end divide into t\vo com- 
partments, one much larger than the 
other. Fit the opposite end with a 
stopcock, a flexible tube, and a nozzle. 
The larger compartment contains the 
solution of bicarbonate of soda iu 

water; the smaller contains sulphuric 
acid in the form of a dry powder or 
crystals too coarse to pass through 
the ijerforations in the partition. This 
cylinder when not in use must, ot 
course, be kept upright so that the 
soda solution will not come in contact 
with the acid; when required for use 
it must be inverted, the soda solution 
will then fall through the perforation? 
upon the dry acid, and the mixture 
>^dll produce carbonic-acid gas. 

Or the partition may be operated 
bj' means of a plunger which wil) 
knock it out of the way so that the 
dry soda will fall into the soda solu- 
tion. Any tinsmith or person of me- 
chanical ingenuity can construct at a 
very nominal cost either of these de- 
vices and charge it with the same ma- 
terials as are used in the most expen- 
sive fire extinguisher upon the market 
But take care to use a strong recep- 
tacle or to open the stopcock so as to 
give the mixture a vent by means of 
a suitable tube and nozzle as soon as 
the acid and the soda solution are 
brought into combination. This will 
prevent an explosion. Take care also 
to combine the materials in the right 

The proportions in which sulphuric 
acid and bicarbonate of soda unite to 
form carbonic-acid gas are 5 parts of 
sulphuric acid and 6 parts of bicar- 
bonate of soda (which is ordinary 
baking soda), by weight. Commercial 
bicarbonate of soda requires 13 times 
its weight of water to fully dissolve 
it. Hence a sufficiently large I'ecep- 
tacle would require 6 povmds of bak- 
ing soda dissolved in 78 pounds of 
water and 5 pounds of suliDhuric acid 
so arranged as to be poured into the 
soda solution when required. 

To fill a smaller tank in the same 
projDortions, place the tank on the 
scales and note its weight. Now fili 
about two thirds or more with water. 
Note the total weight and subtract 
the weight of the tank. Divide this 
amount expressed in pounds by 13, 
and the result will be the number of 
pounds of soda required. The weight 
of acid required will be five sixths the 


weight of the soda. Dissolve the 
soda in the water and place the sul- 
phuric acid in a glass bottle so ar- 
ranged that when required for use 
the bottle may be turned over by a 
crank or otherwise and the acid 
spilled into the charge of soda water. 
Carbonic-acid gas will be generated 
at once under strong enough pressure 
to force the whole contents with con- 
siderable power through a nozzle di- 
rected against the fire. 

Or dissolve copperas or ferrous 
sulphate, 5 parts; ammonium sul- 
phate, 20 parts, in water, 125 parts. 

Or dissolve in 75 parts water, cal- 
cium chloride, 20 parts; salt, 5 parts. 

The two last may be kept conveni- 
ently at hand for use with a hand 

Hand Fire Extinguisher. — Another 
device consists of a mixture of suit- 
able substances combined in a glass 
vessel, which must be thrown upon the 
fire with sufficient force to break the 
glass. To make hand grenades or fiie 
extinguishers of this sort take pint or 
quart fruit jars or any large bottles 
and charge them with a mixture of 
equal parts of sugar of lead, alum, 
and common salt, dissolved in water. 
Keep these tightly corked in various 
parts of the house. To extinguish a 
fire throw one or more of these bot- 
tles into or just above the burning 
parts, so that the liquid will fall upon 
the wood or flames. 

Or charge these bottles with a mix- 
ture made of 2 pounds of common 
salt, 1 pound of muria;te of ammonia, 
and 3 quarts of water. Dissolve, bot- 
tle, cork, and keep at hand in various 
parts of the house for emergency. 
Throw the bottles into the fire with 
force enough to break them. 

Or dissolve pearlash, soda, wood 
ashes, or common salt in the water 
which is being dashed upon the flames 
from pails or pitchers, or in which 
are soaked cloths to beat out the 

Fire Extinguisher Hand Grenades. 
—Fill round bottles of thin blue glass 
with a mixture of equal parts of com- 
mon borax and sal ammoniac or cal- 

cium chloride. Add just enough 
water to dissolve these substances, 
thus making strong saturated solu- 

Fire Drills. — Boys should be en- 
couraged to prepare, under proper 
supervision, one or more of these fire 
extinguishers, and practice with them 
in putting out fires made out of doors 
for this purpose. A few experiments 
will insure that the directions have 
been understood, and will give valu- 
able practice as a sort of fire drill in 
advance of the emergency, as there is 
always danger of fire, whether from 
lightning or other cause, in isolated 
farmhouses and other buildings, not 
within reach, as in cities, of a fire de- 
partment. A conflagration may not 
only destroy the results of the labor 
of a lifetime, but also lead to loss of 
life from the flames or from conse- 
quent exposure in severe weather. 
Hence the importance of such prepa- 
ration can hardly be overestimated, 
especially when it can be done at very 
little expense. Moreover, such experi- 
ments have an important educational 

To Extinguish Kerosene Fire. — Do 
not throw water on the flames of 
burning kerosene, gasoline, benzine, 
naphtha, or other petroleum products. 
The water will spread the flames and 
not put them out. Instead use milk, 
which forms an emulsion with the oil 
and extinguishes it. 

Fire Escapes. — ^You may remember 
Mark Twain's story of the " poor 
white " in Arkansas whose roof leaked 
so badly that the bed in which he 
slept was wet by every storm. When 
asked why he did not mend the roof, 
he replied that he could not do so when 
it rained without getting wet, and 
when the weather was fair it was not 

That is the attitude of many per- 
sons in regard to fire escapes. Suit- 
able provision for escape from attics, 
chambers, and other upper rooms is 
rarely thought of, except in the actual 
moment of danger, when stairways 
may be choked with smoke and flames. 
Many persons have escaped from up- 



per windows of cottages and other 
low dwellings by knotting sheets and 
other bed covers together to form a 
strong rope, fastening one end to the 
bedpost, and sliding down this to the 
ground. This plan should be talked 
over in the family circle so as to be 

"Suitable Provisions for Escape. 

clearly understood by children and 
others in case of emergency. 

Or, if the rooms are too high from 
the ground to admit of this mode of 
escape, fasten a strong iron hook to 
the window casing, and have at hand 
a knotted rope long enough to reach 
to the ground. 

Or, if this is not to be had, the bed 
may be thrown out of the window to 
assist in breaking the shock, and the 
person may make a rope of the bed 
covers and slide down as far as pos- 
sible before dropping on the bed. A 
skylight should be cut in the roof of 
every dwelling and a permanent lad- 
der fixed to give access to this, and 
also from thence to the edge of the 
roof and to the ground. This will 
admit of escajDe if the staircase should 
take fire and fall. 

To Escape from Fires. — As the 
heated air, smoke, and noxious gases 
produced by combustion tend to rise, 
the purest air Is next the floor. Hence, 
in escaping from fires, creep or crawl 
with the face near the floor. If time 
admits, a handkerchief or other thin 
cloth dipped in water and held over 
the nostrils will to some extent pre- 
vent drawing smoke into the lungs. 
Bystanders may assist in the escape 
of persons who are obliged to jump by 
holding a horse blanket or other large, 
strong cloth or canvas to receive 
them. The larger the cloth, the more 
persons holding it, and the higher it 
is held from the ground, the better. 


To Prevent Fires. — The following 
substances are recommended for fire- 
proofing cloth and other materials: 
Alum, borax, vitriol, copperas, sul- 
phate of ammonia, soluble glass, tung- 
state of soda, and phosphate of am- 
monia; also various combinations and 
preparations of these. 

To Fireproof Cloth. — Mix equal 
quantities of alum, borax, and vitriol, 
or copperas ; dissolve with boiling wa- 
ter or a thin size made by melting an 
ounce of glue or gum arable in a 
gallon of water. Use no more water 
than is necessary to dissolve perfectly. 
Dilute the mixture to liquid form and 
soak the fabric in this. .This prepara- 
tion is for articles to be used about 
stoves and flames, as holders, fire 
screens, and the like. 

To Fireproof Garments. — ^Mix tung- 
state of soda with boiled starch, or 
dissolve alum in water, or both. The 
timgstate of soda does not interfere 
with the ironing and is the best sub- 
stance to fireproof children's garments, 
lace curtains, and other light fabrics 
which are in danger of tak'ng fire. 

To Fireproof Fabrics. — Dissolve 13 
ounces of borax and 9 ounces of sul- 
phate of magnesia in 5 pounds of 
boiling water. In this immerse the 
fabric when cool. 

Or dip the fabric in soluble glass. 


diluted with boiling water to 25° B. 
Hang to drip dry without wringing. 
While still damp, immerse in a solu- 
tion of 1 pound of sulphate of alu- 
mina and 1 pound of sulphate of 
copper in 10 pounds of water. Dry 
without wringing in the open air. 

To Fireproof Canvas. — To fireproof 
canvas awnings or other coarse mate- 
rials, make a hot solution of 3 parts 
of alum and 1 part of copperas. Im- 
merse the articles three times, letting 
them drip dry between each immer- 
sion. Finally let dry and by means 
of a brush apply a solution of cop- 
peras mixed with pipe clay to the 
consistency of paint. This is a cele- 
brated German recipe. 

To Fireproof Wood. — To fireproof 
wood impregnate it with alum, borax, 
or copperas, or a mixture of these. 

Or mix 2^ pounds sulphate of zinc, 
1 pound of potash, 2 pounds of alum, 
and 1 pound of manganic oxide with 
lukewarm water in an iron kettle. Stir 
and add slowly 1 pound of sulphuric 
acid, 60 per cent pure. Dissolve 
the same proportions by weight for 
larger quantities. To apply, build up 
the pieces of wood coi-ncob fashion, 
and wrap them at their points of junc- 
ture with sufficient wire to keep them 
at least an inch apart. This method ad- 
mits of immersing the greatest quan- 
tity of wood in the smallest bulk of 
liquid. Place the wood thus prepared 
in an old iron sink or tank and pour 
the liquid over it. Allow it to soak 
three or four hours, afterwards to 
drijj drj'', and season under shade in 
tiie open air. 

To Waterproof Cloth. — Substances 
recommended for waterproofing cloth 
are alum, acetate of lead (sugar of 
lead), linseed , oil, and solutions of 
India rubber, isinglass, and wax in 
turpentine and other solvents, or mix- 
tures of the above in varying propor- 
tions. India rubber and other close 
waterproof fabrics are impervious to 
air as well as moisture ; hence they are 
hot, close, and uncomfortable, besides 
being imhealthful. Ordinary fabrics, 
as wool, linen, or cotton, duck, canvas, 
and the like, may be made waterproof 

by immersing in any of the above mix- 
tures without afPecting their porous 

The following methods are recom- 
mended: Dissolve in a wash boiler 1 
oimce of yellow soap in 4 gallons of 
water and bring it to a boil. Allow 
the liquid to cool and when cold im- 
merse the fabric for twenty-four 
hours. Remove without wringing, and 
let it drip till partially dry. While 
still moist immerse it in a solution of 
A pound of alum and ^ pound of 
sugar of lead in 3 gallons of water. 
Dissolve these substances separately 
each in 1-1 gallons of water, stir vig- 
orously, and mix the two solutions. 
Soak the fabric in this for three or 
four hours, and hang it up to drip 
dry. When nearly dry it may be 
dipped again if desired. 

Or, for delicate fabrics, allow the 
mixture to settle, pour off the clear 
liquid from the sediment, and immerse 
in this. Fabrics thus treated are par- 
tially fireproof as well as waterproof. 

Or dissolve one pound of alum in 
a gallon of boiling water. Allow the 
liquid to cool and soak the fabric in 
it, but this is not equal to the mixture 
of alum and sugar of lead. 

Or put 5 pounds of sulphate of alu- 
mina in Ih gallons of water; in a 
separate receptacle dissolve 3 pounds 
of oleic acid and 1^ quarts of alcohol. 
Stir vigorously until dissolved. Now 
add the sulphate of alumina in a thin 
stream, mix and allow it to settle for 
twenty-four hours. Pour off the clear 
liquid, which may be discarded. Dry 
the residue with heat, and pulverize. 
Make a solution of this substance at 
the rate of 1 pound to 10 gallons of 
water to waterproof any silk, linen, 
or woolen fabric. Immerse the cloth 
or garment until it is thoroughly sat- 
urated, and afterwards allow it to 
drip dry. 

Or mix 4 ounces of isinglass, 4 
ounces of alum, and 3 oxmces of yel- 
low soap, and dissolve in hot water to 
form an emulsion about the consist- 
ency of milk. Apply with a stiff 
brush to the wrong side of the fabric, 
rubbing thoroughly. Remove the es- 



Incandescent gas or gasoline gas at %! per 1,000 it. costs Jc. per hour. Equals breath of 
3 persons; b. Acetylene gas costs |c. per hour. Equals 2 or 3 peisons; c. Kerosene lamp 
costs Ic. Equals 7 or 8 persons ; d. Open flame gas costs Jc. Equals (i persons; e. Electric 
bulb costs lie C onsumes no oxygen; f. Candles cost &ic. Each candle equals 12 persons. 

cess by sponging with water, or with 
a brush dipped in water, and rub 
smooth with a dry brush. 

Or dissolve pure India rubber and 
turpentine to a thin solution, and ap- 
ply with a brush. Afterwards apply 
a coating of sugar of lead dissolved 
in water. 

To Waterproof and Color Black. — 
Raise to a boil 4 quarts of linseed oil 
and stir in 1 ounce of burnt umber, 
1 ounce of acetate of lead, and 15 
ounces of lampblack. Dry and apply 
a second coat of the same solution, 
leaving out the sugar of lead. Allow 
this to )dry and rub it down witli a 
stiff bristle brush. Apply a third 
coat if desired. 

Or raise to a boil 4- quarts of lin- 
seed oil. Add 3 ounces of burnt um- 
ber, 2 ounces of sugar of lead, 1^ 
ounces of sulphate of zinc, ii ounces 
of Prussian blue, and IJ ounces of 
verdigris. Stir these into the oil and 
add 10 ounces of lampblack, stirring 
vigorously. Apply with a brush as in 
painting. Two or three coats of 
either of these mixtures should give 
a hard, durable waterproof surface 
of a black color and having a high 

To Waterproof Canvas Tents or 
Awnings. — Mix 8 pounds of white 
lead with one fourth by bulk spirits 
of turpentine. Stir in 1 ounce of su- 
gar of lead and 1 ounce of white 
vitriol. Dilute with boiled linseed oil 
to the consistency of paint. 

First boil the fabric in suds and 

rinse clean. Or scrub with soap and 
water and a stiff brush, afterwards 
applying water with a brush to remove 
all traces of soap. Apply the water- 
proofing with a painter's brush and 
stretch tightly while drying. 


Use of Systems of Illumination. — 
Artificial light is the third most im- 
portant of the necessities of civiliza- 
tion, taking rank after the items of 
clothing and shelter. A comparative 
statement of the annual value of illu- 
mination in the United States shov/s 
the following results: Acetylene (esti- 
mated), about $11,000,000; illumina- 
ting gas, §60,000,000; kerosene, $133,- 
000,000; electricity, $150,000,000; or 
total of $360,000,000, being about $4 
for every man, woman, and child in 
the United States. Probably 10 per 
cent of the light thus generated is 
wasted through misuse and ignorance, 
which would amount to forty cents 
per capita for the entire population 
of the country, or a total of $36,000,- 
000. Including all items pertaining 
to the lighting industry, it is probable 
that the grar.d total of expenditure 
would reach annually $500,000,000. 

Cost of Lighting Systems. — An av- 
erage period for the burning of arti- 
ficial liglit per twenty-four hours is 
perhaps from 6 to 10 p.m., or about 
four hours. A careful comparison of 
the cost of different systems of light- 
ing shows that each twenty-four can- 



die power of light produced from gas 
at $1 a thousand with a Welsbach 
burner, or from gasoline gas with a 
Welsbach burner, would be f cent 
for four hours, or about $2A6 a year; 
the same candle power produced from 
acetylene would be 1 1% for four hours, 
or $5.85 a year; from kerosene- 
2| cents a day, or $8.76 a year. 
From gas at $1 per thousand without 
a Welsbach burner, 3 cents a day, or 
$10.95 a year ; from incandescent elec- 
tric lamps, 5 cents a day, or $18.25 a 
year. But of course allowance must 
be made for varying prices and other 
local conditions. 

Effect of Artificial Light on Health. 
— It is not commonlj^ known that most 
ordinary lights vitiate the atmosphere 
of living rooms to a greater extent 
than does the breathing of several 
persons. The incandescent electric 
light has a great advantage in this 
respect, as it is inclosed in a vacuum, 
and so consumes no oxygen and gives 
off very little heat. The next least 
injurious form of lighting is the 
Welsbach burner with any illuminat- 
ing gas, which consumes about the 
same amount of air as three persons. 
The ordinary gas jet without the 
Welsbach burner vitiates the air about 
as rapidly as the breathing of five 
persons; the common oil lamp, about 
the same as that of eight persons; 
and the ordinary tallow candle is 
equal to the breath of twelve persons 
in the amount of atmospheric oxygen 
it consumes. 


Gas. — Gas for illuminating pur- 
poses was invented by William Mur- 
doch in 1793 at Redrutch, Cornwall, 
England. It was first used in the 
United States in 1806 by David 
Melville, of Newport, R. I. It was 
introduced in Boston in 1823, and in 
New York the year following. Gas 
is now used for heating and cooking 
as well as for illuminating purposes 
by upward of half the population of 
the United States. As its convenience 
and economy become better known. 

the number of towns and villages to 
introduce gas will no doubt steadily 

Coal gas is made by distilling bi- 
tuminous coal with heat in a retort, 
condensing and separating it from the 
water, vapor of tar, and other solid 
substances, and purifying the result- 
ing product to remove the compounds 
of sulphur and carbonic-acid gas. A 
by-product of this process is coke, 
about one-third of which is required 
for heating the retorts; the rest is 
sold. Other by-products are ammonia 
water and coal tar. 

Illuminating gas consists of nearly 
equal parts of hydrogen (which burns 
with a blue flame, giving heat but no 
light), marsh gas, and other hydro- 
carbons (which burn with a luminous 
flame, but deposit soot if not fully 
consumed), and small quantities of 
carbonic oxide, and nitrogen, which 
are impurities and diminish the illu- 
minating power of the gas. 

Gas, after being purified, is usually 
stored in a cylindrical tank with a 
conical top made of iron plates float- 
ing in a cistern of water. This is so 
arranged as to exert a uniform pres- 
sure on the gas equal to that of a 
column of water 6 inches high. The 
pressure serves to distribute the gas 
in the mains. These are usually made 
of cast iron from 24 inches down to 
3 inches in diameter and laid about 3 
feet under ground. The mains are 
connected with the buildings of con- 
sumers by service pipes, which should 
be below the frost line. Otherwise 
they may be closed by hoarfrost 
caused by the freezing of the watery 
vapor contained in the gas. The gas 
is measured by means of a house 
meter before being distributed. 

Gas Meters. — The gas meter is not 
constructed like a clock, as the dial 
seems to suggest; hence, contrary to 
common belief, a gas meter in good 
order cannot run either too fast or 
too slow. The meter is an engine in 
which the gas is the motive power. 
Unless the gas actuallj^ passes through 
the meter, the latter does not move. 
The dials mechanically and actually 



fecord the number of revolutions in 
cubic feet. The popular notions that 
gas meters are often inaccurate, and 
that an increased pressure or the 
practice of turning on the gas with 
full force when first lighted may make 
the meter spin faster and record 
against the consumer, are erroneous. 
Of course the meter records all gas 
which passes, including that which is 
wasted as well as that which is used. 
Hence gas jets should be regulated so 
as to prevent " blowing " or the pass- 
ing of unconsumed gas. This regula- 
tion neutralizes the effect of any in- 
crease in the pressure in the gas mains. 
Contrary to common belief, most in- 
juries to a meter work against the 
company. Any apertures caused by 
use in the interior of the meter may 
allow the gas to get through without 
being recorded. Not infrequently the 
valves of a meter become fixed so as 
to let gas through without being reg- 
istered. Hence meters are tested at 
intervals by inspectors, who pass a 
certain number of cubic feet through 
them and note whether or not the dials 
make proper record. 

Amount of Gas Consumed. — Learn 
to read the gas meter and thus note 
what amount of gas is being con- 
sumed.'" The ordinary flat-flame burner 
should consume 5 or 6 feet of gas an 
hour. If badly adjusted or of faulty 
construction, it may consume 10 to 
15 cubic feet an hour. A Welsbach 
burner uses only about 3 feet an hour. 
A medium-sized two-oven range with 
all burnei's lighted consumes about 60 
feet an hour. A gas cylinder stove 
about 2t feet an hour. At least once 
a month make a test by reading the 
gas meter in the morning, noting care- 
fully the time each burner is lighted, 
and again reading the gas meter at 
night. If the quantity consumed is 
greatly in excess of the above figures 
it indicates that the burners are poor- 
ly adjusted. In that case notify the 
gas company, whose duty it is to regu- 
late the burners, and to keep them in 
order. Gas is the most economical of 
fuels if used with intelligence and 

To Burn Gas. — There are a right 
way and a wrong way to burn gas. 
In other words the illmnination ob- 
tained from the gas burned depends 

Sf?: TIP ^FT. T/PO 

"A Right Way and a Wrong Way." 

upon perfect combustion at the burner 
tip. And this combustion cannot take 
place unless the tip itself is in good 

The picture on the left shows a 5- 
f oot tip ; the shape of the flame is full 
and regular, giving the fullest illu- 
minating power of the gas consumed. 
On the other hand, the picture on the 
right shows a 3-foot tip burning 5 feet 
of gas per hour and giving poor light ; 
the flame is irregular and the com- 
bustion imperfect, due to the use of 
a burner tip not designed to burn 
over 3 cubic feet. 

It is obvious, then, that it is highly 
important to see that the burners and 
tips are intelligently selected and that 
they are kept in good condition, if 
gas is to be used economically, and 
the full illuminating power of the gas 
consumed obtained. 

To Read the Gas Meter. — The fig- 
ures on the index at the right hand 
denote even hundreds. When the hand 
completes the entire circle it denotes 

•OOOO iooo lOO.EACIi 

" The Figures on the Index." 

ten hundred, and is registered by the 
hand in the center circle pointing to 
1; each figure in the center circle de- 
notes a thousand, this entire circle 


being ten thousand, which is registered 
at 1 on the index of the left-hand 
circle by the hand, each figure there 
denoting ten thousand. 

The quantity of gas which passes 
through the meter is ascertained by 
reading from the index at the time 
tlse amount is required to be known, 
iind deducting therefrom the quantity 
shown by the index at a previous ob- 

If the whole is registered by 
the hands on the three circles 
above, it indicates 49,900 

Amount at previous observa- 
tion, as shown by the dotted 
lines 42,500 

Amount which passed through 
since last taken off 7,400 

I'he register at all times shows the 
tjtiantity that has passed through since 
tiie meter was first set. Deducting 
from this the amount that has been 
paid ror (without any regard to the 
time wnen), the remainder shows what 
is unpaid. 

Or, in different words, the dial on 
the right hand (marked 1,000) indi- 
cates l(/0 feet from one figure to the 
next. The middle dial (marked 10,- 
000) indrcates 1,000 feet from one 
figure to tne next. The dial on the 
left (markea i00,000) indicates 10,000 
feet from one figure to the next. 

If the hann on the right-hand dial 
is between the figures 2 and 4, the 
lesser of the two numbers is read, the 
index reading x^UO feet. If the hand 
on the middle dial is between 1 and 0, 
this dial reads 3,000 feet. If the hand 
on the left-hand dial is between and 
6, the reading of this dial is 50,000 
feet. The complete index as indicated 
on the three dials reads 53,200 feet. 

At $1 per thousand feet, the hand 
on the right-I.ind dial passing from 
the zero point to the figure 1, would 
indicate that ten cents' worth of gas 
has been registered on the meter. This 
hand would have to make one entire 
revolution of this dial and reach the 
cero point again to register $1 worth 

of gas, and the hand on the middle 
dial will have moved just one point, 
or from the zero point to the figure 
1, indicating the 1,000 feet of gas 
which has been registered in hundreds 
on the right-hand dial. 

The small (2-foot) dial which is on 
the face of the consumer's meter is 
not read except for testing purposes, 
and registers only two feet of gas for 
each revolution of the hand. 

Shades and Chimneys. — The use of 
shades and chimneys causes a very 
considerable loss of light on account 
of the conversion of the light from 
flame into heat. The loss from a clear 
glass is 10 per cent or 11 per cent, 
from ground glass about 30 per cent, 
opal glass over 50 per cent, orange- 
colored glass about 35 per cent, pur- 
ple, ruby, or green, over 80 per cent, 
or transparent i^orcelain over 95 per 
cent. Hence care should be used 
that the kind of shade or chimney 
employed does not interpose to cut 
off the direct rays of light upon the 
objects to be illuminated. The Ar~ 
gand chimneys are of two kinds: the 
straight and the bulb varieties. Of 
these the straight variety is to be 

Gas Burners. — Gas burners are of 
three kinds: the common bat-wing 
burner with a slit, the fish-tail with 
two oblique holes facing each other, 
and the Argand, a circular burner 
with a ring of small holes, a glass 
chimney, and an interior supply of air. 
In addition to these are the Welsbach 
burner having a fiber cap, and the 
Bunsen burner, used for heating in 
chemical laboratories. 

Burners are constructed in vary- 
ing sizes to burn 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 
cubic feet of gas per hour, accord- 
ing to the size of the flame when 
turned on full. Under equal condi- 
tions the larger burners are more 
economical than the smaller. That is, 
a burner which consumes 4 feet of gas 
gives twice as much light as two 
burners that consume each 3 feet. 
Hence there is great economy in the 
use of a few large burners over man^ 
small ones. 



Pressure of Gas. — Gas is frequently 
supplied at a much higher pressure 
than is necessary to give the best re- 
sults. Hence if the jet is turned on 
full some of the gas will escape, caus- 
ing the well-known " blowing " noise. 

"'Burners in Varying Sizes:- 

To prevent this, always on lighting 
the jet turn the stopcock backward 
as much as possible without percep- 
tibly d,ecreasing the light. This prac- 
tice alone, if adhered to, will make a 
very important difference in the con- 
sumption of gas. 

Or the gas may be partially turned 
oif at the meter, or a check can be 
introduced into the burner. One of 
the best checks is to screw a burner 

a. "One of the 
Best Checks." 

b, "Different Types 
of Burners." 

intended to consume 5 or 6 feet of gas 
an hour over a 3- or 4-foot burner. 
A low pressure with a burner which 
secures a supply of air just enough 

to prevent smoking gives a maximmn 
amount of light. 

A Welsbach burner having a cap or 
mantle constructed on the well-known 
principle of the miner's safety lamp 
consumes from 3 to 3-J feet of gas an 
hour and gives about 60 candle power, 
as against the 16 candle power of the 
ordinary electric light bulb. In a 
well-regulated Welsbach burner there 
should be no smoke. The blackening 
of the mantle is caused by the im- 
proper adjustment of the air shutter 
and consequent clogging of the wire 
gauze or air holes in the burner which 
produces an improper mixture of gas 
and air. 

To prevent the heat of the Welsbach 
light from discoloring the ceiling, put 
a mica dome over it. This is made to 
fit into or clamp to the top of the 
"lamp chimney. Or suspend a glass 
smoke bell from the ceiling. If Wels- 
bach lights, after being used for a 
month or two, become dim, probably 
the wire gauze of the burner is rusted 
or dirty. It should be removed and 
cleaned before a new mantle is ad- 
j usted. 

To Change a Mantle on a Welsbach 
Lamp. — To change a cap mantle take 
it up gently and put it down on a 
steady base, say, on the mantelpiece, 
handling it by the base or cap. To 
change a loop mantle, disengage the 
supporting rod by setting back the 
set screw. Lift the mantle off care- 
fully by raising the supporting wire. 
Slip a stiff wire or knitting needle 
through the loop in the top of the 
mantle at right angles with it. Hang 
the mantle in a pitcher having the 
ends of the knitting needle rest on 
each side. Be careful not to jar or 
knock the mantle in raising or re- 
placing it. The best of these mantles 
are exceiedingly delicate and will fall 
to pieces at a touch. 

Gas Troubles. — If the gas goes out, 
send for the gas fitter or notify the 
office of the company. But as this 
may occur at night whca help cannot 
be obtained it is well to know how to 
meet the emergency. The cause may 
be a deficiency of water or an excess 


of V, ater, freezing of the meter, freez- 
ing of the service pipes, or the con- 
densation of water in the house pipes. 
Close the cocks of all the burners 
except one. When approaching the 
meter with a candle or open-flame 
lamp, keep the light at a distance to 
prevent an explosion. Turn off the 
gas at the main cock between the 
street surface pipe and the meter. 
Unscrew the plug of the waste-water 
sj'stem to let out any excess of water. 

If the meter is frozen, cover it with 
a flannel cloth and pour boiling water 
over it. Afterwards wrap it in dry 
flannel or protect it by felt, straw, tan 
bark, sawdust, or sand. If the surface 
pipe is frozen outside the house, it 
will be necessary to uncover it and 
apply heat. 

If water has condensed in the pipes 
it will cause the gas to jump up and 
down for some days before it finally 
puts the gas out. Hence, when it 
jumps or flickers, the gas company 
should be notified. 

Or, on emergency, remove a burner 
and blow violently Into the pipe. This 
will sometimes force the water below 
the hollow. If the trouble persists, 
the location of the meter should be 
changed to a lower one, and the pipes 
inclined so that all condensed water 
will trickle back to the meter. 

Gas Arc Lamps. — These lamps are 
intended to give a maximum light with 
a minimum consumption of gas. They 
are composed of four burners of the 
incandescent burner or Welsbach type, 
and give a vronderfully high illumina- 
ting jjov/er, especially adapted for use 
in rooms of large area like stores, 
assembly halls, and churches having 
lofty ceilings. They are made for 
both outside and interior lighting, and 
are especially valuable for commercial 

Gas Leaks. — If a strong odor of 
gas is detected, probably a stopcock 
has been left open and the gas thus 
escapes at full force. Do not go near 
such an open gas jet with a light, as 
gas mingled with air is a highly explo- 
sive mixture. To enter a room filled 
with gas, first open adjacent doors 

and windows to create a draught, 
throw the doors wide open, rush across 
the room, and throw the windows wide 
open, meantime holding the breath. 
The air is purest next the floor; hence 
if in danger of being overcome lie face 
down on the floor, where the air is 
likely to be comparatively pure. Turn 
off the open cock as soon as possible. 
If the odor of gas is slight, it may 
come from a small leak in the pipe or 
about a burner. To find such a leak 
light a match and carry the flame 
along the pipe from the tip of the jet 
as far as the pipe is exposed. When 
the leak is found, the gas will take 

Or dissolve half a bar of hard yel- 
low soap in li pints of water, and 
apply the mixture to the gas pipe 
with a brush. If there is gas escaping 
through holes it will form bubbles 
which can be seen and the leak de- 
tected without danger of explosion. 

To mend a small leak in a gas pipe 
cover the place temporarily with yel- 
low soap; stop it permanently with a 
cement made of white lead and boiled 
linseed oil. 

Acetylene Gas. — The use of acetylene 
gas for lighting purposes marks an 
era in artificial illumination. Acety- 
lene is produced by the contact of 
calcium carbide (which has some^vhat 
the appearance of gunpowder) and 
water. The result is the evolution of 
a gas which burns with a pure white 
light giving the nearest approach to 
sunlight, and has an illuminating pow- 
er more than twelve times as great as 
that of ordinary gas. The introduc- 
tion of acetylene is comparatively re- 
cent, and some prejudice against it 
has been aroused by defects in the 
style of generators first placed upon 
the market. The experimental period 
is now we'1-nigh passed, and the Na- 
tional Board of Fire Underwriters has 
approved a large number of genera- 
tors. If a proper apparatus is select- 
ed, acetylene may be regarded to be 
as safe as any other illuminant. The 
various generators on the markets are 
of two types: one, in whiclv. the gas is 
produced by placing the calcium car- 


bide in a suitable receptacle and al- 
lowing water to gradually fall upon 
it; the other, in which a receptacle is 
filled with a relatively large quantity 
of water and the calcium carbide is al- 
lowed to drop into the water in small 

"Generators of Two Types." 

quantities. The latter type of gen- 
erator is the safer and is consequently 
to be preferred. The brilliancy of 
acetylene flame is so great that a small 
one the size of a copper cent is sufii- 
cient to light an ordinary living room. 
Hence the air is vitiated much less 
than by most other forms of illumina- 
tion. Recent experiments at Cornell 
University show that the light fur- 
nished by acetjlene has, to a consid- 

" The Power of Sunlight in Promoting Growth 

arable degi'ee, the power that sunlight 
has in promoting the growth of vege- 
tation. It is much less trying to the 
eyes than electricity or ordinary gas, 

* Both lilies had the same treatment ex- 
cept that the larger was exposed at night to 
the light of acetylene gas. 

and is likely to become increasingly 

Gasoline Gas. — Perhaps the cheap- 
est method of illumination in localities 
that are not supplied with illuminating 
gas or that are furnished with the gas 
at high prices, is tlie use of gasoline 
gas. A tank of gasoline is located 
outside of the dwelling house and 
buried six or eight feet under grouJid. 
To produce the gas it is only neces- 
sary to pass a current of air across 
the surface of the gasoline. A very 
simple contrivance for this purpose is 
a blower, which may be operated by 
windmill, water power, or by means 
of weights and pulleys installed in the 
cellar. Of course the necessary pip- 
ing must be provided to carry the 
gasoline gas to various parts of the 
dwelling as required, and also an au- 
Jtomatic air mixer. When the gasoline 
tank is outside the premises and un- 
derground, there is no possibility of 
explosion. The entire apparatus is 
very simple, and while the first cost 
has to be taken into account, the cost 
of operation is very low, probably not 
m.ore than one half that of an equal 
number of kerosene lamps. 

Welsbach Burner. — The incandes- 
cent principle of light, as applied in 
the well-known Welsbach burner, con- 
sists in heating a gauze mantle, im- 
pregnated with certain rare earths, to 
a white heat by means of a mixture 
of gas and air. The result is a flame 
five or six times as strong in propor- 
tion to the gas consumed as that pro- 
duced by an ordinary open gas burner. 
The air in the room is also vitiated 
much less, and less heat is given off. 
The Welsbach burner may be used 
with any form of gas, but is especially 
useful in connection with gasoline gas, 
as it admits of a proper mixture of 
air with the gas, and does away with 
the necessity of providing an auto- 
matic air mixer. 


Kerosene lamps. — The use of kero- 
sene in rural districts and small vil- 
lages is practically universal. For- 



merly, the oil of the sperm whale was 
the principal source of illumination in 
those localities, and before the dis- 
covery of petroleum the problem of 
lighting for country districts was a 
very serious one. Petroleum had been 
known for many years before the first 
well was driven in northwestern Penn- 
sylvania, in 1837, but from that time 
to this the use of kerosene and other 
petroleum products has increased rap- 

Tc Choose Oil lamps. — Practically 
all the standard makes of kerosene 
lamps are now safe and reliable, but 
the best results are those made on the 
principle of the German student lamp, 
having a reservoir of oil placed at a 
distance from the wick. If the wick 
protrudes directly from the reservoir 
of oil below it, the light decreases as 
the oil is consumed. 

Petroleum and Its Products. — Pe- 
troleum is a liquid containing bitumen, 
which occurs in a natural state in 
various parts of the world. It is also 
called rock oil and mineral oil. It 
ranges from a light straw color to 
black, depending upon the locality in 
which it is found. It sometimes occurs 
in springs, but is more often obtained 
by drilling wells. 

Petroleum is now conveyed to mar- 
kets and refineries through pipe lines, 
and the various oils derived from it 
are handled in tank cars, in steam- 
ships, and in barrels. Among the 
I^roducts of petroleum are gasoline, 
naphtha, benzine, kerosene, lubricating 
oils, paraffine, vaseline, and other sub- 
stances too numerous to mention. 

These are obtained by distilling 
petroleum in an iron still having a 
condenser of wrought-iron pipes im- 
mersed in water. When heat is ap- 
plied to the still the lightest or most 
volatile constituents are first driven 
off in the form of a gas. The next 
heaviest constituents condense at or- 
dinary temperatures as crude naphtha. 
These are afterwards distilled into 
gasoline and ABC naphthas. They 
have a specific gravity of 65° to 58° B. 

W'hen the stream of oil has a grav- 
ity of 59° B. it is turned from the 

naphtha tank to the kerosene tank 
until it reaches a gravity of about 
38° B., or until the color becomes yel- 
low. The stream is then turned into 
the paraffine tank until it ceases to 
flow at a gravity of about 25° B. 
The residuum contained in the still 
consists of a thick, heavy tar. 

This is, of course, only an outline 
of the process, which is varied in a 
great many ways to produce a large 
number of by-products, as vaseline 
and numerous others used in medicine 
and in the arts. The following is a 
fair average composition of petro- 
leum: Gasoline, li per cent; naphthas, 
14( per cent; kerosene, 55 per cent; 
lubricating oil, 17i per cent; paraffine, 
2 per cent; waste, 10 per cent. 

Or, by another process, the same oil 
could be made to produce: Naphthas, 
20 per cent; kerosene, 66 per cent; 
waste, 14 per cent. 

Kerosene, or common illimiinating 
oil, is the most important product of 
petroleum. Its appearance and prin- 
cipal properties are well known. 
Its density should be from 43° to 
45° B. 

Gasoline is another important petro- 
leum product. It is used largely in 
the carburetors of automobile and 
other gasoline engines, for purposes of 
illumination, and also for heating and 
cooking in stoves especially designed 
for the purpose. 

The uses of crude petroleum and its 
various derivatives in the arts are verj' 
numerous, and its influence upon civ- 
ilization has been hardly less than that 
of the steam engine and of electricity. 
There seems to be no reason to fear 
any shortage of the production of 
petroleum for an indefinite time to 

To Test Illuminating Oil. — At ordi- 
nary temperatures kerosene oil should 
extinguish a match as readily as wa- 
ter. It should not give off any inflam- 
mable gas below 110° F., nor take fire 
below 125° F. Kerosene is usually 
freed from naphtha by spraying. If 
kerosene contains even a very small 
quantity of naphtha it is highly in- 
flammable and explosive; therefore it 



is required by law to be tested before 
it is sold. 

There are two kinds of tests: the 
" flash test," which determines the low- 
est temperature at which oil gives off 
an inflammable vapor, and the " burn- 
ing test," which determines the lowest 
temperature at which the oil takes 
fire. This test is made commercially 
by means of an apparatus having a 
cup to hold the oil, in which the bulb 
of a thermometer is immersed, and 
which is surrounded by a vessel of 
water heated by an alcohol lamp. 
The temperature is slowly increased 
at the rate of about 3 per cent a 
minute. The oil is stirred at inter- 
vals, a flame applied, and the point 
noted at which an inflammable vapor 
is given off, and also at which the oil 
takes fire. 

A rough test for ordinary purposes 
may be made by filling a cup with 
water, inserting an ordinary ther- 
mometer, and bringing the tempera- 
ture to 110° over a slow fire. Pour a 
tablespoonful of oil on the water, and 
apply a lighted match. If the oil 
takes fire it is unsafe and is liable to 
explode. Dealers who sell oil that 
will not stand this test at 110° are 
liable to prosecution by law. They 
should be compelled to take back the 
oil and refund the price paid for it. 

To Purify Kerosene. — The adultera- 
tion of oil by means of a heavier oil 
than standard kerosene causes a dim- 
ness of the flame and charring of the 
wick. The best kerosene oil is clear and 
nearly colorless, like water. To puri- 
fy kerosene oil, add to 100 pounds of 
oil 1 pound of chloride of lime, mixed 
with 12 pounds of water to the con- 
sistency of cream. This must be done 
in a lead-lined vat, as iron or copper 
will be corroded by the process. Thor- 
oughly mix these materials, let stand 
over night, and add 1 or 2 pounds of 
sulphuric acid diluted with 20 to 50 
parts of water and boil with gentle 
heat, stirring constantly until a sam- 
ple tested on a glass plate is perfectly 
clear. Let the mixture settle, when 
the oil will rise to the top and can be 
drawn off, leaving the impurities in 

the form of sediment mixed with the 
acidulated water. 

The following four paragraphs arc 
adapted from Macbeth's '^ Index." 

The Care of Lamps. — Lamps smell 
and give poor light: first, because they 
are not kept clean; or secondly, the 
wick is poor or clogged by having 
been used too long; or thirdly, the 
chimney is wrong. 

Trim, clean, and fill daily, and wipe 
the whole lamp. 

Trim by rubbing the char off the 
wick; this leaves it even. Don't cut 
it; you can't cut it even. 

Keep the holes in the floor of the 
burner clear for draught. 

Don't fill quite full ; the oil expands 
with heat and runs over. 

Boil the burner a few minutes once 
a month iii sal soda or lye water. 

Empty the fount occasionally for 

Don't open the lamp when hot; 
there is explosive vapor in It. 

Light it with the wick turned low 
and turn up gradually, or you will 
get it too high and make smoke. 

Move with care a lamp that has 
been burning long enough to get hot; 
or, better still, don't move it. 

Use the American Fletcher or Hyatt 
wick; and renew it every month or 
two, no matter how fresh it looks; it 
gets clogged and deesn't feed freely. 

Use oil of not less than 110° flash 
for safety; the higher the flash the 
safer the oil. 

Lamp Chimneys. — The object of 
lamp chimneys is to supply the flame 
with exactly the amount of air it 
needs for perfect combustion, no more 
and no less, with an even draught on 
both sides of the flame; they must, of 
course, be clear and transparent. This 
calls for fit in the full meaning of 
the word and for clear glass that will 
stay clear. Thus there is something 
to know about chimneys beyond the 
mere size of the bottom. The ordinary 
notion of fit is a chimney that will 
stay on the lamp and not fall off. 
That is part of the fit. The rest is 
such a shape as to make the right 
draught for that particular lamp. It 


includes the seat, bulb, shaft, propor- 
tion, sizes in all parts, and length. 
Good chimnej'S that fit well give more 
light than common ones. This is due 
to perfection of shape and proportion 
and the right balance of draughts. 

To Select Chimneys. — Use the chim- 
ney recommended by the maker of the 
lamp, or write to a manufacturer of 
latiip chimneys for his catalogue and 
order according to directions. 

If compelled to buy from stock, Iry 
one chimney after another, turning up 
the wick in each case till you get the 
most light it will give. When you 
have the right one, you can turn the 
wick higher and get more light than 
you can from others, in some cases 
pei-haps twice as much. It pays to 
select chimneys with care for two rea- 
sons: one is, the right chimney gives 
more light ; the other is, it lasts longer. 
Chimneys are usually made in three 
grades, of which it always pays to buy 
the best. Comparing bad chimneys 
with good ones, the breakage is ten to 
one, the light is half, and the price is 

The Breaking of Chimneys. — Chim- 
neys break from misuse. A wrong 
number may break or melt; if the 
burner is foul, the glass may break; 
a gust of cold air on a hot chimney 
may break it; a gas chimney may 
break or melt from a hole in the man- 
tle; the hole lets a jet of flame di- 
rectly against the chimney, the explo- 
sion of lighting breaks the mantle, 
and the broken mantle breaks the 

Whenever the chimney is touched by 
ti)c flame it melts or breaks. Its shape 
presents touching, unless through some 
misuse. In central-draught lamps the 
flame is between two draughts — the 
central and the outer one. When the 
burner is foul, this outer draught is 
partly stopped, and the flame gets 
pushed too near or against the chim- 
ney, and breaks or melts it. 

Chimneys cannot be made to resist 
misuse or accidents. 

To Prevent Explosions of Lamps. — 
One common cause of explosions is 
the upsetting of a lamp; hence select 

a lamp which has a broad, solid base 
rather than one that appears top 

Never fill a lamp while it is burn- 
ing. To avoid this, buy lamps that 
have no opening but the one made for 
the Avick. While it is a convenience 
to have a lamp with a special opening 
for filling, it is not safe, as children 
and others will sometimes undertake 
to fill it while burning, which may 
lead to an explosion. Also, when 
lamps have a special opening for fill- 
ing, the wick is likely to be neglected 
until it becomes charred and the burn- 
er gets clogged up and dirty. In 
this condition the lamp is ver}^ apt 
to explode, because the charred por- 
tion of a wick takes fire, the oil that 
runs over burns, and heat is generated 
so low down in the burner that any 
volatile gases thrown off by the oil 
may become ignited. The best oil 
commences to evaporate at about 110° 
and ignites at 1:^5°, and this vapor, 
like that which rises from gasoline, 
benzine, or naphtha, is highly inflam- 
mable and explosive. Hence do not 
let a lamp stand with little oil in it, 
or light one which has stood partly 
empty for a long time. 

The best lamps have an extinguisher 
to put out the flame, but if this is 
lacking, do not blow out the lamp 
without first turning down the wick, 
especially if the lamp has been burned 
for some time and the burner and ad- 
jacent parts are hot. The fact that 
you may have done tliis safely many 
times does not prove that under cer- 
tain conditions a volatile gas from the 
oil may not meet the flame and cause 

Always turn the lamp low when 
carrying it about, as movement from 
place to place in sudden draughts may 
bring the flame in contact with the 
gases that form when oil is burning, 
and that are more or less disturbed 
by the jar of walking. 

Chemistry of Lamps. — The chem- 
istry of burning kerosene is very sim- 
ple. The oil is composed of two 
inflammable substances, a gas (hydro- 
ren), which burns with a blue flame 



and a very intense heat, and a solid 
(carbon), which consists of very mi- 
nute particles in chemical combination 
with the hydrogen. When the lamp is 
lit the flame is raised to a temperature 
that admits of chemical union with 
the oxygen of the air. The hydrogen 
first burns, and produces sufficient heat 
to allow the oxygen to ignite with the 
carbon. When for any reason there 
is an excess of oil as when a lamp is 
turned too high, or when the heat of 
the flame is reduced as when the lamp 
is turned too low, the heat of the 
burning hydrogen is not sufficient to 
ignite all of the solid carbon, some of 
which escapes in the form of a finely 
divided black solid, and we say that 
the lamp smokes. This solid carbon 
is what we call soot, or lampblack. 
Commercial lampblack is thus ob- 

When we breathe the air, a very 
similar process takes place in our 
lungs, the oxygen of the air uniting 
with the waste substances in the blood 
and purifying them by a kind of com- 
bustion. Hence every flame in a room 
robs the air of a certain amount of 
oxjgen that is essential to human 

This process, both in the lamp and 
in the,,lungs, produces a compound of 
oxygen and carbon called carbon di- 
oxygen, or carbonic-acid gas. Human 
beings would immediately suffocate in 
a room quite filled with carbonic-acid 
gas, as it contains no free oxygen in 
the form available for human use. 
When unburned particles of carbon 
are thrown off in the form of smoke 
or soot, the finest of them are sus- 
pended in the air and find their way 
into the lungs. Nothing offers so much 
resistance to chemical and vital forces 
as pure carbon; hence these particles 
are difficult to dislodge and exceed- 
ingly harmful. 

Meantime the lamp in burning gen- 
erates a certain amount of heat. This 
extends from the burner to the adja- 
cent parts of the lamp, and in many 
cases makes the receptacle containing 
the oil quite hot. The temperatm-e of 
the oil is thus raised, and at a certain 

point it gives off a volatile inflamma' 
ble gas similar to gasoline, benzine, or 
naphtha, which, if the lamp should 
leak, may come in contact with the 
open flame and cause an explosion. 

Or, under certain circumstances, it 
may be exploded by a sharp jar. 

If these facts and principles are un- 
derstood and proper cautions are ob- 
served, there need be no danger in 
the use of kerosene. The fact that 
kerosene is used in practically every 
household and that explosions are very 
rare proves this, but it does not prove 
that proper precautions must not be 
observed. Modern lamps are so con- 
structed as to reduce to a minimum A 
the dangers due to ignorance and M 
carelessness, but the fact that explo- 
sions do take place occasionally shows 
that care and intelligence are still 

Cautions to Observe. — Buy the best- 
lamps and the best oil. Trim the 
wicks and fill the lamps daily. Ad- 
just the wick neither too high nor 
too low. 

After turning up the wick to the 
right height, set the screw by a slight 
turn backward, which will prevent the 
wick from crawling up as it expands 
with the increase of heat. Try this, 
and the sense of touch will tell you 
what is necessary. Do not leave lamps 
or carry them when turned too high 
or too low. Adjust the flame midway 
and set back the screw. 

Night Lamps. — Do not use ordinary 
lamps as night lamps by turning them 
low. Instead obtain a small night 
lamp that will admit of burning a 
tiny flame turned on full. Or turn 
up the ordinary lamp until the flame 
is clear and bright and then shade it 
from the eyes. The flame of an ordi- 
nary lamp turned low throws off a 
large amount of unconsumed carbon 
and volatile gases, which impregnate 
the atmosphere and are taken into the 
lungs with many evil consequences, 
that are usually attributed to other 

Student Lamps. — These are pro- 
vided with an oil tank at some little 
distance from the burner and at a 


lower level. Great care must be ob- 
served to keep a student lamp exactly 
level. If the oil tank Is raised above 
the level of the burner, the latter will 
be overflowed v/ith dangerous results. 
When filling the lamp, care must be 
taken not to leave air bubbles in the 
oil, otherwise the pipe conveying the 
oil to the burner will be clogged and 
the light will be made dim. 

Lamps on Fire. — When a lamp over- 
flows or for any reason gets on fire, 
seize it and throw it out of the win- 
dow. A moment's delay may result in 
an explosion that will scatter burning 
kerosene all about and lead to a con- 
flagration. Or seize as quickly as pos- 
sible a heavy woolen rug, table cover, 
or couch cover, and wrap it tightly 
around the lamp. This prevents the 
oxygen ot the air from reaching the 
flame, and it is quickly smothered. If 
a person's clothing takes fire from 
kerosene flames, do not throw water 
upon him or allow him to run about. 
Wrap him quickly in a large rug or 
other woolen cloth, which will extin- 
guish the flames. If, by the explosion 
of a lamp or otherwise, burning oil is 
scattered about a room, do not throw 
water upon it, as it will only spread 
it. Throw on milk or any dry, heavy 
substance, as flour, corn meal, sand, 
or earth. 

Kerosene for lighting Fires. — 
Kerosene should not be used for light- 
ing fires, but it is so convenient and 
efficient that persons will always be 
found who prefer to take their chances 
of an explosion. The only caution 
that must be observed is not to pour 
oil into the stove from a can, else it 
will become ignited and the flame fol- 
lowing the stream will find its way 
into the can and explode the oil. 
Even if the fire is supposed to be out, 
there may be coals or sparks in the 
ashes sufficient to ignite the fine 
stream of kerosene. If oil is to be 
used it should be poured into an old 
cup, saucer, or other open vessel and 
dashed at once on the kindling wood. 
The worst possible result to follow if 
oil is thus ignited will be a puff of 
flame, that will do no harm if it does 

not catch light garments or other in- 
flammable substances. 

Some persons soak corncobs in kero- 
sene and use these as fire lighters. 
When this is done the vessel in which 
they are kept should be provided with 
a tight cover and kept in a cool place. 

Foot Warmer. — When driving or 
sleighriding in winter, fill a sirup can 
having a screw top with hot water. 
This will keep warm for a long time. 
It may be used in place of a hot- 
water bottle. 

Or make a square box of pine, 6 or 
8 inches deep and large enough to 
just fit about the base of an ordinary 
lantern. Leave this open at the top, 
and have the bottom broad enough so 
that the box will not readily tip over. 
Bore a few holes near the bottom of 
the box to admit the air, and when 
driving in winter set a lantern in the 
box and let it stand on the carriage 
or sleigh bottom under the robes at 
the driver's feet. If these suggestions 
are observed the lantern will burn 
M'ith a clear, steady flame, without 
smoking, will not tip over or soil robe,^ 
or garments, and will keep the drivet 
comfortable in freezing weather. 

To Improve Kerosene Oil. — Put a 
teaspoonful of common salt in an or- 
dinary hand lamp, and a tablespoon- 
ful in a large lamp with a B burner. 
This gives a more brilliant light, and 
tends to prevent smoking, and hence 
to keep the wicks and chimneys clean. 

Chinese Lanterns. — When using 
these lanterns for holiday occasions, 
put a few handfuls of sand in the 
bottom of the paper lantern about the 
candle. This keeps them from sway- 
ing, and also tends to prevent them 
from taking fire. 

Vest-pocket Light. — Put a piece of 
phosphorus in a 1- or 2-ounce glass 
vial and fill with olive oil. Cork 
tightly. When the oil is heated by 
the warmth of the body or otherwise, 
the phosphorus will emit light enough 
to read the time on the dial of a 
watch in the darkest night. Should 
the vial become broken do not touch 
the phosphorus with the fingers, as it 
will eat the flesh and produce an ulcer. 



Take it up between two sticks or 
otlierwise and drop it into water. To 
give good results it must be kept from 
the air. 

Bonfires. — To make brilliant bon- 
fires and signal fires, mix 8 pounds of 
saltpeter, 4 pounds of flower of sul- 
phur, 1 pound of antimony, and J 
pound of camphor. Powder these in- 
gredients, mix and tamp them into 
an iron socket. When ignited, they 
will burn for some time with gi-eat 


Nature of Ice. — Ice is one of a 
number of substances that occupy a 
greater volume in the solid than in 
the liquid state. At the moment of 
freezing it expands with great force 
about one-eleventh in bulk, as is testi- 
fied by the bursting of frozen water 

An interesting experiment consists 
in passing a wire through a solid 
block of ice without cutting it in two. 
The ice should be supported at both 
ends, leaving the middle free, and the 
wire over it with weights attached to 
either end. The pressure on the wire 
raises the temperature of the ice to 
the n:^.elting point and allows the wire 
to sink; but the wire absorbs some of 
the heat, and causes the water to 
freeze upon its upper surface; hence 
the seam is closed, and after the pas- 
sage of the wire the block of ice re- 
mains intact. Its course, however, can 
be traced by the air bubbles which it 
leaves behind. 

Under ordinary conditions water 
freezes at 33° F., and does not melt 
until the temperature is raised above 
that point; but under pressure, as 
above noted, ice will be converted into 
water at a lower temperature, having 
been melted under high pressure at 
18° C. If water is perfectly still it 
may be lowered to 23° F. before 
freezing, but the slightest jar will 
cause it to freeze when the tempera- 
ture rises to 33° F. 

TJses of Ice. — In addition to its 
natural service in transforming lakes 

and rivers during winter in northern 
climates into solid roadways, ice is in 
great demand as an antiseptic or 
preserving agent. Formerly it was 
supposed that meats and carcasses of 
animals intended for food must be 
frozen to be preserved. The discoverj-- 
of the practicability of preserving 
meats and vegetables by means of ice, 
but without freezing them, is com- 
paratively recent. Now, in addition 
to the household refrigerator, refrig- 
erating cars convey beef, fruit, and 
vegetables across continents, and 
refrigerating steamships take tropical 
fruits and other products from 
southern to northern climes and re- 
turn with dairy products, northern 
fruits, and other perishable articles 
tliat could not otherwise be obtained 
in tropical countries. In niany cities 
cold-storage houses also preserve, with 
a very slight percentage of loss, dairy 
products, meats, fruits, and vegeta- 
bles for periods varying from months 
to years. Cold-storage vaults protect 
furs and valuable garments from the 
ravages of moths and other insects. 
Ice is also now regarded as absolutely 
necessary in the summer months to 
preserve the bodies of the dead until 
the time of burial. 

To Harvest Commercial Ice. — Ice _J| 
has been an important article of com- 'U 
merce since the time of Nero, and in 
cold countries family ice houses are 
very common. Sometimes these stor- 
age places are merely pits or caves 
under ground, or "partly under 
ground, but an ice house wholly above 
ground is to be preferred. 

Ice from salt or brackish water is | 
nearly pure, as freezing expels the 
mineral ingredients, but it is suffi- 
ciently contaminated on the surface 
to be unfit for many purposes. Hence 
the best ice crop is usually gathered 
from fresh-water ponds, or lakes, or 
in rivers above tide water. A great 
deal of ice is also manufactured arti- 
ficially. Commercial ice houses are 
usually built of wood, having hollow 
walls that may be double, triple, or 
quadruple, the spaces between beinp. 
filled with sawdust, spent tan baric, 



or some other poor conductor of 

In harvesting ice the usual jDractice 
is to scrape the snow from the surface 
of the ice by means of a scraper 
drawn by horses, to plane off the soft 
porous top of the ice if necessary by 
means of a horse planer, and to mark 
the ice into blocks by running a series 
of grooves about 5 feet apart and 3 
inches deep so as to make blocks 5 
feet square. Ice is usually cut when 
it is about 3 feet thick. After the ice 
has been marked one row of block: is 
usually cut through by means of a 
handsaw, and pushed under out of 
the way or pulled up on the ice. The 
succeeding blocks are pried off with 
a crowbar, towed to the landing place, 
and loaded into wagons or run up an 
inclined plane to the storehouse and 
I?acked away. The blocks are stood 
on end in a solid mass. A space 
is left between the ice and the walls 
of the ice house in which are gutters 
and drainways to receive and carry 
off the drainage from the melted ice. 

Ice — Domestic Harvest. — To gather 
ice for home use, cut it as soon as it 
is thick enough, and before the sur- 
face has been covered with snow or 
has had a chance to freeze and thaw 
a number of times. If a light snow 

"To Gather Ice for Home Use." 

falls before the ice is gathered it is 
advisable to clear off a sufficient space 
before a thaw sets in. A horse plow 
for marking the ice is desirable, and 

one can usually be borrowed if neces- 
sary, but a crosscut saw may be used. 
After one row of blocks has been 
sawed out it is only necessary to saw 
across the ends of the blocks. They 
may be separated lengthwise by mark- 
ing with an ax and splitting off with 
an ice pick or chisel. It is not de- 
sirable to cut cakes larger than 3 by 
3 feet if the work is to be done by 
hand. Provide a runway or ice ladder 
about 26 inches wide and 13 feet long 
to reach from the sled into the water. 
Drive two upright planks or timbers 
into the ice, and attach a crossbar at 
the top of the sled on which to sup- 
port one end of the runway, the other 
reaching down in the water. Two 
men with ice hooks can pull a cake 
3 feet long, 3 feet wide, and 18 inches 
or more in depth up this runway and 
load it upon the sled without i idue 

To Preserve Ice. — The two requisites 
to preserve ice are the exclusion of 
heat and outer air, and the drainage 
of the water produced by melting 
without at the same time allowing the 
cold air surrounding the ice to escape. 
A piece of ice of 50 pounds weight 
exposed at a temperature of 80°, but 
placed on cross slats so as to be per- 
fectly drained, will not melt under 
twenty-four hours. But if exposed at 
the same temperature in a tight vessel 
that will retain the water produced by 
melting, it will dissolve in six or seven 
hours. Hence ice houses, refrigerators, 
or ice boxes should have double sides, 
bottom and top, with a space between 
the casings filled with nonconducting 
materials to keep out the external 
heat, all doors and other apertures 
should be sealed as nearly air-tight as 
possible, and the contents should be 
arranged to provide perfect drainage. 
All water must be removed at once, 
and the drainage pipe must be fitted 
Avith a trap so that cold air cannot 
escape nor outer air be admitted. If 
these principles are observed, any in- 
genious person can build an ice house 
or refrigerator, or design one to be 
built by a local carpenter that will 
answer all practical purposes. 



To Make an Ice House. — The size 
of an ice house must, of course, be 
determined by the number of persons 
that are to make use of it. The in- 
terior should be so proportioned as 
to admit of packing cakes of any pre- 
ferred size, as 3 by 3 feet, in a solid 
mass, but with an air space between 
the outside of the cakes and the wall 
of the ice house to admit of drainage. 
Hence an ice house 14 by 20 feet in- 
side dimensions will admit of a layer 
of twenty-four cakes with a space of 
1 foot clear all around. 

Such an ice house Carried up eight 
or ten laj^ers would last two or three 
ordinary families for a j^ear. It costs 
but little more to build a good-sized 
ice house, and often two or three 
neiglibors can club together to advan- 
tage, both to reduce the cost of build- 
ing the house, and also the labor of 
filling it. 

Or, if more ice is harvested than 
one family requires, it can frequently 
be sold to neighbors at a profit suffi- 
cient to admit of paying for the first 
cost and for the labor of harvesting 
the ice each year. 

To Build Ice Houses, make a frame 
of two or three joists, supported on 
posts raised a foot or more from the 
ground, and have a shed roof sloping 
to th^ north. Board up the outside 
and make another frame inside 10 or 
12 inches from the outer boarding, 
and fill in the space between with 
shavings, sawdust, or spent tan bark 
packed as solidly as possible. Lay a 
solid plank floor and give it a pitch 
toward one corner with an outlet for 
draiiiage. Build double doors, reach- 
ing from the outer to the inner wall 
and packed solidly with nonconduct- 
ing material. Or have a separate door 
in each wall, but the former is the 
better method. 

To Fill an Ice House. — First cover 
the floor with sawdust, tan bark, or 
other suitable material at least 3 feet 
in thickness. Lay on this successive 
layers of ice in a solid mass, but leave 
a space of 13 inches all around. Cover 
the ice and fill the pitch of the build- 
ing to a thickness of several feet with 

nonconducting material, but leave an 
air space between the top of this ma- 
terial and the roof. As the ice is 

Homemade Tackle. 

removed from day to day for use, 
carefully replace the covering. 

To Protect an Ice House. — Build a 
cheap trellis of slats or rough poles 
8 or 10 inches from the walls all 
around, and also extending over the 
roof, and train the common woodbine 
or English ivj^ or even clematis, morn- 
ing glory, or other similar trailing vine 
to run over it. This can readily be 
done in most localities and forms a 
cheap and eifective shade, that is a 
perfect defense against the direct rays 
of the sun. The trellis will prevent 
the plants from causing the boards of 
the ice house to decay, and by leaving 
a space between for circulation of air, 
will greatly assist in lowering the tem- 
perature. A mantle of vines also cov- 
ers the bare ugliness of the cheap 
l^oarding of an ice house and tends to 
make it an object of i)eauty. 

Or a skeleton ice house may be built 
by driving posts in the ground to 
make a frame and boarding them up 
to any desired height. Sawdust may 
be laid directly on the ground, but to 
prevent washouts and provide drain- 
age it is better to throw in a few large 
stones, level them roughly, and lay a 
loose board floor a foot or more from 


the ground. Cover this with a layer 
of coarse hay or straw to prevent the 
sawdust from falling through, and on 
this put a foot or more of sawdust. 
Lay the ice in the middle in a solid 
mass, but leave a space of 2 feet all 
around between the ice and the boards 
and pack this space and cover the ice 
with nonconducting material, and lay 
a roof of loose boards over all, with 
an air space between. Such an ice 
house can be thrown up and boarded 
in a day while the ice is being drawn, 
and the planks can be taken down and 
stored away, if desired, as rapidly as 
the ice is removed in summer. 

Or ice may be stored in a pen made 
of rails built up corncob fashion as 
the ice is put in. A floor of rails 
should be laid a foot or so from the 
ground and covered with straw, on 
which sawdust should be packed a 
foot or more deep. Lay the ice in a 
solid mass, pack with sawdust all 
around, cover the top with 3 feet of 
sawdust, and thatch with coarse straw. 
Over this lay a shed roof of boards 
tacked down with a few nails. 

If morning glories or other quick- 
growing vines can be trained to run 
over the rails, it will greatly assist in 
preserving the ice in summer. 

Or a load of sawdust may be thrown 
on the ground, a pile of ice built up 
on this, and a rough board frame 
merely tacked together at the corners 
about 2 feet distant all around from 
the pile. This space must, of course, 
be filled with sawdust, the top covered 
over to an equal depth, and rough 
boards or canvas thrown over all. 

To Make an Ice Chest. — A practical 
ice chest may be made by building 
a tight box of matched boards with 
double sides 6 inches apart, having an 
inner chamber 3 feet long, 2 feet deep, 
and 2 feet wide. This will hold a 
block of 100 pounds or more of ice, 
and leave room all around for milk, 
butter, fresh meat, and other articles. 
This ice box must be furnished with 
a double lid packed with charcoal or 
sawdust and fitting tightly so as to 
exclude the outer air. It will preserve 
ice practically as well as an expensive 

refrigerator. The inner compartment 
must be furnished with a small pipe 
to carry off the water from the melt- 
ing ice. 

Or a cheap ice box may be made by 
simply setting one dry-goods box in- 
side of another. There must be a 
space of 6 inches all around between 
the two. Pack this space closely with 
powdered charcoal or sawdust, and 
make a double lid, packed in the same 
manner, to fit the larger box. Provide 
a drainage pipe to remove the melt- 
ing ice. 

Or place a small cask or half bar- 
rel inside of a large cask and fill the 
space all around with charcoal. A 
tube from the bottom of the lower 
cask will carry off the melted ice. 
Furnish the inner cask with a remov- 
able lid and the outer cask with 
double cover packed with charcoal. 
Also provide a charcoal bag a foot 
thick or more to lay over the top of 
the inner cask. By filling the inner 
cask two thirds full of powdered ice, 
or with snow in winter, ices may be 
frozen in it, or by putting in a cake 
of ice it may be used as an ordinary 

Ice Bags. — To preserve small quan- 
tities of ice, make two bags of heavy 
woolen goods, one of which should be 
2 or 3 inches wider on all sides than 
the other. Place the smaller bag in- 
side of the larger and stuff the space 
between with canvas. A block of ice 
placed in a bag of this description 
will be preserved as long as in an or- 
dinary ice box. A small bit of rubber 
tubing should be inserted at one cor- 
ner to provide drainage. 

A Cooling Box. — In tropical regioii?- 
where ice is scarce, or unobtainablcs 
it is customary to construct a water- 
tight box, say 28 inches square and 
10 inches deep, which should be filled 
with water. A shelf 30 by 30 inches 
is suspended from this by four posts, 
2 by 2 inches and 36 inches long. Com- 
mon burlap sacks are tacked closely 
about the sides. Pieces of woolen 
stuff, such as old woolen underwear, 
are placed around the edge of the box, 
with one end in the water and the 



other hanging outside and resting on 
the burlap. The whole is suspended 
in a shady place where the air can 
circulate freely around and through 
it, and where the sun will not shine 
on it. The air passing through the 
burlap causes evaporation of the wa- 
ter, and the burlap is kept dripping 
wet by the woolen stufP drawing water 
from the box as evaporation takes 
place. This is the principle by which 
the box is cooled. When the box is 
first filled the burlap should be thor- 
oughly wet. Afterwards, if filled reg- 
ularly, it will keep saturated. 

The box is filled with water. On 
one side the burlap is allowed to hang 
free over the suspended shelf. This 
curtain is the door of the cooler. But- 
ter placed on the shelf will keep per- 
fectly solid. Even where ice is plenti- 
ful this is a convenient way to cool 
hot dishes that you do not wish to put 
in the refrigerator. 

Care of the Refrigerator. — Put a 
saucer of unslacked lime in the re- 
frigerator to keep it sweet. Place in 
the ice chest two or three lumps of 
chiircoal as large as an egg, changing 
them two or three times a month. 
They will absorb all odors of cooked 
food and the like. Keep everything 
in the refrigerator covered. Have a 
number of glass fruit jars with screw, 
tops m which to place liquids, and a 
glass jar for drinking water. This 
will save cracking off ice. 

Few housekeepers take the necessary 
pains to keep the ice box scrupulously 
clean. It should be wiped out daily, 
and when the ice is exhausted, be- 
fore a new piece is put in, a strong 

solution of caustic potash or sal 
soda should be poured through the 
waste pipes to cleanse and disinfect 

To Break Ice. — Use an awl or a 
darning needle and tap it gently with 
a hammer. Make a row of holes across 
the ice, which will crack straight 
through beneath. 

To Preserve Ice. — To preserve ice 
it must be isolated and surrounded 
with nonconducting material. There 
must be no access of the outer air to 
the ice except on top. Cold air is 
heavier than warm, hence the air which 
has been cooled by the melting of the 
ice settles upon its surface and cannot 
be displaced by the warmer air from 
above unless the cold air is allowed 
to escape or is displaied by a current, 
which must be avoided. The larger 
and colder a block of ice is, and the 
less it is exposed to warmth before 
being placed in the refrigerator, the 
longer it will keep. 

Ice varies in temperature all the 
way from below zero to 30° F. before 
melting. Hence the fact that a piece 
of ice is not all melted by exposure to 
warm air is no criterion that it is not 
losing heat and rapidly approaching 
the melting point. If a piece of ice 
must be exposed to warm air for a 
time before being placed in the re- 
frigerator it should be wrapped up in 
a heavy cloth or newspapers. If these 
are left on after the ice has been put 
in the refrigerator, so much the bet- 
ter. The larger the block of ice, the 
slower it melts. Hence it is economy 
to purchase ice in as large quantities 
as the refrigerator will hold. 




Not many years ago disease was 
most often deemed the act of Provi- 
dence as a chastening or visitation for 
moral evil. Many diseases are now 
known to be merely human ignorance 
and uncleanliness out on public ex- 
hibition. The sins for which human- 
ity suffers in the common communica- 
ble (and many other) diseases are 
violations of the laws of sanitation 
and hygiene, or simply the one great 
law of absolute sanitary cleanliness. 
The duty of supervising conditions 
affecting the public health is taken 
over by the. community itself in the 
larger centers of population, but in 
many small towns and in the open 
country the chief responsibility for 
siinitary conditions in and about the 
home devolves upon each individual 
householder. Every symptom of pre- 
ventable disease, especially diseases 
of the respiratory system (bronchitis, 
pneumonia) ; all fevers (typhoid 
fever, malaria, etc. ) ; and all other 
communicable diseases (diphtheria, 
scarlet fever and the like) should 
suggest the question: "Is the cause 
of this illness any unsanitary condi- 
tion within my control which can 
and should be remedied?" 

Not infrequently landlords and 
parents shirk responsibility for illness 
due to unsanitary conditions upon 
the ground that the cost of the proper 
remedy would be prohibitive. Such 
conditions as dampness in cellars, or 
the pollution of air, soil or water 
supply by seepage from barnyard 
manure piles, privy vaults and open 

drains, are often thought to be de- 
termined for all future time by the 
location of dwellings and outbuildings 
and are believed to be incurable with- 
out greater «^xpense than the owner 
can afford. Men are too apt to say 
under such circumstances, "What 
can't be cured must be endured," 
and to think that the members of 
their families must take their chance 
of sickness along with the other risks 
of life. Such a mode of reasoning 
is most reprehensible. As sanitary 
knowledge increases it will un- 
doubtedly be corrected by law. 

The most important asset not only 
of the individual and family but 
also of the community is not mere 
property, but rather the physical vigor 
of its members. The cost of bring- 
ing an average child to maturity has 
been estimated at from two to five 
thousand dollars. The value to the 
family of each of its adult members 
may be taken as their normal earning 
capacity for the average period of 
expectation of life. On this basis 
courts usually grant damages on 
death claims at the rate of from 
five thousand dollars upward. And 
the average of such awards appears 
to be steadily on the increase. Hence 
on the economic side alone, it is false 
economy to risk the loss of one or 
more lives worth five thousand dollars 
each and upwards, in order to avoid 
making improvements costing a small 
fraction of that sum. 

Moreover, with the progress of 
sanitary science, additional stress is 




being laid upon the moral aspect of 
sanitation. Persons who should ex- 
pose in open vessels solutions of 
strychnine, arsenic or other virulent 
poisons would be held guilty of crim- 
inal negligence if accidental death by 
poisoning should result. Yet some 
of the gases, liquids and micro- 
organisms with which the air, soil and 
water supply in and about dwellings 
may become contaminated, are now 
known to be as fatal under some 
common circumstances as the most 
deadly poisons. The only possible 
excuse for permitting the existence of 
these nuisances is ignorance. And 
with the present rapid spread of 
scientific information that excuse will 
not much longer avail. Another 
generation will doubtless see laws 
passed holding property owners and 
heads of families responsible for 
illness resulting from preventable" 
causes. Consider not alone the 
economic loss and moral wrong in- 
volved. Think of the pain and suflFer- 
ing of illness, the labor and anxiety 
of nursing, the expense of medicines 
and medical attendance and the cost 
of funerals ! Above all must we re- 
gard the desolation and heart-break 
caused bj^ the loss of those near and 
dear to us ! When all these are cast 
into the scale, the expense of proper 
sanitation, however great, is clearly 
seen to be necessary and even negli- 

At first thought it might seem that 
information regarding the proper 
location and construction of the home 
and its appurtenances would be of 
value only to those who are about 
to build a new dwelling. And of 
course the founding of a new home 
aff^ords the best opportimity to put 
the principles of hygiene and sanita- 
tion into eff"ect. Yet perhaps a 
majority of the entire population 
occupy rented dwellings and are free 
to remove from them at will. In all 
such cases a knowledge of the de- 
mands of proper sanitation is directly 
applicable to the question whether or 
not to renew the leasehold of one's 
present dwelling. In the event of 

removal it applies equally to the se- 
lection of another home. Moreover, 
the conditions surrounding buildings 
improperly located may often be 
remedied by permanent improvements. 
Or such buildings may be removed 
bodily to new foundations at an 
expense trifling in comparison to the 
original cost of the structures. If, 
however, necessary improvements to 
insure sanitation cannot be made, it 
is far better to sell property even 
at a sacrifice and remove from it, 
before sickness or death have brought 
about their inevitable loss. A knowl- 
edge of the laws of sanitation is 
also of vital importance in the selec- 
tion of temporary homes, such as 
summer hotels, boarding places and 
summer camps. Indeed, so funda- 
mental is this subject to human health 
and happiness that it should be re- 
garded as an essential part of the 
fund of knowledge which is or should 
be common to every normal person. 

The conditions essential to proper 
sanitation are simply an abundance 
of sunshine, pure air and pure water, 
with necessary shade in summer, or, 
negatively, freedom from pollution of 
the air, soil or water supply with 
noxious micro-organisms (germs) or 
other poisons. Within the dwelling, 
artificial heat and light must be pro- 
vided by means which give off into 
the air a minimum of the noxious 
products of combustion. And these 
must be promptly removed by a 
proper system of ventilation. To ac- 
complish these results attention must 
be given to both the location and 
construction of the home and its 
necessary outbuildings, and to the in- 
stallation of suitable systems of heat- 
ing, lighting and ventilation, water 
supply, drainage and sewage dis- 
posal. These will be the topics under 
consideration in the present chapter. 


If a house stands on low damp 
ground, or if there is swampy or 
wet land in the immediate vicinity, 
sickness will follow as sure as night 



follows day. It is far better not to 
build at all than to occupy such a 
location unless the site and all ad- 
jacent pools or swamp are first im- 
proved by efficient drainage. Mois- 
ture in and about the foundations of 
a home adds to the humidity of the 
atmosphere. This makes the occu- 
pants more susceptible to both heat 
and cold. Swamps or pools of stand- 
ing water afford breeding grounds 
for mosquitoes. Thus in many locali- 
ties they condemn in advance mem- 
bers of the family and their guests 
to attacks of debilitating malaria. 
If, however, a house stands in a damp 
spot which cannot be drained, it 
should at least be lifted well above 
the surface of the soil on damp- 
proof posts or other foundations. 
Or the cellar, if there is one, should 
be made thoroughly damp-proof. 
These steps with proper artificial heat 
will aid in protecting the family from 
the ill effects of excessive humidity. 

Relative Position of House and 
Other Things. — The danger from 
lack of proper drainage is greatly 
increased if the moisture in the soil 
is polluted by seepage from any sort 
of nuisance. No such conditions 
should be tolerated. Even the choice 
of a proper site for the house where 
the soil is porous and there is good 
natural drainage will not protect the 
health of the family if the stable or 
other outbuildings are so located that 
there is a gradual seepage of polluted 
water through the ground into and 
around the foundations of the house. 
Nor should there be an open sink 
drain contaminating the earth ad- 
jacent to the foundations. Not in- 
frequently buildings of prosperous 
farmers are so placed that the land 
slopes from the barn, stable or pig- 
pen toward the dwelling. In addi- 
tion to constant seepage through the 
soil, a flood of filthy surface water 
during heavy rains flows toward and 
around the house and cellar. The 
inevitable result is illness which is 
most often attributed to other causes. 
It must also be borne in mind that 
the underground strata of the soil do 

not always coincide with the surface 
condition. Thus there may be a 
gentle elevation between the farm 
buildings and the house which would 
appear to protect the latter from soil 
pollution. Yet below the ground there 
may be a shelf of hardpan covered 
with a layer of loose sand and gravel 
dipping direct from under the barn 
or stable toward the foundations of 
the house. All such conditions must 
be carefully observed and studied. 
The object is to so locate the build- 
ings that the drainage from the out- 
buildings occupied by animals cannot 
carry pollution toward the house. 

Air Drainage. — Next only in im- 
portance to a well drained soil is the 
question of air drainage. C. G. Hill 
says: "A hollow, however porous and 
well drained the soil, will prove a 
cold and frosty spot in winter, a hot 
and sultry one in summer. A site too 
closely shut in by timber will lose 
what it may gain in shade by the 
absence of free circulation of air. 
Every breeze will be cut off dui'ing 
the sultry days of summer and in 
winter the absence of sunlight will 
be a drawback. All things considered 
a gentle hillside slope offers the 
greatest advantages. If the highest 
land is to the north or west little 
more is to be desired. . . . The 
prevailing breezes must also be con- 
sidered and the outbuildings or any 
fixtures or places which may become 
sources of offensive odors should be 
located well to the leeward of the 

Shade and Shelter. — While tlic 
house should stand in direct sun- 
shine and be exposed to thorough 
ventilation from prevailing winds, the 
shelter of a strip of timber or a 
windbreak to the north and west is 
very desirable, especially in cold 
climates. This helps to keep the 
house comfortably warm in cold 
weather with economy of fuel. It 
also adds to the comfort of live 
stock and of those who are obliged 
to care for them. Every owner of 
a home should take pride in im- 
proving the lawn and grounds and 



planting suitable shade trees. Yet 
the choice of a site for a new home, 
other things being equal, may well 
be determined by the presence of 
one or more fine old trees already 
capable of yielding the shade which 
is so grateful and necessary in 

Arrangement of Eooms. — When 
possible, the living rooms and work 
rooms of the house should be on the 
east side so as to receive a good 
share of sunshine. This side is also 
advantageous for sleeping rooms so 
that the morning sun may stream into 
these rooms and upon the beds before 
they are made up. Nor should they 
be made up too early. Moreover, this 
side of the house does not receive 
the intense rays of the afternoon 
sun in summer, nor is it exposed to 
the prevailing winter winds. Artificial 
heat also tends from the west toward" 
the east side of a building. The 
latter has therefore the advantage of 
being cooler in summer and more 
sheltered and warmer in winter. 
Vestibules, halls, stairs and the least 
used rooms may sometimes be so 
placed as to afi'ord protection to 
other apartments. All these con- 
siderations are of course equally as 
important in choosing a house for 
rental as in building a home for one's 
own occupancy. 

Cellar or Basement. — The vital im- 
portance of a clean dry cellar is due 
to the danger of the contamination 
of the air from soil pollution. The 
artificial heat in a house, especially 
in winter, rises and creates suction 
from the soil beneath and around the 
cellar. Thus the building as a whole 
acts as a flue. It draws up and 
transports to the rooms above what- 
ever noxious air or gases the earth 
may contain. Moisture in the atmos- 
phere of the cellar is thus quickly 
communicated to all parts of the 
house. These facts have been abun- 
dantly proved by experiment. 

A new cellar should be so drained 
as to keep the water level below the 
cellar floor. Or if this pre;caUtion 
has been neglected, such a drain may 

be put in after the house has been 
built, provided a proper outlet can be 

Oanfifii'Oe^Cour«Q< \ wa 

Method of draining cellar walls. Cour- 
tenu Stale Board of Health of Maine. 

The cellar wall laid up dry and 
then chinked and "pointed" on the 
inside should be avoided, especially 
in damp localities. The open crevices 
admit the water freely from the out- 
side. The plaster or cement on the 
inside then becomes wet and even- 
tually falls off". Cellar walls should 
preferably be built of concrete or 
stone laid solidly in cement-mortar 
and brought to a good smooth face 
both inside and outside, particularly 
the latter. This will exclude all 
vermin as well as moisture. Such a 
wall, especially if backed with gravel, 
coarse sand or fine rubble, as shown 
in the illustration, turns the water 
and allows it to drain off' rapidly 
through the tile surrounding the foun- 

To drain a cellar after a house 
has been built, dig a trench outside 
the foundation wall to a depth at 
least 13 inches below the cellar bottom 
and lay 2-inch unglazed tile all around 
the foundation wall outside of and 
close to it. Give the tile a slope of 
10 or 13 inches on an even grade 
from the corner of tlie house diagon- 
ally opposite, around both sides and 
down to the outlet. If the drain must 
then enter a sewer, insert a trap well 



outside the cellar wall with a deep 
water seal which will not go dry at 
any season. If the ground is very 
damp, point up the outer side of the 
cellar wall with good hydraulic ce- 
ment and fill the trench with loose 
stone and gravel. If the outlet pipe 
can be brought out of the ground at 
a point such that thei'e is sufficient 
fall, this will provide perfect drain- 
age. Take care not to disturb the 
foundations. If the earth is not very 
firm, dig the trench in sections and 
fill it as fast as the drainage pipe can 
be laid. 

If the ground under the cellar bot- 
tom is exceptionally wet, underlay it 
with tile drains not more than 12 
feet apart and converging toward the 
point of the outlet. 

Method of draining cellar bottom. Cour- 
tesy State Board of Health of Maine. 

Damp-proof Courses. — Some kinds 
of building materials used for foun- 
dation and the underpinning of 
houses ai-e porous. These readily 
absorb water from the soil and trans- 
mit dampness to the structure and 
the rooms above. Brick is the worst 
offender, but concrete and some kinds 
of building stone are almost equally 
as bad. Hence insert a damp-proof 
course laid completely across the 
foundation wall and extending all 
around the building. This may con- 
sist of a half-inch layer of asphalt 
or of slate embedded in cement. It 
must necessarily be above grade so 
that the ground may not come in con- 
tact with the work above it. 

In many old brick houses, or 

wooden houses with brick underpin- 
nings, the ground comes in contact 
with the brickwork. This is a stand- 
ing and very cordial invitation to 
serious forms of illness to visit the 
occujiants. Hence remove, section- 
ally, a course of brick all the way 
around the house above the ground 
line and below the sills or floor tim- 
bers, and insert a damp-proof course. 


The various kinds of fuel and 
systems of heating have been con- 
sidered elsewhere from the standpoint 
of their efficiency. We are concerned ' 
here only with their sanitary and 
hygienic effect. The most common 
danger to health is perhaps from 
over-heating. E. C. Jordan says: 
"Cold, pure air is a wonderful tonic. 
It improves the appetite, increases 
the red corpuscles of the blood and 
tones up the system generally. Many 
American children and adults emerge 
from their hibernation in the spring- 
anemic and weak. This is largely due 
to the faults in our methods of heat- 
ing. We customarily overheat our 
houses and offices. Seventy degrees 
or more of artificial heat is enervat- 
ing. We should accustom ourselves 
to being comfortable at a temperature 
at least a few degrees below 70. 

"A second serious danger is from 
the products of combustion. Burning 
coal, wood, oil or gas generate cer- 
tain very harmful gases. The utmost 
care should be taken to exclude these 
from the air we breathe. Yet leakage 
of gas from stoves or furnaces not 
properly constructed or managed is 
very common. The use of oil and 
gas heaters is perilously imprudent. 
They should never be used unless 
the products of combustion are cai'- 
ried from the room by means of a 
pipe connecting with the chimney flue. 

"A third fault and danger is want 
of ventilation. In unventilated living 
rooms the air is rendered imsui table 
for breathing by these four things: 
(1) An insufficient percentage of 



oxygen; (9) the poisonous products 
of respiration; (3) the deleterious 
products of combustion from lights 
or leakage from heaters; (4) disease- 
producing bacteria. One principal 
reason why grip, pneumonia, diph- 
theria, smallpox, and some other dis- 
eases are more prevalent in winter 
than in summer, is that in winter the 
doors and windows are closed and 
the bacterial causes of these diseases 
are concentrated. 

"It is a serious yet common mis- 
take to put in a heating apparatus 
which cannot easily do the work re- 
quired of it in cold weather. Such 
a heating plant is then sure to be 
crowded and overheated, its period 
of usefulness is shortened, the great- 
est practicable amount of heat is not 
obtained from the fuel, and dele- 
terious products escape into the- 

"Another prolific source of ill 
health for those who breathe artificial 
air is the unintelligent use of damp- 
ers. Everybody who uses coal knows 
that, if the damper is turned too 
soon, we get into our rooms an ill- 
smelling sulphurous gas. That gas 
is also dangerously poisonous. But 
unfortunately most people are un- 
awaTe that after the damper is turned 
so that the draft is too slight, an- 
other gas, without odor to reveal its 
presence, continues to leak out. This 
is carbonic oxide. 

"Of the two carbon gases found in 
vitiated air, both will cause death by 
suffocation if the percentage in ^ the 
air is large enough. If he is rescued 
in time and carried into the open air, 
the victim of carbonic acid gas will 
quickly recover, and apparently with- 
out permanent injury. But in cases 
of partial asphyxiation from carbonic 
oxide gas, resuscitation and ultimate 
recovery are very doubtful. The red 
corpuscles of the blood seem to suffer 
destruction, or a great diminution of 
their oxygen-carrying capacity. Re- 
covery, when it occurs, is usually very 
slow and incomplete. The person 
chronically poisoned by habitually 
breathing this gas in small quan- 

tities is having his blood corpuscles 
slowly destroyed. He comes out in 
the spring pale and weak, and with 
his general health impaired. Many 
persons, with no suspicion of the 
cause of their illness, feel the need 
of the recuperation which they can 
gain in the summer season to enable 
them to endure the next winter's 
chronic foul-air poisoning. Any per- 
ceptible odor of gas from the furnace 
or other heating apparatus is always 
an indication of serious danger to 
health and should have immediate 


Water should be brought into the 
house and also to the barn whenever 
possible, and pipes should then be 
laid to remove the waste water from 
house and barn and to so dispose 
of it as to avoid breeding grounds 
for the bacteria that cause filth dis- 
eases. There are important reasons 
why water should be brought to the 
barn, but if it is not possible to bring 
it to both places, the house should 
have the preference. L. H. Bailey 
says: "The first thing I would now 
do for the farm home is to put in 
sanitary water works for the care 
and comfort of the person. Nothing 
would so soon lift the home ideals." 

Every dwelling should have good 
kitchen sinks, water closets and a 
bathroom. Drinking water should be 
brought in by pipes. Such a water 
supply means additional comfort, 
better health, protection against fire, 
saving of labor and a supply of 
water for lawn and garden. Various 
methods are in use, qis gravity from 
high springs or creeks, or power from 
windmills, hydraulic rams, small gas 
or hot air engines, or from tanks 
which may be filled by pneumatic 
pumps operated either by power or 
by hand. The location of the storage 
tank and the best means of forcing 
water into it depend upon local con- 
ditions. The source of supply, the 
amount of water required, the need 
of power for other purposes, the 



available fuel and the cost of labor 
all have a bearing on the matter, in 
addition to the first cost of installa- 

A small hydraulic ram can be in- 
stalled for $50 or less, pipe not in- 
cluded. This will be practicable if 
there is a fall of 18 inches or more 
from the source of supply. The 
illustration shows the method of set- 
ting a hydraulic ram. 

Spring - ^ 

Setting of hydraulic ram. 
(E. T. Wilson.) 

The height of the source of supply 
above the ram — i. e., the head — de- 
termines the distance and elevation 
to which the water can be forced. 
The head may be increased by dam- 
ming a stream so as to create a 
reservoir or, if a drain can be secured 
to keep the outlet free from water, 
by sinking the ram in a pit. A ram 
keeps going all the time and re- 
quires very little attention. The px- 
pense of maintenance is small. 
Hence a small ram with a very low 
head makes a cheap and adequate 
source of water supply. The water 
can be forced into an elevated tank 
or pneumatic tank as desired. The 
overflow can be utilized by a water 
motor for pumping cistern water, 
shelling corn or any of the other 
numerous ways for saving hand labor. 
The water which is pumped need 
not be the same as the power water. 
By means of a compound ram, im- 
pure water can be used to pump the 
pure water without danger of mixing. 
The size of the ram required will de- 
pend upon the head, the amount of 
water required and the height and 
distance to which it must be delivered. 
After the pipes are laid, keep them 
uncovered until they are given a test. 
This will discover any leaks. 

Windmills. — A properly constructed 
windmill is a good and simple way 
of securing a supply of water and 

can be equipped at small cost with 
a device which will also furnish power 
for grinding feed, shelling corn, saw- 
ing wood, washing, churning, and 
many other purposes with no expense 
for fuel. The first cost of a wind- 
mill varies greatly according to the 
conditions. But this is perhaps the 
most economical means of obtaining 
power. The wind is free and the cost 
of repairs is very small. The tank 
should hold a week's supply or about 
2,000 gallons for the house, and twice 
as much for the house and barn, say 
a tank 10 feet across and 6 feet deep. 
A windmill to supply such a tank 
should be at least a 12- footer. 

Gas or Hot Air Engines. — These 
devices are now manufactured ex- 
pressly for pumping water to ele- 
vated or pneumatic tanks to furnish 
supplies for houses and barns. Such 
engines may be had to burn any 
kind of fuel — natural gas, gasoline, 
kerosene, coal or wood. They are not 
difficult to operate and may be used 
for other purposes when not needed 
for pumping. The pipes should be 
laid as straight as possible and free 
from elbows and sharp bends. The 
cost ranges from $60 upwards for 2 
or 3 h.p. The cost of fuel is very 
small. A half hour's pumping a day 
will furnish a supply of water for an 
average family. 

Distribution of Water. — Whatever 
the source of supply or method of 
pumping employed, the water must be 
collected in some sort of storage tank 
for distribution throughout the house. 
This may be an elevated outdoor 
tank, a tank in the attic, or a pneu- 
matic tank in the cellar. An ele- 
vated outdoor tank must be protected 
from freezing in cold weather by 
enclosing the exposed pipes in two 
or more wooden cases with air spaces 
between. The outer case may be of 
matched boards and painted. Equip 
a storage tank in the attic with a 
suitable float to shut off the supply 
pipe when the water reaches a certain 
height and admit the water again 
when the water level of the tank is 
lowered. Also to protect against 



freezing, the possibility of leakage 
or other costly accident equii) the 
attic tank with an overflow pipe to 
carry off surplus water, if the float 
valve fails to shut it off when the 

Hot-ioater circulation. 
(.E. T. ^¥^lson.) 

tank is full. Take care to avoid 
stoppage of this pipe in winter by 
freezing. As a rule indoor elevated 
tanks are not advisable in cold 
climates unless the whole house can 
be kept warm by an adequate heating 
system. An outdoor tank properly 
protected against the weather is safer. 
Pneumatic Tank. — To avoid these 
difficulties use the modern pneumatic 
tank built of steel plates. Locate this 
in the cellar, or protect it by a small 
building outdoors, or even bury it in 
the ground. Water is distributed 
from these tanks by means of air 
which is pumped into them with the 

water. This may be done by hand 
by means of an ordinary force pump, 
or by any of the above means of 
using power. The return of the air 
and water is prevented by means of 
a check valve in the pipe. The air 
in the upper part of the tank is 
compressed by the water which is 
forced in from below. The pressure 
is increased by pumping more water 
into the tank. It decreases as the 
water is drawn off. A 10-pound 
pressure will raise the water 33 feet, 
or a 15-pound pressure 33 feet. A 
40-poimd pressure will deliver water 
to points 85 feet above the tank. A 
little pumping each day will maintain 
an average pressure of 50 pounds. 
A tank 30 inches in diameter and 10 
feet long will sujijily the needs of an 
ordinary family of five. It can be 
filled in from 10 to 30 minutes a day 
'with a good hand force pump. But 
if more than 100 gallons a day are 
required, it would be better to employ 
some kind of mechanical power. If 
an engine is used, a large tank is 
more economical. Twenty minutes 
pumping once or twice a day should 
furnish the supply. 

The first cost of a small tank for 
an ordinary family of five will be 
from $100 upward. The expense for 
repairs f nd maintenance is slight. A 
large neighborhood plant with a 
pneumatic tank and suitable engine 
or other source of power capable of 
supplying water to several houses 
could be installed at grfeatly reduced 
cost to each householder. This 
would give a much higher pi'essure 
in case of fire. 

The pipes should be run as nearly 
as possible in straight lines and free 
from sharp bends or elbows. The 
farther they are carried horizontally 
the larger they should be. This de- 
creases the loss of pressure by fric- 
tion. If a windmill is used, it should 
be supplied with an automatic regula- 
tor which will throw it out of gear 
when the pressure reaches a given 
amount and start it again when the 
pressure is relieved. The advantages 
of this system are complete security 



against freezing in winter, coolness 
of the water in summer and incidental 
fire protection. The tank is wholly 
closed to dust and light and has the 
advantage of resting upon the 

Hand Force Pump. — If water can- 
not be supplied by gravity or power 

Water distribution ty pneumatie tank 
system. Courtesy State Board of 
Health of Maine. 

it should certainly be brought from 
the cistern or well to the kitchen sink 
and also to the bathroom, if any, by 
means of a small hand force pump. 
The steps saved and health gained 
make a convenient water supply a 
necessity rather than a luxury. A 
small force pump may be located at 
one end of the kitchen sink with a 
suction pipe reaching to the cistern. 
If an attic tank is used, this may 
be connected with the rainfall leader 
and supplied with an automatic cut- 
off which will send the water to the 
cistern when the attic tank is full. 
The kitchen force pump can also be 
connected with the tank and used to 
fill it in dry seasons. 

Sources of Water Supply. — For do- 
mestic purposes water should prefer- 
ably be what is known as soft rather 
than hard, and must be clear, pure 
and palatable. The essentials are 
freedom from disease germs, turbid- 
ity, color, odor or taste. The source 

of supply of drinking water should 
be absolutely pure. It is a good plan 
to have drinking water, especially 
from wells and cisterns, tested at 
least twice a year. Water from 
artesian or other deep wells, springs, 
cisterns and from the deepest por- 
tions of large ponds and reservoirs is 
to be preferred in the order men- 
tioned. Running streams are not a 
desirable source of water supply. 
They may be contaminated at any 
time without the knowledge of the 
user at any point above the source 
of supply. Water is often contami- 
nated by its proximity to stables, 
privy vaults, cess-pools and open 
drains through underground leaching 
in sandy or other porous soil. Bac- 
teria of typhoid, cholera and dysen- 
tery may be taken into the system by 
impure drinking water. When there 
is any reason to suspect the water 
supply, especially if these diseases 
are prevalent, all drinking water 
should be boiled. A little lemon juice 
will take away the flat taste of boiled 

Physicians frequently recommend 
drinking water in large quantities, 
say a pint half an hour before each 
meal, and the same quantity before 
retiring at night. The effect of this 
is to increase the muscular activity of 

Pollution of tvater supply from open 
privy vault and manure pile. 

certain internal orgains by distention, 
and to dissolve certain j^oisonous 
secretions — as, for instance, uric acid 
which causes rheumatism. The same 
course is also recommended in cases 
of threatened diabetes or kidney 
disease. It is probable that few per- 
sons drink as much water as is ad- 
visable from a hygienic standpoint. 



But, of course, the more water taken 
into the system the more important 
it is that the source of supply be 
pure. Approximately four-fifths of 
the human body consists of liquids, of 
which over 60 per cent is water. This 
fact suggests the importance of sup- 
plying drinking water of the best 


Wells. — An artesian or other deep 
well driven through hardpan and 
drawing water from a deep under- 
ground stream by means of a tight 
pipe is perhaps the purest and best 
source of permanent water supply. 
The first cost is considerable, but 
such a well may be regarded as much 
the most desirable of all permanent 
improvements. Open shallow wells 
dug just deep enough to strike run- 
ning water, usually not more than 20 
or 30 feet, are the ordinary source 
of supply in most localities. Such 
wells may become contaminated in 
two ways: by surface water washing 
into them, or by underground seepage 
from some source of pollution. It 
was formerly taken for granted by 
most persons that the soil acted as 
a natural filter and freed the water 
passing through it from all its im- 
purities. Recent experiments have 
shown that this is far from being 
the case. The capacity of the soil to 
purify water by filtration varies 
greatly. It depends upon the nature 
of the soil, the lay and dip of the 
various strata and the kind and ex- 
tent of the contamination. Under 
favorable conditions organic matter 
and most visible impurities will be 
filtered out of polluted water before 
it reaches the well. The water may 
then be clear and cold, taste all right 
and be free from odor, but it may, 
nevertheless, contain chemical poisons 
in solution. It may also contain the 
germs of typhoid and other filth dis- 
eases in great quantities. For these 
are entirely colorless and so small as 
to be wholly invisible without the 
aid of the microscope. 

Another common mistake is to as- 
sume that underground percolation 
follows the same lines as surface 
drainage. This, too, is by no means 
the case. If the top of a well is on 
higher ground than the open vault or 
drain, cess-pool or other source of 
pollution, it will be protected from 
surface washing. But if the bottom 
is lower than any of these nuisances 
there may be a dip of the hardpan 
underground from them toward the 
bottom of the well. This, if covered 
with a layer of porous soil or loose 
gravel, may be almost as good a 
conduit for polluted water as an open 
drain or sewer. The continued pollu- 
tion of the soil causes these under- 
ground strata to become charged with 
various impurities in ever increasing 
volume. With the lapse of time thesej 
creep steadily into closer proximity! 
to the well. Eventually attention is! 
attracted to the danger by the pres-l 
ence of a marked taste or odor. But! 
meantime variovis degrees of ill health 
may be observed in the family. Orl 
even an epidemic of sickness may! 
break out from this cause. Yet these! 
diseases may have been attributed to^J 
some other source. 

As a general rule it may be taker 
for granted that a shallow well any- 
where within convenient distance of! 
a barnyard or an open vault or drain 
is dangerous to health. This danger 
is constantly increasing with the pass- 
ing years, although meanwhile the 
family may be lulled into a false 
sense of security. Among the rem- 
edies which suggest themselves are 
piping water from high springs or 
other suitable sources beyond con- 
tamination, the use of cistern water, 
or if the shallow well seems a neces- 
sity, a change in the location of the 
barnyard and the elimination of open 
vaults and drains by means elsewhere 

Dug wells should be lined all the 
way up either with stone laid in 
water cement and smoothly faced on 
the inside with a trowel, or prefer- 
ably with large tiles or tile piping. 
This compels the water to come in 



from the bottom. It thus increases 
the depth of the soil which serves 
as a filter. The lining of a well, 
whether of stone or tile, should be 

(a) Proper method of Hailing up and 
protecting private ivells from surface 
drainage; (6) unprotected private 
well. {Ritchie's Primer of Sanitation. 
Copyright, 1909, iy World Book Com- 
pany, Yonkers, Neiv York.) 

brought 18 inches or 2 feet above the 
surface of the soil and banked up 
with a mound of earth. This will 
prevent contamination from surface 
leaching. Take care that the upper 
4 or 5 feet is made absolutely water- 
tight. Then lay a heavy tight-fitting 
stone over the mouth to keep out 
small animals, angleworms, dead 
leaves and other organic matter. 
When cleaning old wells not thus 
protected, the skeletons of these ani- 
mals are frequently found. 

Never lay a sewer pipe or waste 
drain near a well. Never dig a new 
well in their vicinity. Such pipes and 
drains are seldom watertight. Or if 
a sewer pipe must be run near a 
well, use cast-iron pipe and seal all 
joints watertight. Never locate a 
cess-pool, open vault or drain or 
throw sloji water on the ground any- 
where on the same piece of ground 
as a well. Otherwise in the course 
of time the well water is almost cer- 
tain to become contaminated. The 
only means of insuring the purity of 
the water supply is to take adequate 
steps to keep the soil in the vicinity 
free from pollution. 

Springs. — Spring water is usually 
pure and good for drinking purposes, 

but often contains minerals in solu- 
tion. It is then known as hard water. 
But springs may become contami- 
nated in the same manner as wells 
if located near possible sources of 
pollution. Hence a spring intended 
to be a source of water supply should 
be carefully tested. If the water 
supply is to be piped from a spring 
as a permanent source of supply, first 
find out two things: Is the spring 
high enough above the house? Is the 
quantity of water sufficient? You 
can measure the overflow of the 
spring by pailfuls. The house alone 
for a family of ten will need about 
600 gallons in twenty-four hours. To 
get this, the spring should flow fast 
enough to fill a 10-quart pail in five 
minutes. If the spring is high above 
the house and near at hand, |-inch 
pipe may be sufficient. But if the 
spring is not high, or if the pipe is 
long, inch pipe is safer and better. 

The spring should be dug out, 
walled up, and covered with wood, 
brick, stone or concrete — to be pre- 
ferred in the order mentioned. The 
pipe may be either iron, lead, wood or 
sewer pipe. Sewer pipe costs about 
six cents a running foot, and |-inch 
wrought-iron pipe about the same. 

If the pressure is high — especially 
at the lower end, it is better to use 
iron. Wood or lead pipe is nowadays 
rarely used. 

Cisterns. — Rain water when prop- 
erly collected at a distance from large 
towns is pure and soft. In towns 
and cities it is often contaminated 
by smoke and fumes in the atmos- 
phere. Cistern water in such locali- 
ties should therefore be filtered and 
boiled before drinking. The rainfall 
collected in cisterns is a valuable 
source of water supply in localities 
where it is difficult or costly to drive 
a well and also in regions where the 
water is hard. In some localities this 
is the only source of water supply 
available. Rain water is soft and 
hence especially adapted to laundry 

Cisterns must be carefully screened 
with wire netting to exclude insects, 



toads and other vermin and should 
be so arranged as not to admit sur- 
face water. They should be kept 
scrupulously clean. The first rain- 
fall should be excluded to allow the 
accumulated dirt to wash off the roof 
and out to the gutters. For this pur- 
pose place a cut-off on the rain water 
pipe to divert the flow from the cis- 
tern. Various automatic devices of 
this sort are on th"; market. Locate 
a cistern close to the house for con- 
venience, or construct it in a corner 
of the basement or cellar. 


Cistern made of tile. 

A cistern may be built of concrete 
or brick laid upon a solid foundation, 
and may be either round or rectangu- 
lar. A round or egg-shaped cistern 
is preferable to one with square cor- 
ners. It is more difficult to build but 
is stronger and easy to keep clean, 
especially for drinking purposes. A 
cheap and convenient small cistern 
and filter may be built of tile. Two 
styles of this kind of cistern are 
shown in the illustration. A little in- 
genuity used in the construction of a 
cistern and filter will be amply com- 

pensated by a pure and abundant 
supply of soft water for household 
use. The average rainfall throughout 
the U. S. on a surface 40 feet square 
will supply 5 or 6 barrels a day, which 
is sufficient for an average family. 

To Make a Brick Cistern. — Use 
good hard brick and Portland cement 
mortar composed of one part cement 
and two parts of clean sharp sand. 
Lay the bottom with two courses of 
brick well bedded iii cement mortar. 
Lay up the walls not less than eight 
inches thick and plaster with cement 
both outside and inside, troweling it 
down smooth and hard. Make sure 
that the walls, top and bottom are 
water tight. A leaky cistern is equal- 
ly as liable to pollution by seepage as 
a shallow well or spring. If the 
water is to be used for drinking pur- 
poses, build in a filter. And this plan 
is better in all cases. 

To Make a Simple Filter. — Build 
in an 8-inch partition wall, after the 
bottom has been paved, to a point a 
few inches higher than the outlet of 
the overflow pipe. Lay up the first 
10 or 13 inches at the bottom of this 
partition (4 or 5 courses of brick) 
without cement for the water to pass 
through. Plaster the upper jjortion 
of the partition with cement. Or 
build the entire partition with soft 
porous brick laid in cement but with- 
out cementing the outer surfaces. 
The water will be filtered very well 
for a while by passing through the 
brick, but in time they will become 
foul and clogged. It will then be 
necessary to tear out the partition 
and rebuild it. Hence, it is better, if 
the first cost can be afforded, to pro- 
vide a separate chamber containing 
proper filtering materials. 

To Build a Double Cistern. — Con- 
struct a small compartment (A) into 
which the water from the roof is to 
be received. Build next to this the 
filter chamber (B). Fill this from 
the bottom upwards, 4 feet in depth 
in all, first with pebbles the size of 
the fist, then with very coarse gravel, 
then fine gravel and lastly sharp, 
clean sand. Screen these materials to 




proper sizes and wash them clean and 
free from loam and other impurities. 
Carry the wall between the inlet 
chamber (A) and the filter (B) to 
the top or above the level of the over- 
flow pipe. Plaster it on both sides 
with cement to prevent the water 
from seeping through and fouling 
the brick. But leave in the bottom 
of this partition a number of open- 
ings the size of a half brick to admit 
the water from the inlet chamber 
(A) into the bottom of the filter. 
Thence it passes upward through the 
filtering material and overflows into 
the storage tank (C), its fall being 
broken by the ledge of projecting 
bricks at F, 

Build the floor of the inlet cham- 
ber (A) and the filter (B) so as to 
slope to the outer side of A. Much 
of the coarse dirt and sediment will 
then settle at this point and may 
be readily removed. This relieves the 
filter and facilitates cleansing. Oc- 
casionally on a very rainy day, pumjD 
or bale out the inlet chamber and 
shift the inlet pipe from the inlet 
chamber (A) over to the top of the 

Tig. a. 



Fig. B. 

Plan of brick cistern. Courtesy State 
Board of Health of Maine. 

filter (B). This will reverse the fil- 
tering process and flush out the filter 
chamber. (D) is the inlet pipe which 
brings the water from the roof and 
(H) is the overflow from the cistern. 
The linear arrangement of the 
three compartments in Fig. A is to 
show a cross section of the filter 

chamber, but in actual construction 
the ground plan of the filter should 
be as shown in Fig. B. This cistern 
may be built of brick laid in Port- 
land cement mortar, or of concrete. 
It should preferably be arched over 
or covered with reinforced concrete 
leaving a good-sized manhole to serve 
as a common entrance to all three 
compartments. Or, it may be provid- 
ed with a perfectly tight plank cover 
to keep out small animals, insects 
and the like. 

Equip both inlet and overflow pipe 
with a fine strainer to exclude insects 
and vermin. 

Water Pipes. — To avoid friction 
and loss of power in pumping lay 
all water pipes in straight lines and 
free from elbows and sharjj turns. 
Also increase the size of the pipe in 
proportion to the distance the water 
must flow in a horizontal line. This 
lessens friction. 

To prevent the freezing of water 
pipes in winter, when leaving a house 
unoccupied in which there is a regu- 
lar water supply, always turn off' the 
water from the house by turning the 
stopcock leading to the street main. 
Open all faucets and allow pipes to 
drain thoroughly. Always empty the 
kitchen boiler. If this is not done 
the boiler may collapse. To empty 
the boiler attach a garden or other 
hose to the top and let the water run 
into the sink. Do this every spring 
and fall to clean the tank. 

To prevent freezing in pumps, lift 
the trap in the valve and allow the 
water to run back into the well. 

Do not put kitchen sinks against 
the outer wall of a house. If this 
has been done and the sink cannot be 
changed, purchase circular tubes of 
asbestos and fit over the pipes, or 
line the wall with asbestos. But on 
cold nights it is safer to turn the 
water off. 

Frozen Water Pipes. — While the 
pipes are frozen take care not to 
build a fire in furnace or range. Di- 
rect heat from the pipes will gen- 
erate steam and severe explosions 
may follow. At the very least pipes 



will burst and the plumbers' bills for 
repairs will be heavy. Pipes that are 
slightly stuck may be thawed by 
wrapping around them flannel or oth- 
er cloth and pouring on hot water. 
Plumbers use gasoline or kerosene 
gas in lamps which blow around the 
frozen pipe. They move the lamp 
back and forth so as not to apply 
too much heat at any one spot. 

To Soften Water. — Boiling hard 
water from twenty to thirty minutes 
is the best way to soften it for drink- 
ing purposes. This also has the effect 
of killing all germs of disease it may 
contain. Carbonic-acid gas passes off" 
with the steam, and carbonate of lime 
is left as a sediment. A clean oyster 
shell put in the tea kettle will attract 
this and other sediments that are de- 
posited from boiling water and will 
thus prevent an unpleasant crust 
from gathering on the inside of the 
tea kettle. 

Or baking soda (bicarbonate of 
soda) in small quantities will soften 
hard water by removing the excess of 

Or, for the laundry, hard water 
may be softened by the addition of a 
little borax. 

Or quicklime is also recommended. 
Disstflve I ounce in 10 quarts of 
water, and pour this solution into a 
barrel of hard water. The whole will 
be softened. 

To Make Boiled Water More Pal- 
atable. — The flat taste of boiled 
water is objectionable to many. This 
may be obviated by pouring the 
water rapidly from one pitcher to an- 
other, holding the two pitchers some 
distance apart. This process aerates 
the water, renders it sparkling, and 
restores its natural flavor. A few 
drops of lemon juice contribute to 
this effect. 

To Keep Water Cool Without Ice. 
— In summer or in warm climates 
drinking water may be kept in un- 
glazed earthenware pitchers. Place 
the pitcher on a board lying across 
a tub or pail containing water. Wrap 
several folds of cheese cloth around 
the outside of the pitcher and let the 

ends hang down into the water. 
Place this contrivance in a draught. 
The evaporation of the moisture 
from the cheese cloth tends to cool 
the contents of the pitcher. 

To Test Water. — Fill a number of 
tumblers half full of the suspected 
water, and employ the following- 

To test for lime, use a small quan- 
tity of oxalic acid. The lime will be 
revealed in a white precipitate. 

To test for carbonate of iron, use 
a tincture of galls. This will yield a 
black precipitate. 

To test for vegetable and animal 
matter, use a small quantity of sul- 
phuric acid. The water will become 

To test for copper, dip a penknife 
in the water. The copper will be de- 
posited in a yellow coating. 

To Purify Water. — When water in 
wells or other receptacles smells bad, 
suspend in it lumps of charcoal in a 
basket or net, so that they can be re- 
moved and replaced at intervals. 

To Clarify Water. — Water in 
springs, wells and streams often be- 
comes muddy after heavy rains, and 
the water of some streams always 
holds a large amount of liquid mud 
and other impurities in solution. In 
such cases it becomes important to 
clarify the water. This not only 
makes it more palatable and attrac- 
tive. It is imperative when filters 
are used. Otherwise the filter soon 
clogs up and becomes useless. 

Alum is the universal agent for 
precipitating impurities in suspen- 
sion or even in solution. It is very 
commonly employed along the Mis- 
souri and Mississippi Rivers and 
other muddy streams. 

To quickly clarify a pitcher of 
drinking water, tie a lump of alum 
to a string and swing it about in the 
water. The sediment will settle. 

Or, for larger quantities, use 1 tea- 
spoonful of pulverized alum to 4 gal- 
lons of drinking water. Stir the 
water before putting in the alum. 
After the water has settled draw it 
off in such a way as not to disturb 



the sediment. A tablespoon fill of 
alum will settle the contents of a 
hogshead of water. The alum itself, 
if too much is not used, will settle 
and be carried off in the sediment. 

Or lime is recommended, used in 
the form of certain salts of lime, 
either chloride, nitrate, or bicarbonate 
of lime, or caustic lime. Use 1 pai't 
of any of these salts of lime to 1,000 
parts of water. 

Or sulphate of alumina is recom- 
mended for clarifying water contain- 
ing vegetable or animal matter. The 
formula is as follows: Bisulphate of 
alumina (neutral solution), 1 ounce; 
water, 435 gallons. 

Or dissolve 2 ounces of saltpeter in 
1 quart of warm water and throw 
the solution into the cistern or well. 

Or, to purify putrid water: Water, 
1 pound; sulphuric acid, 8 drops. 
Mix and filter through charcoal. 

Or water, 8 gallons; powdered 
alum, 1 ounce. Dissolve with agita- 
tion, then allow it to rest for twenty- 
four hours, decant into another ves- 
sel, and add a solution of carbonate 
of soda until it ceases to produce a 

Or instead of alum add 7 or 8 
grains of red sulphate of iron, then 
proceed as before. 

Or add a little aqueous chlorine to 
the foul water. 

Or arrange a suitable pipe at the 
end of a pair of bellows (double bel- 
lows are best), and force the air 
through the water for a time, then 
allow it to settle for use. 

Water Filters. — The ordinary 
household appliances for filtering 
water are rarely preventives of dis- 
ease. Such filters are not ordinarily 
cleansed often enough. Hence they 
become receptacles for disease germs 
instead of means of prevention. 

The better practice is to boil drink- 
ing water from twenty minutes to 
half an hour when there is danger of 
contamination. The following are a 
number of devices that may be rec- 
ommended to make muddy or other- 
wise contaminated water clear for 
appearance sake. It must be borne 

in mind, however, that these processes 
and all other filters merely strain the 
water in a mechanical way. They 
do not remove or destroy the germs 
of contagious diseases. These cannot 
be destroyed without boiling the 
water, as just recommended. 

Homemade Water Filters. — Rain- 
water collected in barrels from a 
roof or otherwise is a necessity in 
some localities, and is often more 
wholesome for drinking purposes 
than hard water. The following is a 
cheap and easy way to make a filter 
just as good as a patent filter costing 
ten times as much: 

Take a new vinegar barrel or an 
oak tub that has never been used, 
either a full cask or half size. 

"A Cheap and Easy Way to Make a 

Stand it on end raised on brick or 
stone from the ground. Insert a 
faucet near the bottom. Make a 
tight false bottom three or four 
inches from the bottom of the cask. 



Pci'forate this with small gimlet 
holes, and cover it with a piece of 
clean white canvas. Place on tliis 
false bottom a layer of clean pebbles 
three or four inches in thickness; 
next, a layer of clean washed sand 
and gravel; then coarsely granulated 
chai'coal about the size of small peas. 
Charcoal made from hard maple is 
the best. After putting in a half 
bushel or so, pound it down firmly. 
Then put in more until the tub is 
filled within one foot of the top. 
Add a three-inch layer of pebbles, 
and throw over the top a piece of 
canvas as a strainer. This canvas 
strainer can be removed and washed 
occasionally and the cask can be 
dumped out, pebbles cleansed, and 
charcoal renewed every spi'ing and 
fall, or once a j'^ear may be sufficient. 

This filter may be set in the cellar 
and used only for drinking water. 
Or it may be used in time of drouth 
for filtering stagnant water, which 
would otherwise be unpalatable, for 
the use of stock. This also makes a 
good cider filter for the purpose of 
making vinegar. The cider should 
first be passed through cheese cloth 
to remove all coarser particles. 

Or a small cheap filter may be 
made*^' from a flower pot. A fine 
sponge may be inserted in the hole 
and the pot filled about as directed 
for the above filter. It may be 
placed in the top of a jar, which will 
receive the filtered water. 

Or a valuable substitute for char- 
coal in the above filters is sponge 
iron obtained by burning finely di- 
vided iron ore with charcoal. This 
can be obtained in the locality of iron 
mines or smelting furnaces. This is 
much more powerful than charcoal, 
and is said to completely purify con- 
taminated water. 


The sanitary disposal of household 
wastes presents three distinct prob- 
lems: The removal (1) of solid ex- 
creta; ('2) of slops; and (3) of gar- 
bage. If an adequate water supply 

is available from an elevated or pneu- 
matic storage tank, the first two 
jDroblems can be jointly solved by a 
house drainage system equipped witli 
water closets, bath tubs and sinks. 
Such a system can be installed with 
somewhat less trouble and expense 
when the house is first built. Yet it 
can be put into any house at mod- 
erate cost. From a sanitai-y stand- 
point it is perhaps the most desirable 
of all permanent improvements. All 
pipes and drains should be exposed 
to full view. Hence there need be 
no interference with walls or parti- 
tions. The only carpentry necessary 
will be openings through the floors. 
These with the necessary repairs to 
ceilings and the like will not add 
greatly to the expense. 

House Drains and Soil Pipes. — 
The main feature of a house drain- 
age system is a 4-inch cast iron pipe 
calked with lead at all joints so as to 
be completely water-tight. Start this 
soil pipe at least 5 feet outside the 
house and support it from being 
crushed where it passes through the 
foundation wall by means of a suit- 
able arch. Just inside the cellar, in- 
sert a running trap to exclude sewer 
gas and supply this trap with an in- 
spection hole closed with a tight 
cover but easily accessible. Just 
beyond this trap insert a fresh air 
inlet pipe of the same size and ma- 
terial as the soil pipe. Extend this 
outward through the foundation wall, 
by means of a suitable arch, and 
bring it above the surface of the 
ground, but not near any doors or 
windows. Now carry the soil pipe 
upward by as straight a course as 
possible to a point 4 or 5 feet above 
the roof. Cover it only with a wire 
screen to exclude twigs, leaves and 
the like. The warmth of the house 
will cause a current of air to be 
drawn through the soil pipe from the 
fresh air inlet. This will help to 
destroy and carry away the organic 
matter that clings to its inner sur- 
face. In cold climates increase the 
diameter of the soil pipe to about 6 
inches from a point just beneath the 




roof to the top. This prevents the 
upper end from being closed with 
hoarfrost. If the soil pipe opens into 
a sewer, or if there is provision for 
drainage below the level of the cellar 
bottom, it may be carried along the 
cellar wall or rest upon the cellar 
floor exposed to view in an open 

Plan of soil pipe for house sewage dis- 
posal si/.stem. Courtesy State Board 
of Health of Maine. 

trench. Or, if there are no plumb- 
ing fixtures in the cellar and the ouL- 
let of the drainage system is at a 
higher point, the soil pipe may be 
carried under the cellar floor and 
fastened to the rafters by wire or 
other supports at suitable intervals. 

Arrangement of Fixtures. — The 
bath room, sinks, and other fixtures 
should be located as nearly as pos- 
sible over one another and in close 
proximity to the soil pipe. The cost 
of plumbing will be much less and 
the system will work better. Both 
the bath room fixtures and kitchen or 
pantry sink should be adjacent to an 
outer wall and near windows to in- 
sure abundant light and ventilation. 
But the soil pipe must be sufficiently 
far from tlie outer wall to avoid dan- 
ger of freezing. When iiracUcable it 
should he jUaced on the east, south or 
southeast side of tlie house. The soil 
pipe and all other plumbing fixtures 

should be entirely open. They will 
not be objectionable in appearance if 
painted to correspond with the wood- 
work in the different rooms. It is a 
fixed rule of modern sanitation to ad- 
mit sunlight freely to every part. 

Sinks. — The sink should be of slate, 
enameled iron or porcelain. It 
should not be boarded up. An open 
sink is not only more sanitary but 
more convenient for use. There is 
an open space beneath it for the toes 
when standing and for the knees 
when sitting. Thus great relief may 
be had while doing certain work by 
using a stool of proper height. 
Equip the sink spout with a brass 
strainer screwed in place and provide 
a trap to exclude sewer gas. 

Water Closets. — The choice of 
water closets should be confined to 
those which have the bowl and trap 
in one piece, are simple in construc- 
tion, self cleansing and provided with 
a safe water seal. None should be 
considered except the short hopper, 
the washout, the washdown, the sy- 
I^honic and tlie syphonic jet styles. 
The last of these is the best, and they 
are to be preferred in reverse order. 
The washout closet has too shallow a 
pool of water to receive the soil. 
Nor do the trap below and portion 
above the trap receive a sufficient 
scouring from the flush. The wash- 
down closet is an improvement over 
the former. It has a deeper basin 
and water seal, a smaller surface un- 
covered by water and a more eflScient 
scouring action. 

The syphonic closet difl'ers from 
the washdown style chiefly in having 
a more contracted outlet. The filling 

Types of sanitary water-closets; (a) 
washout, (&) tvashdoicn, (c) syphonic, 
(d) syphonic jet. 

of this outlet when the closet is 
flushed forms a syphon. The result- 
ing pressure of air upon the surface 



of water in the basin drives the water 
into the soil pipe with much force. 
When the syiDhon is broken enough 
water remains in the trap to preserve 
the seal. In the syphonic jet closet 
there is an additional jet of water 
which helps drive the water in the 
bowl more rapidly into the outlet. 
The last mentioned styles are also 
more nearly noiseless than others and 
should be preferred. The flush tanks 
should be well built, ample in size and 
connected with the closet by means of 
pipes large enough to insure thorough 
and eflicient flushing. 

Sewer Connections. — The connec- 
tion between the end of the soil pipe 
and the public sewer or other point 
of disposal should be made with a 
good vitrified sewer pipe of the same 
dimension as the soil pipe, or an inch 
larger in diameter, laid as shown in 
the illustration. Or, if a sewer pipe 
must be carried near a well, use cast 
iron pipe and take care that the 
joints are absolutely water-tight. In 
any case the joints of the sewer pipe 
should be carefully cemented so that 
there may be no leakage into the 
ground near the house. Otherwise 
sewer gas will find its way through 
the soil into the cellar and thence to 
all parts of the house. It is also im- 
portant to exclude the ground water 
from the sewage in certain systems 
of local sewage disposal, since it in- 
creases the bulk of the waste to be 
disposed of. 

Sewage Disposal. — Since the dan- 
ger to health of soil pollution from 
cess-pools has been clearly recognized, 
sanitary engineers have given a great 
deal of attention to the problem of 
sewage disposal for farmhouses, sum- 
mer cottages and other isolated 
dwellings. Various plans have been 
devised whereby liquid household 
wastes may be disposed of either on 
or beneath the surface of ordinary 
soil, or upon artificially prepared fil- 
tration beds. All of these methods 
are in practical operation and either 
may be chosen according to local 
conditions. The working principle is 
the same in all cases. The upper 

layer of the earth's surface teems 
with millions of bacteria which have 
the power to convert organic matter 
into earth again. The eff"ect of these 
changes is to improve the soil both 
from the agricultural and hygienic 
standpoint. It becomes more porous, 
the oxygen of the air penetrates it 
m.ore freely, and its capacity for 
holding moisture is improved. 
These bacteria are active only in the 
presence of the oxygen of the air. 
They cannot work if the air is jier- 
manently excluded, as when the soil 
is saturated with water. Hence it is 
necessary to dispose of sewage near 
the surface of the ground by what is 
known as the "intermittent" system. 
That is, the household wastes must be 
collected in some suitable receptacle 
and emptied upon the soil only at in- 
tervals sufficiently far apart to per- 
mit the liquids to leach away and al- 
low the soil to become dry enough 
so that the bacteria can perform 
their function. These facts empha- 
size the danger from leaking sewer 
pipes, deep vaults, or cess-pools, lo- 
cated so far below the surface of the 
ground that the air is excluded. 
Here the bacteria which purify the 
soil are unable to live and work. 

Septic Tanks. — If the liquid house- 
hold wastes consist only of kitchen 
slops they may be discharged directly 
upon the soil, provided they are first 
collected in a suitable tank so ar- 
ranged as to release them at regular 
intervals. But if solid excreta are 
present it is better to provide what 
is known as a sejitic tank. Here the 
sewage is liquefied and to some extent 
purified before being discharged. 
The work of purifying organic mat- 
ter is done in two distinct stages by 
two diflferent kinds of organisms. 
One of these is called anaerobic bac- 
teria. They work in the dark and do 
not require the presence of oxygen. 
They break down the particles of in- 
soluble organic matter or sludge in 
the sewage and convert them into a 
form such that the second set of bac- 
teria may complete the process of 
purification. The latter are called 



aerobic bacteria. These must have an 
abundance of oxygen supplied by the 
air. A septic tank interposed be- 
tween the house and the patch of 
ground which is to do the work of 
filtration greatly assists the process, 
especially for a system of sub-sur- 
face irrigation, by eliminating the 
grease and dissolving the solid mat- 
ter which tends to clog the pipes. 

Section of septic tank. Courtesy State 
Board of Health of Maine. 

A septic tank consists of two cham- 
bers. One receives the sewage and 
retains it while the anaerobic bacteria 
are doing their work. The second re- 
ceives the overflow from the first 
chamber (when the process ©f lique- 
faction has been completed) and 
thence discharges it at suitable inter- 
vals upon the filtration beds. This 
may be accomplished either by hand 
— by means of a gate valve as shown 
in the illustration — or better by 
means of a syphonic device of which 
there are several styles upon the mar- 

To build a septic tank such as that 
shown in the illustration, first deter- 
mine the size which would be re- 
quired. The volume of sewage is 
practically equal to the water con- 
sumption. The solids, exclusive of 
garbage and kitchen refuse, which 
should, of course, be otherwise dis- 
posed of, will amount to not over 1 
pound to 120 gallons of water. An 
average family will consume from 60 
to 100 gallons a day for each person. 
Hence a flush tank for a family of 
six, to empty every twenty-four hours, 
must contain at least 360 gallons of 
liquid matter, or have a capacity of 
48 cubic feet. In the style of tank 

here illustrated, this applies only to 
the second chamber. The first cham- 
ber must be sufficiently large to re- 
tain the total sewage for a number 
of days — say a week — which would 
require a capacity of 336 cubic feet. 
Thus, a tank having the first cham- 
ber 6 feet wide, 6 -feet deep and 10 
feet in length, and the second cham- 
ber of equal width and depth but 
only 3 feet in length, would accom- 
modate the sewage of a family of 6 
persons and would require to be emp- 
tied only every forty-eight hours. 

To make such a tank build the 
walls and partition between the two 
tanks of concrete or brick set in 
Portland cement mortar. Carefully 
cement the inside to prevent leakage. 
Admit the sewage into the first 
chamber through the 6-inch vitrified 
inlet pipe (g). Extend this at least 
3 feet below the water level fixed by 
the top of the partition between the 
two chambers. Extend the two baffle 
boards (dd) to about two-thirds the 
depth of the tank. The first is de- 
signed to break the force of the in- 
rush of water through the inlet pipe. 
The second keeps the scum on the 
surface of the first chamber from 
flowing over the partition. 

As soon as the sewage is brought 
into the first chamber the anaerobic 
bacteria attack the sludge at the 
bottom of the tank. At the same 
time a scum begins to form on the 
surface of the sewage. This soon 
mats into a tough mass a foot or more 
in thickness. It excludes the light 
and air and provides the conditions 
required by the anaerobic bacteria 
for their work. Under tliese condi- 
tions so much of the sludge at the 
bottom of the tank will be liquefied 
and will escape between the second 
baffle board and the partition into the 
second chamber that the removal of 
the sludge by other means will be re- 
quired only at long intervals of time. 

The stand pipe (h) of 6-inch vitri- 
fied tile with its tee and connecting 
bend of 4-inch pipe at (k) serves as 
an overflow, and at (i) and the dis- 
charge pipe (j) there is an arrange- 



ment which permits the discharge of 
the whole contents of the second 
chamber, when intermittent irrigation 
is desired, by drawing the jjlug (m) 
above the opening (i). This can be 
done by pulling upward the handle 
(1). The top of the stand pipe at (1) 
serves as an exit for the gases formed 
in the second chamber and also as an 
inlet for air into the sub-soil or irri- 
gation pipes. A series of holes 
should be bored in the upper part of 
the two baffle boards above the water 
level. These afford an inter-com- 
munication of gases between the sep- 
arate chambers of the tank. Also 
provide an opening into the stand 
pipe at (o) to serve as a means of 
escape for the accumulated gas, oth- 
erwise an explosion might occur. The 
whole tank is covered tightly with 
the plank (p). All the materials re- 
quired for this tank may be had in 
any locality. The construction is 
simple and the expense is chiefly for 
labor. A better plan, however, is to 
provide an automatic syphon of which 
there are several styles on the market, 
so that the sewage may be discharged 
at required intervals without constant 

Syphon Tanks. — The principle of 
the automatic syphon is well known. 
It consists simply of a section of pipe 
so curved that one leg is longer than 
the other. The long leg is erected 
vertically to a proper height in the 
second chamber of the tank and cov- 
ered at the top by a suitable bell. 
It is connected by means of the short 
leg with the outlet pipe. When the 
liquid sewage enters the second cham- 
ber it rises under the bell, flows into 
the long leg of the syphon and seals 
the trap at the bottom of the bend. 
As the depth of sewage increases, it 
compresses the air in the long leg of 
the syphon until, at the proper level, 
the pressure becomes great enough to 
force the water in the bottom of the 
trap out through the short leg and 
the outlet pipe and thereby creates 
sufficient suction to empty the second 
chamber. Once the level of the fluid 
descends below the mouth of the bell. 

air is admitted, the syphon is broken 
and no further discharge can occur 
imtil the tank is again refilled. 

Flush Tank. — The two-chamber 
septic tank above described may be 
deemed necessary for proper sub-sur- 
face irrigation, and is desirable in all 
cases. But for surface irrigation a 
simple flush tank having a single 
chamber and operated by hand by 
means of a check valve, or by an au- 
tomatic syphon, may be sufficient. 
The accompanying illustration shows 
a simple form of flush tank designed 

Simple flush tank. {E. T. Wilson.) 

to be constructed of concrete. The 
sewage from the house-drain is 
first screened by means of a wire 
basket so arranged as to be remova- 
ble through a convenient manhole 
with a cast iron or other solid cover 
— a second basket being substituted 
while the first is emptied and cleaned. 
The small residue caught by the bas- 
ket should be promptly spaded into 
the ground. 

The object of this flush tank is 
merely to collect the household wastes 
for a period of from 13 to 24 hours 
to admit of their intermittent dis- 
charge at fixed intervals. Hence the 
tank, if equipped with an automatic 
syphon as shown in the illustration, 
need be only large enough to hold the 
household wastes for the desired 
period between the automatic dis- 
charges. A capacity of 48 cubic feet 
is sufficient for a family of 6 using 
60 gallons of water a day for each 
person. The depth of the tank may 
he determined by the syphon, the 
other two dimensions to give the re- 
quired cubic capacity being a matter 
of convenience. Tlie necessary con- 
crete "forms" for this flush tank or 



the sejitic tank previously illustrated 
can be built by any cai'penter or per- 
son handy with tools from the accom- 
panying drawings. The concrete for 
the walls can be mixed and laid by 
any householder who will follow the 
instructions elsewhere given. The av- 
erage cost for material in most local- 
ities for this flush tank will be about 
$35. For the septic tank previously 
shown about $150. 

Tilting- Tank. — In houses where a 
sewerage system is not available and 

C<J5kiron.TOoti?a3te-fviafiaei5 oovat? 

OuHef ptp^. 

Tilting tank. {E. T. Wilson.) 

the liquid waste consists only of 
kitchen slops, these may be accumu- 
lated by means of a tilting tank as 
shown in the illustration. Install this 
in a suitable concrete trough with a 
convenient manhole and equip it with 
an outlet pipe of 4-inch vitrified tile. 
Furnish the sinks and laundry tubs 
emptying into this tank with brass 
strainers to prevent the entrance of 
anything which might clog the kitchen 
waste pipe or outlet pipe. The tilt- 
ing tank collects the irregular flow 
and discharges only when full. This 
provides for the necessary intermit- 
tent discharge. 

Or provide a concrete or other suit- 
able tank of sufficient capacity to 
hold the sink drainage and domestic 
slops for 24 hours or more and equip 
it with a check valve to be operated 
by hand. Furnish a tell-tale to show 
when this tank is sufficiently full to 
require attention. 

Or provide a simple wire pan into 

which the slops may be poured from 
pails. All these devices require an out- 
let of vitrified drain pipe with tight 
joints long enough to carry waste 
water without leakage to a point 
where it may be finally disposed of. 

Or to make a cheap temporary 
drain for waste water from the 
kitchen sink use 4-inch vitrified tile 
costing about 7 cents a foot. Run a 
drain about 25 feet in the opposite 
direction from the well, and convey 
the waste to a tub or barrel. Thence 
run it off to the garden by a small 
pipe or carry it away in pails. If a 
barrel can be provided with two 
wheels, and a tongue like a cart, it 
can be easily drawn away from time 
to time and emptied. The expense of 
such a drain is nominal: 26 feet of 
vitrified tile, $1.75; sink, $1.35; pipe 
and trap, $1. Total, $4. 

Irrigation Beds. — Whether the 
liquid household wastes are collected 
in a septic tank, a simple flush tank, 
tilting tank or otherwise, provision 
must be made for their final recep- 
tion and purification by contact with 

Details of a typical surface irrigation 
plant in plan and section. Courtesy 
titate Board of Health of North 

the ordinary surface soil, or by spe- 
cially prepared filtration beds. 

Surface Irrigation. — The final dis- 
posal of household sewage — prefera- 
bly after it has passed through a sep- 
tic tank to remove grease and dissolve 
solid substances — may be on the sur- 
face of the ground. But in such 
case it must be carried not less than 
300 feet — and the farther the better 
— from buildings, and with due care 
not to contaminate any source of 
water supply. Select for this pur- 



pose preferably a sloping tract of 
grass land, where the soil is a porous 
sandy or gravelly loam. If the soil 
is of clay, a much larger tract will 
be required. If wet. It must be un- 
der-drained. Carry the drain pipe 
along the side of the ridge and let it 
discharge at intervals upon the sur- 
face. Or receive the sewage into a 
transverse drain pipe across the head 
of the irrigation field and provide a 
series of outlets closed by suitable 
check valves or gates to admit of irri- 
gating different portions of the field 
at intervals. Mark off the field into 
plats by means of low dykes and 
broad shallow ditches, or by means of 
furrows made with a plow. 

Or, if the land is flat, with proper 
grading the sewage may be disposed 
broadly over the surface. The 
amount of solids in household sewage 
is so small that, if discharged inter- 
mittently at rather frequent intervals 
and in such a way as to give the 
different portions of the field enough 
rest to prevent them from becoming 
saturated, this system will prove by 
far the best and cheapest for isolated 
dwellings. If a suitable piece of 
land is available it can be operated 
without the slightest offense. 

Filtication Beds. — This plan con- 
sists in receiving the sewage upon a 
specially prepared bed of sand. It 
may be preferred where the amount 
of land available is small, or the soil 
is of clay and poorly drained. Make 

Section of filter bed. 


an excavation from 3 to 5 feet deep 
and under-drain with 3-inch red un- 
glazed land drainage tiles. A filter 
bed from 15 to 30 feet square having 
an area of from 336 to 400 square 
feet should be sufficiently large for a 
family of five persons. Discharge 

the sewage intermittently from a sep- 
tic or flush tank and distribute evenly 
over the surface by means of wooden 
troughs, 4-inch red drain tile, or a 
6-inch galvanized roof gutter pierced 
with small holes at frequent inter- 
vals. The efficiency of the filtration 
bed increases with the lapse of time, 
especially if the surface is raked over 
to the depth of an inch or more each 
week. The capacity of the septic or 
flush tank may be reduced at least 
one-half if a filter bed is used instead 
of sub-surface irrigation. 

Sub-Surface Irrigation. — The ad- 
vantage of this system, when prop- 
erly installed, is that household sew- 
age may be disposed of without of- 
fense beneath the lawn or garden and 
within a very limited distance of the 
house. The first cost is greater than 
that of surface irrigation or a filtra- 
tion bed, but such a system may be 
regarded as the best and most sani- 
tary method of sewage disposal. A 
well-made septic or flush tank if 
properly covered is free from odor. 
It may be located as near the house 
as may be desired, provided the 
tank and outlet pipe are made water- 
tight up to the point of sewage dis- 
posal. This admits of convenient ac- 
cess, especially if no automatic sy- 
phon is provided and the sewage 
must be discharged by means of a 
check valve by hand. 

To provide for a system of sub- 
surface irrigation it is first necessary 
to under-drain the land provided it is 
hard or clayey and not naturally dry. 
Lay the drain tiles for this purpose 
3 or 4 feet below the surface and 
carry off the ground water by means 
of a suitable outfall. But this will 
not be necessary if the soil is a 
porous, sandj"^, or gravelly loam. Now 
open a system of trenches from 8 to 
13 inches deep, distinct from the 
trenches for under-drainage, if any, 
and in these lay red unglazed land 
drainage tiles to receive the sewage. 
Select tile 3 inches in diameter and 1 
foot in length. Lay them end to end 
with the joints open for a space of 
^ to i of an inch between the tiles 



and with a very slight grade of about 
3 inches to 100 feet. If the grade is 
much gi-eater the lower end of the 
system will be flooded. 

After laying the tile, fill in the 
trench so as to cover them 2 or 3 
inches deep with small pebbles, gravel 
or very coarse sand. This will as- 
sist in distributing the sewage 
through the soil. Lay down the tract 
to grass or cultivate it as a kitchen 
garden, taking care to work the 
ground when necessary with a spade 
or fork and not deep enough to dis- 
turb the tiles. The total capacity 
of these tiles should equal that of the 


may be as broad as it is long. A 
header or central pipe may be used to 
throw the sewage into long branches. 
Or laterals may be thrown off from 
the main drain at intervals of 4 or 5 
feet at any angle or to any desired 
distance. Or preferably the drains 
may be so laid as to constitute two 
or more distinct systems. Thus the 
sewage may be diverted from one to 
another so as to allow the land inter- 
vals of rest. The accompanying illus- 
trations show a number of the vari- 
ous schemes that may be devised. The 
importance of the intermittent dis- 
charge of sewage is greatest hi sub- 

— -iiirrrrrrmi -^ 

Rectangular tanks close to Jiouse. Separate settling tank for laundry building. 
Underdrains in disposal area to drain out underlying ground toater and ivater 
from purified sewage in naturally loet or dense soil. Courtesy State Board of 
Health of North Carolina. 

discharge tank from which the sew- 
age comes. Hence the total length of 
irrigation tiles needed for the family 
consuming 360 gallons of water a day 
would be not to exceed 1,000 feet. 
And probably in porous well drained 
soil, 35 per cent less or 800 feet 
would be sufficient. To ascertain the 
number of tiles required divide the 
total number of gallons reckoned as 
60 for each member of the family, by 
the capacity of each tile. This may 
be estimated roughly as one-third of 
a gallon. 

The system of tile may be laid out 
in any form best suited to the size, 
shape and contour of the available 
land, provided that the lines should 
be laid at least from 3 to 5 feet 
apart. The plot of ground occupied 

surface irrigation. A septic tank 
must be provided large enough to 
hold at least a 34 hours' supply with 
an automatic syphon that will flush 
the tank properly at 34-hour inter- 
vals. Or the tank must be flushed 
by hand if necessary each day at a 
regular time. 

Cess-pools. — The ordinary cess-pool 
is not a solution of the problem of 
sewage disposal. It is merely a 
method of getting the sewage out of 
sight. It is now regarded as abso- 
lutely unsanitary and highly objec- 
tionable. The necessary depth of a 
cess-pool is such as to contaminate 
the soil beyond the reach of the puri- 
fying bacteria which require the 
presence of oxygen. The ground sur- 
rounding the cess-pool becomes con- 



taminated for a constantly increasing 
radius and eventually the resulting 
poisonous liquids and gases find their 
way to strata of the soil through 
which they reach and pollute the air 
of cellars or sources of water sup- 
ply. If, however, a cess-pool is 
deemed necessary, it may be convert- 
ed into a rude form of septic tank by 
turning down the inlet pipe to a 
point below the water level and pro- 
viding an outlet pipe similarly turned 
clown so that the inward and outward 
flow of sewage will not disturb the 
processes which are going on in the 
surface scum and in the sludge at 
the bo om. Such a cess-pool should 
preferauly be made water-tight by 
lining it with concrete or stone set in 
Portland cement mortar. The ef- 
flTient from the outlet must then be 
carried to a considerable distance 
from the house and disposed of by 
surface irrigation, or by means -of a 
small filtration bed as above sug- 

Where water sewage is not availa- 
ble, proper sanitation demands a 
strictly separate method of disposal 
of the three kinds of waste matters, 
namely, solid excreta, slops and gar- 
bage. The garbage should be fed to 
pigs or'* chicken, burned or buried in 
a trench at a suitable distance from 
dwellings and sources of water sup- 
lily. Kitchen drainage and domestic 
slops should invariably be disposed of 
by one of the methods above rec- 
ommended. They should never be 
tlirown on the surface of the ground 
near the house or well, allowed to ac- 
cumulate in an open drain or pool, or 
deposited in an open privy vault. 
The cost of a simple system of dis- 
posal of these liquid wastes is slight 
and the danger to health requires 
that this, at least, be done at any 

The Sanitary Privy. — A recent in- 
vestigation of the subject of soil pol- 
lution from open vaults of the ordi- 
nary type has been made by Charles 
Warden Stiles in connection with his 
study of the spread of the hookworm 
disease, especially in the southern 

states. The following suggestions are 
condensed and adapted from his re- 
port to the Surgeon-General. This 
plan if generally adopted throughout 
the United States would eliminate a 
nuisance which is practically univer- 
sal and which is perhaps the greatest 
menace to health now existing in the 
vicinity of most rural dwellings. 


The following are the essential 
features: There is a closed portion 
(box) under the seat for the recep- 
tion (in a receptacle) and safeguard- 

The average style of privy found in the 
South. It is knoicn as a surface privy, 
open in bacR. Notice how the soil 
pollution is being spread, and how 
flies can carry the filth to the house 
and thus infect the food.. 

ing of the excreta; a roor^ for the 
occupant; and, proper ventilation. 

The receptacle consists practically 
of a box, with a top represented by 
the seat, with a floor which is a con- 
tinuation of the floor of the room, 
with a front extending from the seat 
to the floor, with a hinged back which 
should close tightly, and with two 
sides continuous with the sides of 
the room and provided with wire 
screened ventilators, the upper mar- 
gin of which is just under the level 
of the seat. The seat should have 
one or more holes accoi'ding to the 
size of the privy desired, and each 



nole should have a hinged lid 
which .lifts up toward the back 
of the room; there should be a 
piece of wood nailed across the 
back, on the inside of the room, 
so as to prevent the lids from 
being lifted suflBiciently to fall back- 
ward and so as to make them fall 
forward of their own accord as soon 
as the person rises. In this box there 
should be one or more water-tight 
tubs, half barrels, pails, or galvanized 
cans, corresponding to the number of 
holes in the seat. This receptacle 
should be high enough to reach nearly 
to the seat, or, better still, so as to 
fit snugly against the seat, in order 

A sanitary privy shoioing firmly closed 
door, thus preventing flies, atiimals, 
etc., from having access to the fecal 

to protect the floor against soiling, 
and sufficiently deep to prevent 
splashing the person on the seat; it 
should be held in place by cleats 
nailed to the floor in such a way that 
the tub will always be properly cen- 
tered. The back should be kept 
closed, as shown in the illustration. 

The room should be water-tight 
and should be provided in front with 
a good, tightly fitting door. The 
darker this room can be made the 
fewer flies will enter. The roof may 
have a single slant, or a double slant. 

but M'hile the double slant is some- 
what more sightly, the single slant is 
less expensive in first cost. The room 
should be provided with two or three 
v/ire-screei ed ventilators, as near the 
roof as possible. 

The ventilators are very important 
additions to the privy, as they per- 
mit a free circulation of air and thus 
not only reduce the odor but make 
the outhouse cooler. These ventilators 
should be copper wire screened in 
order to keep out flies and other in- 
sects. There should be at least 4 
(better 5) ventilators, arranged as 
follows: One each side of the box; 
one each side the room near the 
roof; and a fifth ventilator, over the 
door, in front, is advisable. 

latticework, Flowers and Vines. — 
At best, the privy is not an attractive 
addition to the yard. It is possible, 
however, to reduce its unattractive- 
ness by surrounding it with a lattice- 
work on which are trained vines or 
flowers. This plan, which adds but 
little to the expense, renders the 
building much less unsightly and 
much more private. 

Disinfectant. — It is only in com- 
paratively recent years that the privy 
has been thought worthy of scientific 
study, and not unnaturally there is 
some difference of opinion at present 
as to the best plan to follow in re- 
gard to disinfectants. 

Top Soil. — Some persons prefer to 
keep a box or a barrel of top soil, 
sand, or ashes in the room and to 
recommend that each time the privy 
is used the excreta be covered with a 
shovelful of the dirt. While this has 
the advantage of simplicity, it has 
the disadvantage of favoring careless- 
ness, as people so commonly (in fact, 
as a rule) fail to cover the excreta; 
further, in order to have the best re- 
sults, it is necessary to cover the dis- 
charges very completely; finally, at 
best, our knowledge as to how long 
certain germs and spores will live un- 
der these conditions is very unsatis- 

lime. — Some persons prefer to 
have a box of lime in the room and 



to cover the excreta with this ma- 
terial. Against this system there is 
the objection that the li ne is not 
used with sufficient f requc .\cy or lib- 
erality to keep insects a*vay, as is 
shown by the fact that flies carry the 
lime to the house and deposit it on 
the food. 

Water and Oil. — A very cheap and 
simple method is to pour into the 
tub about 3 or 3 inches of water; 
this plan gives the excreta a chance 
to ferment and liquefy so th;it the 
disease germs may be more easily de- 
stroyed. If this plan is followed a 
cup of oil (kerosene will answer) 
should be poured on the water in 
order to repel insects. 

Cresol. — Some persons favor the 
use of a 5 per cent crude carbolic 
acid in the tub. but probably the com- 
pound solution of cresol (U. S. P.) 
will be found equally or more satis- 
factory if used in a strength of 1 
part of this sclution to 19 parts of 

If a disinfectant is used the family 
shoidd be warned to keep the reserve 
supply in a place that is not accessi- 
ble to the chilJren, otherwise acci- 
dents may result. 

Cleaning the Eeceptacle. — Tlie fre- 
quency 'of .leaning the receptacle de- 
pends upon (a) the size of the tub, 
(6) the number of persons using the 
privy, and (c) t' e weather. In gen- 
eral, it is best lo clean it about once 
a week in winter and twice a week in 

An excellent ])ian is to have a dou- 
ble set of pails or tubs for each 
privy. Suppose the outhouse is to be 
cleaned every Saturday: Then pail 
No. 1 is taken out (say January I), 
covered, and set aside until the fol- 
lowing Saturday; pail No. 3 is placed 
in the box for use; on January 8 
pail No. 1 is emptied and put back 
in the box for use while pail No. 3 
is taken out, covei-ed, and set aside 
for a week (namely, imtil January 
15); and so on Ihroughout the year. 
The object of this plan is to give an 
extra long iiiuc for the germs to be 
killed by feniKiitatiou or by the ac- 

tion of the disinfectant before the 
pail is emptied. 

Each time that the receptacle is 
emptied, it is best to sprinkle into 
it a layer of top soil about a quarter 
to half an inch deep before putting 
it back into the box. 

Disposal of the Excreta. — For the 
present, imtil certain very thorough 
investigations are made in regard to 
the length of time that the eggs of 
parasites and the spores of certain 
other germs may live, it is undoubt- 
edly best to burn or boil all excreta; 
where this is not feasible, it is best 
to bury all human discharges at least 
300 feet away and down hill from 
any water supply (as the well, spring, 

Many farmers insist upon using the 
fresh night soil as fertilizer. In 
warm climates this is attended with 
considerable danger, and if it is so 
utilized, it should never be used upon 
any field upon which vegetables are 
grown which are eaten uncooked; 
further, it should be promptly plowed 

In our present lack of knowledge 
as to the length of time that various 
(/erms (as spores of the ameba which 
produce dysentery, various eggs, etc.) 
mai/ live, the use of fresh, unboiled 
night soil as a fertilizer is false econ- 
omy ivhich may result in loss of hu- 
man life. This is especially true in 
warm' climates. 

Directions for Building a Sani- 
tary Privy. — In order to put the 
construction of a sanitary privy for 
the home within the carpentering 
abilities of boys, a practical carpen- 
ter has been requested to construct 
models to conform to the general 
ideas expressed in this article, and 
to furnish estimates of the amount 
of lumber, hardware, and wire 
screening required. Drawings of 
these models have been made dur- 
ing the process of construction and 
in completed condition. The cai'pen- 
ter was requested to bold constantly 
in mind two points, namely, economy 
and simplicity of construction. It is 
believed that any 14-year-old school- 



hoy of (ivcr.'ig*; iiilclli^ciicc .'iiid iiic- 
clianicul iii/.^Miiiily ciux, \>y I'Dllowiiif^ 
tli(!,s« ])lari,s, build a sanilary privy 
for liis hofrw; al an (^xjx^nsi; for biiild- 
iiij^ niaUrrials, exclusive of rcccplMcIc, 
of $.'> to -iilO, accordinf^ to iocalily. 
II is furllicr believed llial, the, pl.nis 
snbruitled cover IIk; essential poiiils 
to he considered. They can he (ilul)- 
oraled to 8iiit. tlie individual lastc! 
of ))ersons who j)ref(;r a inon; «;lej^anl; 
and more expensive strucliirc. I''or 
iiislf,ii(<', the roof <;in h.ivo a double 

Tlic, Hanliory privy. Ii'ront vUiw. 

iiislr.'id of a sin{i;le sl;uil, ;uid can be 
shingled; the sidi-s, front, and back 
<an b(! cla|)boarded or they can be 
shingled. Instead of one seat;, there 
may be two, three, four, or five seats, 
elc, according to necessity. 

A Single-Seated Privy ^or tho 
Home. — Nearly uU privies ii/.- tin; 
home have seats for two persons, 
but a, singhr privy can be made more 

Framework. — 'I'la; liirnbcr rcquiri-d 

for IIh; f r.iiricwork of Hie oiilli<)u:;e 
.shown is as follows: 

A. 'I'wr» piccirs of luHibcr (scant- 
ling) -1. feel, long and (i iiir'lics stjuare 
a I ends. 

I>. One |)iccc ()(' JiiMilicr (sc/nil- 
ling) .'{ (eel. 10 inches long; A> inches 
sijiiare al, <-n(ls. 

('. 'J'wo j)iece.'-. of lumb(;r (scant- 
ling) .'{ feet 4 inches long; 4 inches 
sqmirc; at ends. 

i), 'J'wo j)ieces of lumber (scanl- 
ling) 7 (eel. !) inches long; H by 4 
inches at ends. 

K. Two j)i(rces of lumber (scant- 
ling) a feet 7 inches long; ii by 4 
in<h(rH at ends. 

I'', 'j'wo pi(!Ces of lumber (scant- 
ling) a f('A:t .'{ inches long; 2 by 4 
inches at ends. 

(J. 'I'wo pieces of linnber (scant- 
ling) r> feet long; 2 by 4 incluis at 

II. One piece of linnber (scant- 
ling) '.', led 10 inches long; 'J by 4 
iiicjies nl ends. 

I. Two |)ieces of linnber (scant- 
ling) ;{ feet 4 inches long; 2 l)y 4 
inclies at ends. 

.J. 'j'wo [)i(*ces of lumber (sc.inl- 
ling) .'{ inches long; ;J by 1' inclu-s at 

K. Two pieces of lumber (scant- 
ling) 4 feet 7 inches long; (i inches 
wide by I inch thick. The cndr; of 
K should be trimmed after being 
iiiiiled in plac('. 

I/. 'J'wo pieces of lumber (scant- 
ling) 'li feet long, (> inches widi', /iiid 
I inch thi<'k. 

l"'irst lay down the sills mark<'d A 
and Join tht^m with the joist nnirked 
|{; then nail in position the; two 
Joists marked C, with their etuis '.i 
inches from the outer edge of A; 
raise the corner posts (I) and I''), 
spiking Ihem at bottom lo A and (', 
and Joining them with L, I^, (1, and 
K ; raise door posts V], fastening 
llicm at J, and then spike I, in |)osi- 
lion; H is fastened to K. 

Sides. — J<'>ach side requires four 
boards (a) 12 inches wide by I inch 
lliick and H feet (i inches long; lliese 
are n;iHed to K, I,, jind A. 'I'lie cor- 



nor boards must be nolched i\t G, 
fiIlowin}>; tlioni to pjiss to boltom of 
rool"; next drnw n ,sl;int from front 
lo bftck (it G-G, on tlip outside of the 
bojirds, nnd saw the four side boards 
to e()rres])ond M'ith this slant. 

Back. — 'I'he back requires two 
boards (b) 1)3 inches wide by 1 indi 
thick aiul 0" feet 11 inciies long, and 
two boards (c) 13 inches wide by 
1 incli thick and 6 feet 5 inciies 
Um^. Tlie two longest boards (b) are 
nailed next to tlie sides; llie shorter 

FroDicirork of flic f^anitdrii pririi. 

boards (c) are sawed in two so that 
one ])iece (ci) measures 4 feet 6 
inches, the other (c2) 1 foot 11 
inciies; the longer portion (ci) is 
nailed in position above the seat; the 
shorter portion (c-) is later utilized 
in niaiiing tlie back door. 

Floor. — Tiie door requires four 
boards (d) which (when cut to (it) 
measure 1 inch thick, 1;2 inches wide, 
and :5 feet 10 inches long. 

Front. — The front boards may next 
be nailed on. Tiie front requires 
(;iside from the door) two boards 
(e) wliiili (when cut to lit) measure 

1 inch thick, 9 inches wide, and 8 
feet a inches long; these are nailed 
next to the sides. 

Roof. — Tiie roof may now be fin- 
ished. This requires five boards (f) 
measuring (when cut to fit) 1 inch 
tliick, 12 inches wide, and 6 feet 
long. They are so placed that they 
extend 8 iiu-hes l)cyond the front. 
The joints (cracks) are to be broken 
(covered) by laths one-half inch 
thick, :J inches broad, and 6 feet long. 

Box. — The front of the box re- 
quires two boards, 1 inch thick and 
3 feet 10 inches long. One of these 
(g) may measure 13 inches wide, the 
otiier (h) 5 inches wide. These are 
nailed in place, so that the back of 
the boards is 18 imiies from the in- 
side of the backboards. The seat of 
tlie box requires two boards, 1 inch 
thick, 3 feet 10 inches long; one of 
these (i) may measure 13 inches 
wide, the other (j) 7 inches wide. 
One must be jogged (cut out) to fit 
around the back corner posts (F). 
An oblong hole, 10 in( hes long and 
71 inciies wide, is cut in the seat. 
't"he edge should be smoothly rounded 
or beveled. An extra (removable) 
seat for children may be made by 
cutting a board 1 inch thick, 15 inches 
wide, and 30 inches long; in this seat 
a hole is cut, measuring 7 inches long- 
by ii inches wide; the front margin 
of tills iiole shoxdd be about 3 inches 
from the front edge of the board; to 
prevent Marping, a cross cleat is 
nailed on top near or at" each end of 
the board. 

A cover (k) to the seat should 
measure 1 inch thick by 15 inches 
wide by 30 inches long; it is cleated 
on top near the ends, to prevent 
warping; it is hinged in back to a 
stri]) 1 inch thick, 3 inches wide, and 
30 inches long, which is fastened to 
tiie seat. Cleats (m) may also be 
nailed on the seat at the sides of 
the cov(M\ On the inside of the back- 
boaid, 1.' iiu'lies above the seat, there 
sliould be nailed a block (1), 3 inclieS 
thick, 0" inches long, extending for- 
ward 3 1 inciies; tliis is intended to 
invvciit the cover from falling back- 



ward ancl^ to make it to fall down 
over the hole when the occupant 

On the floor of the box (under- 
neath the seat) two or three cleats 
(n) are nailed in such a position 
that they will always center the tub ; 
the position of these cleats depends 
upon the size of the tub. 

Back Boor. — In making the back 
of the privy the two center boards 
(c) were sawed at the height of the 
bottom of the seat. The small por- 
tions (c2) sawed off (33 inches long) 
are cleated (o) together so as to 

The sanitary privy. Rear and side vieiv. 

form a back door which is hinged 
above; a bolt or a button is arranged 
to kee}-) the door closed. 

rront Boor. — The front door is 
made by cleating (p) together three 
boards (q) 1 inch thick, 10 inches 
wide, and (when finished) 6 feet 7 
inches long; it is best to use three 
cross cleats (p) (1 inch thick, 6 
inches wide, 30 inches long), which 
are placed on the inside. The door 
is hung with two hinges (6-inch 
"strap" hinges will do), which are 
placed on the right as one faces the 
privy, so that the door opens from 
the left. The door should close with 
a coil spring (cost about 10 cents) 

or with a rope and weight, and may 
fasten on the inside with a catch or 
a cord. Under the door a cross- 
jiiece (r) 1 inch thick, 4 inches wide, 
30 inches long (when finished) may 
be nailed to the joist. Stops (s) 
may be placed inside the door as 
illustrated in the cut. These should 
be 1 inch thick, 3 inches wide, and 6 
feet 6 inches long, and should be 
jogged (cut out) (t) to fit the cross 
cleats (p) on the door. Close over 
the top of the door place a stri]) 
(v) 1 inch thick, 2 inches wide, 30 
inches long, nailed to I. A corre- 
sponding piece (v) is placed higher 
up directly under the roof, nailed to 
G. A strap or door pull is fastened 
to the outside of the door. 

Ventilators. — There should be five 
ventilators (w). One is placed at 
each side of the box, directly under 
the seat; it measures 6 to 8 inches 
square. Another (13 inches square) 
is placed near the top on each side 
of the privy. A fifth (30 inches 
long, 8i inches wide) is placed over 
the door, between G and I^. The 
ventilators are made of 15-mesh cop- 
per wire, which is first tacked in 
place and then protected at the edge 
with the same kind of lath that is 
used on the cracks and joints. 

Lath. — Outside cracks (joints) are 
covered with lath one-half inch thick 
by 3 inches wide. 

Receptacle. — For a receptacle, saw 
a water-tight barrel to fit snugly 
under the seat; or purchase a. can 
or tub, as deep (17 inches) as the 
distance from the under surface of 
the seat to the floor. If it is not 
possible to obtain a tub, barrel, or 
can of the desired size, the receptacle 
used should be elevated from the 
floor by blocks or boards so that it 
fits snugly under the seat. A gal- 
vanized can measuring 16 inches deep 
and 16 inches in diameter can be 
purchased for about .$1, or even less. 
An empty candy bucket can be pur- 
chased for about 10 cents. 

Order for Material. — The carpenter 
has made out the following order 
for lumber (pine, No. 1 grade) and 



h.irdw.'irc tn he used in IniiUling a 
l»rivy such <us heiv illust rated: 

1 piece scantling, (i by (> inches by 
S feet h>ng, .'Jl square feet. 

1 piece scantling, •!• by l inciics by 
1\) feet long, 1() square feet. 

5 pieces scantling, ^2 by 4 inches 
by 1() feet long, 51. square feet. 

3 pieces board, 1 by 6 inches by 
10 feet long, 21 square feet. 

2 pieces board, 1 by 9 inches oy 
9 feet long, 11. square feet. 

3 pieces board, 1 by 10 inches by 
7 feet long, 18 square feet. 

l;") pieces board, 1 by 13 inches by 
hi feet long, ISO sqiuire feet. 

13 pieces board, .} by 3 inches by 
1() feet long, 48 square feet. 

3 poiuids of 30-])enny spikes. 

0" pounds of lO-penny nails. 

3 pounds of (v-penny nails. 

7 feet screen, 15-uiesh, copper, 12 
inches wide. 

4 hinges, (i-ineh "straji," for front 
and back doors. 

X? hinges, G-inch "T," or 3-ineh 
"butts," for cover. 

1 coil spring for front door. 

According to the carpenter's esti- 
mate, these materials will cost from 
Ji<j to $10, according to locality. 

There is some variation in the size 
of hnnber, as the pieces are not abso- 
lutcly miifoi-m. Tiie sizes given ni 
tlie Ivunber order represent the stand- 
ard sizes which slionld be ordered, 
but the purchaser need not expect to 
lind that the pieces delivered cor- 
respond with nuithematical exact- 
ness to the sizes called for. On 
lliis account the pieces must be 
n\easured and cut to measure as they 
are put together. 

Elimination of Flies. — .V link be- 
tween the subject of home sanitation 
and hygiene and that of the preven- 
tion of disease has been forged by 
the discovery that the deadly germs 
of enteric diseases, — such as typhoid 
fever, cholera, cholera infantum and 
tropical dysentery — are frequently 
eommmiicated to man by the com- 
mon house fly. Otlier diseases whieli 
are less commonly transmitted by 
Hies are tuberculosis, antlirax, bu- 

bonic phigue (black death), tracho- 
ma, seiiticemia, erysipelas, leprosy, 
yaws, and, perhaps, smallpox. The 
jirolilem of eliminating the house fly 
belongs to the subject of sanitation 
because flies commonly become in- 
fected with noxious bacteria from 
feeding upon infected garbage or 

The (iiivnvil of flics in comminiicatiiiii 
di.scufC. CourtCfiH of the i^tato Board 
of Health of Florida. 

other domestic refuse or the excreta 
of persons suft'ering from typhoid or 
otiier conuuunieabic disease, or tlvose 
of healthy carriers. The elimination 
of these nuisances by the various 
metliods of disposal above recom- 
meiuled is half the battle in the pre- 
vention of disease. Flies infest and 



feed upon decaying- organic matter 
of all sorts, such as accumulations of 
swill in the vicinity of pig pens, gar- 
bage and animal excreta. If these 
substances are exposed in the vicinity 
of dwellings tiiey will become in- 
fested with flies in such enormous 
mnnbers that it will be practically 
impossible to keep them out of the 
house, or to avoid their coining into 
contact with human food. 

The following catechism, which is 
being distributed in great numljers by 
boards of lieaKtli in many cities 
throughout the world, is a digest of 
scientific opinion on this subject. 

Where is the fly born? In manure 
and filth. 

Where does tlie fly live? In every 
kind of filth. 

Is anything too filthy for the fly 
to eat? No. 

Where does he go when he leaves 
the vault and the manure ])ile and 
the spittoon? Into the kitchen and 
dining room. 

What does he do there? He walks 
on the bread, fruit and vegetables; 
he sticks in the butter; he swims in 
the milk. 

Does the fly visit the patient sick 
with consumption, typhoid fever and 
cholera infantum? He does and may 
call on you next. 

Is the fly dangerous? He is man's 
worst ])cst, and more dangerous than 
wild beasts. 

What diseases does the fly carry? 
He carries typhoid fever, tubercu- 
losis and summer complaint. How? 
On his wings and hairy feet. What 
is his correct name? Typhoid fly. 

Did he ever kill anyone? He killed 
more American soldiers in tlie Sj)an- 
ish-American war than the bullets of 
the Spaniards. 

Where are the greatest number of 
cases of typhoid fever, consumption, 
and summer complaint? Where there 
are the most flies. 

Where are the most flies? AVhere 
there is the most filth. 

Wliy should we kill the fly? Be- 
cause he maj-^ kill us. 

How shall we kill the flv? Destrov 

all the filth about the house and 
yard; poUr lime into the vault and 
on the maimre; kill the fly with a 
wire screen ])addle or sticky paper 
or kerosene oil. 

Kill the fly in any way, but kill 
the fly. 

Extirpation of Flies. — A very great 
deal of attention has been drawn to 
this subject by recent scientific in- 
vestigations and many practicable 
suggestions have been made since the 
publication of tiie first edition of this 
volume. The control of the house 

aimplc and rcrij isuvcoisful //;/ trap for 
a fjarb(if/c run. Cloth curtain turned 
up to hIioio vleutH. It catches the 
flicH ontnidc the house. Flies enter 
the i/arbaije can throuf/Ii, the crack be- 
tween the cover and the can, and also 
around the edjjc of tlie trap placed 
over a two or three inch hole in the 
can. After feeding then fly toward 
the light and come out this hole in the 
cover into the trap. (O. 7''. llodfjc.) 

fly is now regarded as one of the 
most important of all sanitary prolj- 
lems. A nation-wide cfmipaign to 
this end has been set on foot. It has 
been shown by actual experience dur- 
ing the last few years that the 
method of excluding flics from horse 
manure as elsewhere reconnnendcd, 
will greatly lessen the number ol)- 
served in tlie localil}\ Several cities 
have adopted ordinances iiroviding 


that the floors of stables shall be 
solid and free from cracks, and that 
horse manure shall be collected in 
tight cans or barrels, covered so as 
to exclude flies, and removed daily 
beyond the city limits. Some such 
means of depriving flies of their 
natural breeding places is the most 
essential step in the vi^arfare against 
these pests. Any householder may 
greatly abate this nuisance by proper 
sanitary precautions on his own 
premises. And such means will be 
found very eff^ective in localities 
where dwellings are fairly distant 
from one another. But since flies 
may come from considerable dis- 
tances and bring with them infection 
from sources beyond one's control, 
it will still be found necessary to 
adopt preventive measures. In addi- 
tion to those elsewhere recommended 
several ingenious methods of trap- 
ping flies in large numbers have re- 
cently been devised and may here be 

Trapping Flies. — Prof. C F. 
Hodge offers a number of practical 
suggestions derived from experience 
in catching flies in large quantities 
to feed bob-white and partridge 
chicks. His method is, in substance, 
to provide a number of large traps 
and either to bait them artificially 
with garbage and meat scraps in con- 
siderable quantities or set them at 
the flies' natural feeding grounds. 
The working principle of these traps 
is that a fly seeks its food entirely 
by smell and Mill crawl to it through 
any dark crack. Thence, after feed- 
ing, it will fly or crawl toward the 
light. Hence, if a suitable trap is 
placed over the garbage can or swill 
iDarrel, or in a room or shed in homes, 
hotels, restaurants or markets, in 
which waste matter is collected, the 
great bulk of the flies which are 
drawn to these feeding grounds from 
the entire locality can be captured 
and disposed of. 

Small traps of wire net can be 
bought for about 10 cents apiece in 
most localities. Or they can be 
readily made at home of two pieces 

of ordinary wire netting. The outer 
may be of any shape and size de- 
sired. The inner is merely an in- 
verted cone with an opening just 
large enough to permit the flies to 
crawl in. One or more of these 
traps may be attached to the lid of 
the garbage pail, swill barrel, or hog 
trough over a hole through which the 
flies may find their way into the 
trap after feeding. Lift the lid or 
cover of the receptacle a little way 
to admit the flies and hang some- 
thing over the edge so as to keeiJ out 
the light. Or a strip of burlap from 
an old potato sack may be thrown 
over the lid to keep the sun out. 

Box fly trap designed hy C. F. Hodge. 

Or if there is no accumulation of 
garbage, swill or other natural feed- 
ing ground for flies in the locality, 
construct one or more large traps in 
the form of a screened box, as shown 
in the illustration. Artificially bait 
these by placing, in old tomato cans 
or other receptacles, meat scraps and 
similar refuse beneath tlie platform 
on which the traps are located. Bring 
the side boards below this platform 
nearly to the ground so that the 
space beneath, where the bait is 
placed, may be dark. The cones in 
the illustration may be readily made 
from pieces of ordhiarj' wire netting. 
One small boy in "Worcester, Mass., 
has a record of capturing about three 
bushels of flies in a trap of this kind 
during a single summer. 

If the small woven wire traps are 



used, the flies may be killed by im- 
mersing them in boiling water. Or 
hold the traps over the flames of 
burning newspaper. Or if the large 
screen boxes are employed, equip 
them with one or more small vessels 
containing liquid fly poison. A good 
fly killer consists of a teaspoonful of 
40 per cent solution of formaldehyde 
and one-half teaspoonful of sugar 
dissolved in a cup of water. This 
may be exposed inside the fly trap 
in a shallow vessel, as an earthenware 
plate or pie tin, and also in saucers 
or other suitable receptacles, in any 
part of the house. While deadly to 
flies it is nonpoisonous, in small 
quantities, to children or domestic 

Or dissolve 1 dram of bichromate 
of potash in 3 ounces of water, add 
a little sugar and expose in shallow 
receptacles. These poisons are quickly 
eff'ective in fly traps because the flies 
cannot get to any other source of 
water supply. 

Or fill a half pint or a pint bottle 
having a nick in the top of it with 
the poison mixture. Quickly invert 
this in a small shallow dish. Sup- 
port the bottle in that position upon 
a bracket and hang it up where the 
flies abound. A nick of the right 
depth in the mouth of the bottle will 
keep in the dish a shallow pool of 
poison all the time. 

Or to make an efficient, cheap and 
safe fly poison, for use in the house- 
hold, markets, store windows, etc., 
mix 1 cupful milk, 1 cupful water, 
1 teaspoonful 40 per cent solution of 
formaldehyde, 1 tablespoonful sugar. 

Pour enough of this solution over 
a small slice of bread placed on a 
saucer to thoroughly saturate it and 
leave surplus liquid in the saucer. 
Place these saucers on window sills 
and other places where flies swarm, 
but out of reach of children and 

Another ingenious method sug- 
gested by Prof. Hodge is to attach 
a small wire trap to the wire screen 
with which windows and doors are 
protected against insects in summer. 
Two small guide boards tacked on 
the screen lead the flies to a small 
opening near the top and thence 
through a hole in the screen into the 
trap. A similar trap may be at- 
tached to the inside of the same or 
another window and thus flies may be 

Device for poisoning flies. 

caught both "coming and going." 
This method is equally well adapted 
to the house and to the barn and 

A little ingenuity and reasonable 
pains in providing and caring for a 
sufficient number of traps of this 
character will, according to Prof. 
Hodge, reduce the number of flies in 
most localities to a point such that 
the few that do finally get into the 
house may be readily killed with the 
ordinary fly swatter. The importance 
of the campaign against flies from 
the standpoint of sanitation and the 
prevention of disease can hardly be 





Before the germ theory of disease 
became fully established, a distinction 
was made between what were called 
"infectious" as opposed to "conta- 
gious" diseases. These words are now 
used interchangeably. It was for- 
merly supposed that "infectious" dis- 
eases could be "caught" by merely 
breathing the air in the vicinity of 
the patient. A superstition to this 
eifect still lingers in some localities. 
Many persons, otherwise well in- 
formed, attempt to hold their breath 
while passing pest houses or dwell- 
ings where patients with virulent 
commTj.nicable diseases are quaran- 
tined. This notion that the germs of 
disease are usually communicated 
through the air has been completely 
exploded. On the other hand it was 
formerly supposed that "contagious" 
in the sense opposed to "infectious" 
diseases, could be communicated only 
by actual contact of the diseased 
part Avith the body of another person. 
Some diseases were thought to be 
both contagious and infectious. Many 
cases of the transmission of disease 
were observed, however, which could 
not be explained upon either of these 
theories. Hence there was formerly 
a good deal of doubt, even among 
medical men, as to the exact way in 
which certain diseases were commu- 

This confusion of thought is now 
to a large extent cleared away. The 
contact infection theory may be said 

to be fully established. According 
to this theory the living bacteria, or 
germs, which cause contagious dis- 
eases are most commonly transmitted 
from a diseased to a well person 
within a comparatively short space 
of time, and through the medium of 
"some solid object or liquid, rather 
than through the air. Two kinds, or 
types, of infection are loosely dis- 
tinguished — direct and secondary. 
Direct infection is, in general, that 
which gives rise to new cases in fam- 
ilies or on premises that have been 
previously free from disease. In- 
direct, or secondary, infection is that 
whereby a disease is communicated 
from a patient to his nurse or other 
attendant, or to other members of 
the same household. Direct infection 
is thought to occur chiefly through 
the contamination of the sources of 
water or milk supply, or by chance 
contact with persons ih the early 
stages of a communicable disease, or 
those suffering from mild cases, or 
from healthy "carriers." Especial 
attention has also been directed of 
late to the part played by insects, 
especially the house fly, as carriers 
of disease. The bedbug, the body 
louse, the various species of fleas, 
mosquito and ticks have also been 
found to communicate the germs of 
disease from certain animals to man 
and from one person to another. 

Direct infection may, and often 
does, occur from unavoidable acci- 
dent. But secondary infection is in- 
variably the result of ignorance or 




carelessness. The most usual vehicles 
of secondary infection are thought to 
be the bed covers or clothing of the 
patient; his handkerchief; his dis- 
charges; remnants of food and drink 
left by him on the tray, or the dishes 
or other utensils by means of which 
he is served; and the person or 
clothing of the nurse or other bed- 
side visitors. The cardinal principle 
of preventive medicine is that secon- 
dary infection must and shall not 

According to the contact infection 
theory all the germs of disease by 
which healthy persons are infected 
had quite recent origin in the body 
of some diseased person. They left 
the patient through some of his dis- 
charges, as his sputum or excreta, 
possibly through perspiration, or in 
the case of smallpox, chickenpox, or 
scarlet fever, through the scabs or 
scaling of the outer surface of the 
body. Thence they were transmitted 
to the neighborhood of the infected 
person, through some fairly direct 
route, by the agency of solid bodies 
or liquids, and under conditions rea- 
sonably favorable to germ life. They 
then found their entrance into his 
body through some of its main or- 
ifices, usually by being breathed in or 
swallowed. When these essential 
principles are well understood and 
sufficiently considered, they will usu- 
ally enable the responsible head of a 
family to trace a case of infection 
to its source. Steps may then be 
taken to avoid further infection 
and prevent the spread of the dis- 

The open vault, sink drain, or ac- 
cumulation of garbage or other filth, 
so located as to contaminate the soil 
or the sources of the water supply, 
and the flies or other insects which 
feed in and about them, may be com- 
pared to an unloaded gun. Their 
deadly possibilities are latent until 
they become infested (loaded) with 
the living germs of typhoid or otlier 
communicable diseases. Such germs 
are not the product of putrefaction. 
They do not develop spontaneously 

in fecal or decayed matter such as 
night-soil, garbage, and kitchen slops. 
Nor do disease germs multiply in 
such locations. Indeed, the bacteria 
which cause human diseases will or- 
dinarily die out within a compara- 
tively short time when deliberately 
added to such substances for the 
purpose of scientific investigation. 
When a case of typhoid or other con- 
tagious disease occurs, through the 
pollution of the soil or water supply, 
or through the medium of flies, by 
contagion from an open vault or 
drain or similar nuisance, the real 
source is often overlooked and dis- 
regarded, because these nuisances 
have existed before the patient was 
taken sick and no one had previously 
been made ill by them. The explana- 
tion of science is that only at rare 
intervals and as a consequence of 
direct infection from some diseased 
person, do these nuisances become ac- 
tive sources of contagion and deadly 
menaces to the public health. The 
danger is that this may happen un- 
known to the responsible head of the 
family. The result may be an epi- 
demic in which many lives are need- 
lessly sacrificed. 

A good illustration may be found 
in a case reported by a milk inspec- 
tor of a western city. An outbreak 
of typhoid was traced to the milk 
supply from a certain farm dairy. 
On investigation it was found that 
two of the dairyman's children were 
convalescing from that disease. The 
family water supply used for drink- 
ing purposes and also for cleansing 
milk pails and other receptacles was 
a dug well in the farmer's yard. It 
was located not far from an out- 
house of the open vault type. The 
milk inspector suggested that the well 
water might be contaminated from 
this source. The dairyman responded 
that this could not be the case be- 
cause the water v/as clear, cold and 
tasteless. A few days later this far- 
mer called up the milk inspector on 
the telephone and inquired if the 
germs of typhoid fever would make 
water pink. The inspector respond- 



ed, No ! but that if the well water 
was pink, it might be due to a quan- 
tity of red dye which he had poured 
into the vault of the outhouse. Later, 
the dairyman himself succumbed to 
typhoid fever. The milk supply from 
this dairy having been shut oflF, fur- 
ther spread of the disease among 
its patrons was prevented. 

A practical suggestion may be 
drawn from this incident for cases 
where it is suspected that the source 
of drinking water may be contami- 
nated from open vaults, drains or 
similar sources. A bushel or more of 
coarse salt may be deposited in the 
vault or drain and care taken to ob- 
serve whether or not the water, espe- 
cially after the next heavy rain, 
tastes in the least salty. 

But, as the amount of salt that 
might be transmitted in solution 
through the soil may not be enough 
to be detected when diluted by the 
contents of a deep well, it is safer 
and better in all such cases to have 
a bacteriological test of the water 
made at the State laboratory. The 
commissioner of health in most States 
will forward on request a suitable 
bottle properly packed for mailing, 
with full directions how to select and 
forward the necessary sample. In 
some States such tests will be made 
free. But in any case the cost will 
hardly exceed that of a doctor's visit. 
The result may be the saving of one 
or many lives. 

The bacteria which cause germ dis- 
eases are parasites, that is, they do 
not normally occur in nature outside 
the bodies of men or other animals. 
These they regard as their natural 
home. Hence they can thrive and 
multiply only under very similar con- 
ditions of warmth, moisture, absence 
of direct sunlight and presence of a 
supply of food suitable to their 
necessities. They are so exceedingly 
small as to be totally invisible to 
the naked eye, and are without color, 
taste or odor. Hence the presence in 
an ordinary well of bacteria sufficient 
to kill all the inhabitants of a great 
city could not be detected without 

the use of a microscope except 
through their fatal consequences. 

It was formerly supposed that the 
introduction into the human body of 
one or more germs of any contagious 
ailment was certain to result in the 
contraction of a typical case of the 
disease. The use of the microscope 
has proved that this is by no means 
the case. The germs of pneumonia, 
diphtheria, tuberculosis and others 
are often found in the throat and 
lungs of perfectlj^ healthy persons. 
The germs of various diseases may be 
swallowed without injurious results. 
The likelihood of contagion depends 
in part upon the number of the bac- 
teria that may gain lodgment in the 
system, in part upon their vitality, 
and in part upon the state of health 
of the afflicted person. Most germs 
tend to breed and multiply in colon- 
ies. They do not live long outside 
of the human body, or other living 
host, except under favorable condi- 
tions, and the body when in perfect 
health has considerable power to re- 
sist their invasion. 

The vitality of different species, 
or of the same species under differ- 
ent conditions, varies considerably. 
The germ which causes consumjation, 
the tubercle bacillus, is among the 
most resistant. The germs expecto- 
rated by the consumptive may be 
found in a state of full vitality, in 
the dry sputum of the patient, float- 
ing in the air as dust. With this ex- 
ception, however, it is believed that 
exposure to dry heat and esi^ecially to 
direct sunlight kills most disease 
germs or greatly weakens them. The 
effect of cold is merely to suspend 
their activities. Freezing for an in- 
definite time does not injure most 
germs. But all are destroyed by ex- 
posure to heat at or near the tem- 
perature of boiling water, or by con- 
tact with various substances known 
as germicides or disinfectants. 

The most virulent bacteria will die 
of themselves within a comparatively 
short time after they are thrown off 
from the body of a diseased person, 
unless by chance they find congenial 



lodgment in warm, dark places such 
as open vaults or drains or in an- 
other human body. 

The germs of diphtheria, typhoid 
and some other diseases will multi- 
ply quite rapidly in fresh milk, al- 
tliough they are commonly destroyed 
by the lactic acid which forms in 
milk in the process of souring. They 
will, however, live for some time in 
cheese and butter. Hence contamina- 
tion of the milk supply is one of the 
most frequent sources of infection. 
Bacteria do not appear to multiply 
in ordinary drinking water. On the 
contrary, it is believed that the germs 
of typhoid will die out of wells and 
cisterns in about a week or ten days 
if there is no further contamination 
in that interval. The contamination 
of water supplies is, however, among 
the most frequent causes of fatal 
epidemics of tyishoid and some other 
diseases. The pollution is usually 
continuous and often increases in 
amount and virulence until attention 
is drawn to it by an outbreak of dis- 

The discharges of patients suffer- 
ing from typhoid and similar dis- 
eases contain myriads of the living 
bacteria. When these find their way 
by seepage, or surface drainage from 
open vavdts to streams, springs, wells 
and cisterns, or through the outflows 
of sewage being in too close prox- 
imity to the intake of water supplies, 
the number of germs swallowed is 
almost sure to bring on the disease 
in its most virulent form. 

Other common sources of infection 
are vegetables, contaminated by pol- 
luted soil, pet cats and other animals, 
and, in short, anything which may 
serve as a vehicle to transport the 
living germs in a fairly direct route 
from one human body to another. 

While a person in perfect health 
may come in contact with the germs 
of disease with impunity, especially 
if they are few in number, and if 
their vitality has been impaired by 
exposure to drying heat or otherwise, 
yet every precaution that science can 
suggest should he taken to avoid such 

contagion. Persons in the best of 
health may become susceptible to the 
attacks of bacteria by the lowering 
of tone due to over-fatigue, to a 
sudden cold, or similar causes. Or 
the disease may be taken in such mild 
form that its true character may not 
be recognized. Such an attack may 
cause the patient little inconvenience, 
but may result, in the absence of 
proper precautions, in the spread of 
the disease to others in its most 
virulent form. Indeed, such cases, 
and those called healthy "carriers" 
are known to be among the most 
common agencies in the spread of 

Healthy "carriers" of disease, in 
medical parlance, are patients who 
have recovered and become immune 
to the bacteria of a germ disease, 
but who are still breeding such germs 
in large numbers in their bodies. Or- 
dinarily, the germs of disease disap- 
pear at or near the time of the pa- 
tient's recovery, but in exceptional 
cases persons have been known to be 
"carriers" for many months or even 
years. Such persons are especially 
dangerous, because the liability of 
infection from them is not usually 
suspected. Yet, in the absence of ab- 
solute cleanliness and proper precau- 
tionary measures, they may be the 
means of infecting others, or con- 
taminating sources of water supply. 
A typical case is that known to medi- 
cal men as "Typhoid Mary." This 
woman is known to have infected 
about twenty-four persons in six dif- 
ferent families where she was em- 
ployed as a cook. Another recorded 
instance is that of a dairyman, a 
carrier of typhoid, who caused no 
fewer than three epidemics in a west- 
ern city through the contamination 
of the water supply which was iised 
by him for cleansing milk cans and 
other receptacles. 

Prevention, of Contact Infection. — 
There are two distinct lines of ac- 
tion which must be adopted to insure 
against infection. The first consists 
in preventing all possibility of the 
containination of the soil, ])ollution 



of water supply, or transmission of 
the germs of disease by flies and 
other insects. This may be done by 
abolishing all open vaults and drains 
and by the sanitary disposition of 
all slops, garbage, dead animals and 
other household or farm refuse. 
Statistics show that such steps, if 
properly taken, will reduce the likeli- 
hood of infection about one-half. 
Thus, in the city of Springfield, 111., 
the death rate from typhoid contin- 
ued to increase even after the intro- 
duction of an efficient water supply 
and sanitary sewerage. An investiga- 
tion by the Board of Health disclosed 
that only about one-third of the 
property owners were availing them- 
selves of these improvements. Two- 
thirds of the families were still de- 
pendent upon cess-pools and open 
vaults. When these were abolished 
by city ordinance, the death rate 
from typhoid was reduced about one- 
half. A similar result was observed 
in the city of Providence after all 
cess-pools and open vaults were 
abolished by municipal ordinance. 

The other line of defense consists 
in the observance of absolute sanitary 
cleanliness and the proper use of 
disinfectants, especially in times of 
epidemijC or when there are cases of 
contagious illness in the family or 
neighborhood. It has been proved 
beyond question that, if proper pre- 
cautions are taken to avoid infection 
from milk or water supplies, insects 
and similar causes, and if sanitary 
])recautions are observed, a patient 
\A'ith any contagious disease may be 
nursed in his own home without in- 
fecting other members of the family. 
In certain high-class French hospi- 
tals, patients suffering from all sorts 
of contagious diseases, such as diph- 
theria, smallpox, typhoid fever, scar- 
let fever and others, are treated in 
the same open wards and waited upon 
by the same physicians, nurses and 
attendants. The only separation of 
one patient from another is by means 
of low screens or partitions made of 
cotton cloth. Even these are some- 
times omitted and the space allotted 

to each patient is defined merely by 
a line of tape or by marks chalked 
or painted upon the floor. The ob- 
ject of these is simply to call the 
nurse's attention to the necessity of 
observing sanitary precautions before 
crossing the territory of one patient 
into that of another. 

No object which has touched the 
person of a patient or been contam- 
inated by any of his discharges is 
permitted to touch the person of any 
other patient. The nurse and the at- 
tending physicians wash their hands 
in a disinfectant solution each time 
they touch or handle the patient or 
anything which has come into con- 
tact with him, before approaching 
the bedside of another sufi^erer. Un- 
der this plan, which is known as the 
French cubicle system, instances in 
which a patient sufl"ering from one 
contagious disease has become in- 
fected with another are extremely 
rare, while all are being treated in 
the same i-oom and are breathing the 
same air. 


The purpose of disinfection is to 
kill the germs of contagious diseases 
after they leave the body of the pa- 
tient and before they find another 
victim. This may be done by means 
of heat by boiling, baking or burning 
the infected material, or by means 
of various chemical poisons known as 
disinfectants or germicides. These 
are usually applied in liquid or gas- 
eous form. Germs can be killed by 
heat or disinfectants only under the 
following conditions: The heat must 
be sufiiciently intense or the disin- 
fectant sufficiently strong; the germs 
must be thoroughly exposed to the 
heat or disinfectant; and for a suf- 
ficient length of time. 

Disinfection by heat may be by 
fire, boiling water or live steam. No 
special apparatus is needed if fire or 
boiling water is used. The infected 
articles are simply burned or boiled. 
Articles to be disinfected by boiling 
should be weighted, if necessary, and 



kept under the water while actually 
boiling for not less than half an 
liour. The addition of common wash- 
ing soda to the water, at the rate of 
one moderate tablespoonful to each 
gallon of water, increases its effi- 

Steam disinfection, on a small 
scale, may be accomplished by means 
of an ordinary wash boiler contain- 
ing a wooden rack resting upon 
bricks, or otherwise suspended above 
the level of the boiling water. Pack 
the articles to be disinfected closely 
upon this rack, put the cover on 
tight and boil briskly at least an 
hour. Be sure to use enough water 
so that the boiler will not go dry. 
Many kinds of clothing and other 
objects which would be injured by 
boiling can be safely disinfected in 
this manner. 

All stains should be removed be- 
fore disinfection by steam or boiling 
water, as heat tends to fix them. 

Disinfection in General. — Most of 
the so-called disinfection practiced in 
families is inefficient and useless. The 
burning of coifee, tar, or other sub- 
stances in the sick room or elsewhere 
in the presence of the patient or 
others, operates at most only as a 
deodorizer. Such fumes do not de- 
stroy the germs of disease. Open 
vessels containing chloride of lime, 
carbolic acid or other disagreeable- 
smelling substances have no value for 
disinfecting purposes, unless the in- 
fected material is actually immersed 
in them. If bad odors exist, remove 
the source and admit an abundance 
of fresh air. Never use disinfect- 
ants not vouched for by reliable au- 
thorities. Disinfectants, germ killers, 
and the like, sold like patent medi- 
cines are most often expensive and 
worthless. They should never be re- 
lied upon. The following solutions 
are for use during illness and for 
general family use as directed. 

Allow nothing to go from the sick 
room in case of communicable dis- 
eases without having been disinfected 
with one of these solutions. It should 
be an unceasing duty of the nurse 

or other attendants to see that dis- 
infection as here indicated is carried 
out to the minutest particular. 


Substances recommended as reli' 
able disinfectants for general exter- 
nal use in contagious diseases are (1) 
chloride of lime; (2) quick lime; 
milk of lime; (3) bichloride of mer- 
cury (corrosive sublimate), either 
with or without the addition of muri- 
ate of ammonia, or permanganate of 
potash; (4) carbolic acid, and (5) 
solution of formaldehyde (formalin). 
Such substances as Lysol, Kreolin, 
Tri-Kresol and other much adver- 
tised patented preparations are no 
better than the above and are too 
expensive for general external use in 
sufficient quantities. The following 
standard disinfectant solutions are 
those endorsed and recommended by 
public health authorities throughout 
the United States. They are the 
cheapest, best known and most reli- 
able disinfectants. No others need 
be employed for general external use. 
Most of these solutions are highly 
poisonous. None are suitable for 
washing out the mouth, gargling the 
throat, or other internal use. 

No. 1. Standard Solution of Chlo- 
ride of Lime (chlorinated lime). — 
This is one of the most effective and 
highly recommended disinfectants. It 
is used in the form of an aqueous 
solution, i. e., dissolved in water, in 
strength varying from 3 per cent 
(weak) to 10 per cent (strong) solu- 
tion. For a 10 per cent solution add 
1 pound of good chloride of lime to 
1 gallon of water and mix thoroughly. 
For a 5 per cent solution use ^ 
pound to the gallon of water, and for 
a 3 per cent solution use 1 pound to 
3 gallons or 5^ ounces to the gal- 
lon. Authorities variously recom- 
mend from 5i to 61 ounces chloride 
of lime to the gallon of water, or a 
solution of slightly more than 3 per 
cent, as a standard solution for free 
general use. 



Chloride of lime is not fully solu- 
ble in water. A clear solution may 
be obtained by filtration or decanta- 
tion, but the insoluble sediment does 
no harm and this is an unnecessary 
refinement. The solution should 
stand at least ten minutes before 

The chloride of lime must be of the 
best quality. It should contain at 
least 25 per cent of available chlo- 
rine. Poor chloride of lime is use- 
less. Prepare only as needed and 
keep, preferably, in a stone jug with 
a tight-fitting stopper. Do not de- 
pend upon this solution unless freshly 
prepared from chloride of lime of 
good quality. This substance ought 
to be obtained anywhere for about 
10 cents a pound retail or about 3J 
cents wholesale, making the cost of 
a 3 per cent solution only about 1 
to 3 cents a gallon. Hence, in addi- 
tion to being among the most effec- 
tive disinfectants and germicides 
available for general use, it is also 
one of the cheapest. 

Directions for Use. — Use one quart 
of the half-strength (5 per cent) 
solution for each discharge from a 
patient suffering from any contagious 
or infectious disease. Mix well and 
leave in the vessel for an hour or 
more before throwing into privy 
vault or water closet. The same for 
vomited matter. For a very copious 
discharge, especially in cholera, use a 
larger quantity ; and for solid or semi- 
solid matter, use the full strength 
(10 per cent) solution. Receive dis- 
charges from the mouth or throat in 
a cup half full of the half-strength 
(5 per cent) solution, and those from 
the nostrils upon soft cotton or linen 
rags. Burn these immediately. 

As the fecal discharges of the sick 
are the chief vehicles of communica- 
tion in many contagious diseases, 
their disinfection should be thorough- 
ly performed. Especially should care 
be taken as to their disposal, so that 
no portion of them can gain access, 
either directly or indirectly, by sur- 
face drainage, percolation, filtration, 
or otherwise, to any water-supply. 

Use a quart or more of the solu- 
tion full-strength (10 per cent) each 
day in an offensive vault, and such 
quantities as may be necessary in 
other places. Use it in a sprinkler 
in stables, and elsewhere. In the 
sick room place it in vessels, cuspi- 
dors, etc. Immerse sheets and other 
clothing used by the patient in a pail 
or tub of this solution, diluted one 
gallon of the full-strength (10 per 
cent) solution to ten of water, for 
two hours, or until ready for the 
wash room or laundry. This solution 
is non-poisonous and does not injure 
white clothing. It should be used, 
however, only for white, cotton or 
linen fabrics. It bleaches colored 
goods and injures wool, silk and oth- 
er animal fibers. Body and bed 
linen thus treated should afterwards 
be thoroughly cleansed by boiling for 
a half hour in soap and water and 
by two or more rinsings. 

It may also be used in one-third 
strength (3 per cent) solution for 
washing the hands or parts of the 
body which may have been exposed 
to infection from excreta, etc. 

For a free and general use in 
privy-vaults, sewers, sink drains, ref- 
use heaps, stables, and wherever else 
the odor of the disinfectant is not 
objectionable, this is perhaps tlie 
cheapest and most effective disinfect- 
ant and germicide available for gen- 
eral use. It should be used so freely 
as to wet everything required to be 
disinfected. Its odor does not dis- 
infect. It only covers up other 

Chloride of lime in dry form may 
also be applied in large quantities to 
vaults and cess-pools. Dilute it for 
this purpose with 9 parts of plaster 
of Paris or the same proportion of 
clean dry sand to admit of more con- 
venient application. 

No. 2. Standard Solution Milk of 
Lime (quick lime). — Slake a quart 
of freshly-burnt lime (in small pieces) 
with J of a quart of water — or to be 
exact, 60 parts of water (by weight) 
with 100 of lime. A dry product of 
slaked lime (hydrate of lime) results. 



Make from this, milk of lime, im- 
mediately before it is to be used, by 
mixing 1 part of this dry hydrate of 
lime with 8 parts (by weight) of 
water. The dry hydrate may be pre- 
served for some time if enclosed in a 
covered fruit jar or other air-tight 

Or, prepare milk of lime by slak- 
ing freshly burnt quick lime in about 
four times its volume of water, i. e., 
about 1 pound of fresh unslaked lime 
to 1 gallon of water. Milk of lime 
must be used within a day or two 
after preparation or its value as a 
disinfectant is lost. It should be 
kept in some air-tight container, pref- 
erably an earthenware jug and close- 
ly stoppered. 

Air-slaked lime has no value as a 
disinfectant and should not be used 
for this purpose. 

Quick lime is one of the cheapest 
of disinfectants, and may take the 
place of chloride of lime if desired. 
Use freely in a quantity equal in 
amount to the material to be disin- 
fected. Use also to whitewash ex- 
l^osed surfaces, to disinfect excreta 
in the sick room, or on the surface 
of the ground, in sinks, vaults, drains, 
stagnant pools and the like. 

No. 3. Standard Solution of Bi- 
chloride of Mercury (corrosive sub- 
limate). — The most convenient way 
to prepare this solution is by the use 
of bichloride of mercury tablets 
which can be obtained at any drug 
store. The directions for using these 
tablets are given on the package. 
But if large quantities of bichloride 
solutions are to be used, it will be 
found cheaper to have a strong so- 
lution prepared by a druggist and 
tlien add at home, under his direction, 
sufficient water to reduce it to the 
required strength. Two tablets dis- 
solved in 1 pint of water, or sixteen 
tablets (3 drams) corrosive sublimate 
to the gallon, makes a solution of 
1 to 500. This may be improved by 
adding 2 ounces of common salt to 
the gallon of water. 

Or, dissolve corrosive sublimate and 
muriate of ammonia in water in the 

proportion of 2 drams, 190 grains or 
i ounce of each to the gallon. 

Or, dissolve corrosive sublimate and 
permanganate of potash, 2 drams 
each to 1 gallon of water. 

Or, dissolve corrosive sublimate, 
permanganate of potash and muriate 
of ammonia in pure soft water in 
the proportion of 2 drams each to the 

All the above substances may be 
obtained at any first-class drug store. 
The simple solution of bichloride in 
water first mentioned is a good dis- 
infectant and may be preferred 
whenever it is necessary to practice 
economy. But, if the additional cost 
of such substances as muriate of 
ammonia (sal ammoniac) and per- 
manganate of potash can be afforded, 
the solution will be more efficient 
and will keep better. If permanga- 
nate of potash is not used, it is a 
good plan to add a little blue vitriol 
or common bluing to color the solu- 
tion. This lessens the danger of its 
being swallowed by accident. 

Cautions. — All the above solutions 
or others containing bichloride of 
mercury (corrosive sublimate) will 
corrode metals and even tarnish gold. 
In so doing their disinfecting power 
is lost. Hence, these solutions must 
be mixed in a wooden tub, barrel or 
pail, or an earthen crock. They 
must be kept in a glass or earthen- 
ware receptacle — as a glass fruit jar 
or earthenware jug — tightly stop- 
pered to prevent evaporation, and la- 
beled "Poison". They should never 
be poured into metal drains without 
thorough and repeated flushing. Oth- 
erwise they will injure plumbing. 
Nor should they be permitted to 
come into contact with the metal fix- 
tures of the bath room. The better 
plan is to bury them, after using, at 
least one foot deep in the ground. 
Rings must be removed from the 
hands before they are immersed in 
the bichloride solutions. 

Use any of the above solutions full 
strength (1:500) to disinfect ex- 
creta in the same manner and quan- 
tity as the Chloride of Lime Solution 



No. 1, They are equally as effective 
but slower in action. Hence it is 
necessary to let the mixture, disin- 
fectant and infected matter, stand at 
least four hours. It is best to empty 
the mixture into a wooden pail and 
leave it for twenty-four hours. It 
may then be thrown into a vault or 
buried. The chief advantage of these 
solutions over No. 1 is that they pos- 
sess no odor. Hence they may be 
preferred for use in vessels, cuspidors 
and the like, if Solution No. 1 is 
objectionable on account of its smell. 
They are not as good disinfectants 
for vaults, sink drains, sewers and 
the like as the chloride of lime so- 
lution, nor are they trustworthy as a 
disinfectant of fresh sputum. 

Also use any of these solutions 
one-half strength, that is, diluted with 
an equal quantity of water (1 : 1,000), 
for the disinfection of soiled un- 
derclothing, bed linen and other 
fabrics. Mix the solution well by 
stirring and immerse the articles for 
two hours. Then wring them out and 
boil at least half an hour. Bichloride 
solutions tend to fix stains. Hence 
remove stains by approjDriate process 
before disinfection. 

Also use one-half strength (1 : 
1,000) i-of any of these solutions for 
washing all hard surfaces not metal- 
lic, as walls, floors, furniture and the 
like, and for moistening cloths with 
which to wipe off dust from the 
woodwork and furniture. For wash- 
ing metallic surfaces use disinfectant 
No. 5, 2 per cent solution of formal- 

Also use this solution one-half 
strength (1 : 1,000) for washing the 
hands and general body surfaces of 
the attendants and convalescents — 
the latter, however, only by direction 
of the physician. 

Bichloride of mercury, either in 
solid form or in mixtures is a vio- 
lent corrosive poison. One ounce of 
any of the above solutions, full 
strength, contains nearly a grain of 
corrosive sublimate and will quickly 
cause death by poison if swallowed. 
Hence all these solutions must be la- 

beled "Poison" and kept out of reach 
of children. Their use should always 
be under the direction of some intelli- 
gent person. 

Antidote. — If by accident one of 
these solutions is swallowed, send for 
a physician at once. Do not wait, 
however, until he arrives. Give the 
proper antidote quickly. Give freely 
white of egg mixed with water, or if 
this is not at hand, give wheat flour 
mixed with water, or give milk. Try 
to provoke vomiting so as to empty 
the stomach. For this purpose give 
mustard and water, or salt and 
water, or tickle the back of the 

No. 4. Standard Solution of Car- 
bolic Acid. — Carbolic acid is one of 
the most generally useful disinfect- 
ants in the sick room, but is rather 
-expensive when properly used and its 
odor is objectionable to some persons. 
Carbolic acid may be used dissolved 
in water in a strength from a 3 per 
cent (weak) to a 5 per cent (strong) 
solution. For a 5 per cent solution 
add 1 pint or pound of either 
the crude or purified liquid car- 
bolic acid to 2§ gallons of hot 
water, or about 6 ounces to the 
gallon. Stir frequently until no 
red or colorless droplets remain in 
the bottom of the mixture. The keep- 
ing power and efliciency of this solu- 
tion may be increased by the addition 
of 12 to 14 ounces of common salt to 
each gallon, when used for the disin- 
fection of excreta or other uses where 
the salt is not objectionable. Use 
this 5 per cent solution in the same 
way and for the same purposes as 
Standard Solution No. 1 of Chloride 
of Lime. 

Use one-half strength, i. e., diluted 
in an equal quantity of water (3^ per 
cent solution) for the tub in which 
body or bed linen is immersed. Also 
for washing woodwork, floors and 
other hard surfaces and for the 
hands and person. Immerse fabrics 
four hours, then rinse and boil for 
half an hour. 

Antidote. — Carbolic acid, like bi- 
chloride of mercury, is a violent cor- 



rosive poison. Hence take great care 
to see that it is properly labeled and 
kept out of reach of children. In 
case of poisoning send for a physi- 
cian at once, but do not wait until 
he arrives. Diluted alcohol is the 
best antidote. Give this in the form 
of vi'hisky, brandy or cologne water, 
if pure alcohol is not at hand. Do 
not use wood alcohol, which is itself 
poisonous. Epsom salts or glauber 
salts, in doses of one tablespoonful, 
rank next to alcohol as antidotes. All 
cases, however, require the immediate 
attendance of a physician. Olive oil, 
castor oil and glycerine are also anti- 
dotes for carbolic acid. Try to pro- 
voke vomiting so as to empty the 
stomach. For this purpose give mus- 
tard and water, salt and water or 
tickle the back of the throat. 

Pure carbolic acid will burn the 
skin. Should an accident of this 
kind happen, immediately apply ordi- 
nary alcohol, whisky, brandy or co- 
logne water. 

No. 5. Standard Solution of For- 
maldehyde (formalin). — Dissolve 12 
ounces 40 per cent solution of formal- 
dehyde (formalin) in 1 gallon pure 
soft water. This mixture contains 6| 
per cent of formaldehyde. It should 
be kept in tightly corked bottles to 
prevent loss of strength by evapora- 
tion of the gas. This solution, while 
somewhat more expensive, is prefera- 
ble for the disinfection of clothing and 
other fabrics, since it does not bleach 
or injure them. Use full strength 
for cuspidors, vessels and sputum 
cups in the sick room. Dilute one- 
half for the tub in which fabrics are 
immersed and for washing floors, 
woodwork and the like. It is especial- 
ly recommended for washing furni- 
ture, woodwork and metallic surfaces 
and for washing the hands and per- 
son of both nurse and patient. 

Formaldehyde is a gas. It is sold 
in a solution containing 40 per cent of 
formaldehyde either under the simple 
designation, "Forty per cent solu- 
tion of formaldehyde," or under the 
proprietary designations, "Formalin" 
and "Formal"; always ask for "for- 

maldehyde" else you may pay extra 
for the same thing. For disinfecting, 
it may be used either in solution or 
in gaseous form. In household dis- 
infection it is generally used as a gas. 
Formaldehyde tends to fix stains. 
Hence they should be removed by ap- 
propriate processes before disinfec- 
tion. Formaldehyde in gaseous form 
does not injure even the most deli- 
cate fabrics. It has a slightly cor- 
rosive action on polished steel, but 
does not affect other metals. 

Antidote. — If by chance formalde- 
hyde solution is swallowed, give at 
once one to two tablespoonfuls of so- 
lution of acetate of ammonia (spirit 
of mindererus), or 1 teaspoonful of 
aromatic spirits of ammonia, diluted 
with water; or 10 to 20 drops of ordi- 
nary ammonia, well diluted with cold 
water. Send for a physician at once. 
The doses stated are for adults. The 
dose for children must be in propor- 
tion to their age. But none of the 
antidotes mentioned are poisonous, 
and they can be given in any approxi- 
mately cori'ect quantity without fear. 


Preparations. — The sick room in 
all cases and preferably every room 
in the house, especially in case of 
smallpox, diphtheria, typhoid and 
other virulent diseases, should be 
thoroughly disinfected by fumigation. 
This may be accomplished by formal- 
dehyde gas or by the fumes of burn- 
ing sulphur. During convalescence 
following cases of scarlet fever, 
smallpox or measles, the body of the 
patient should be daily rubbed with 
vaseline to prevent scales and dry 
particles of dead skin from being car- 
ried by air currents. When suffi- 
ciently recovered, the patient should 
have a warm bath every day until the 
skin has ceased to peel. When the 
patient leaves the sick room he should 
be given a disinfectant bath in Stand- 
ard Solution No. 3 or No. 5 (bi- 
chloride 1:1,000 or formaldehyde 
2 per cent). This should be followed 
by a cleansing bath including a sham- 



poo or thorough washing of the hair 
and scalp. The patient should then be 
dressed in clean garments and should 
not again enter the infected room 
until it has been disinfected and 
cleansed. The nurse or attendant 
should exercise the same precautions 
against spreading the infection. 
After the room has been vacated by 
the patient and nurse it is ready for 
final disinfection. This should be 
done preferably by a duly qualified 
officer of the Board of Health, but 
may be done successfully by any one 
if the following directions are care- 
fully observed. 

Fumigation by Formaldehyde. — 
First send to the drug store for the 
necessary materials. To ascertain the 
quantity required measure the room 
and find the length, breadth and 
height in feet. Multiply the fig- 
ures together, disregarding fractions. 
This gives the cubical contents of the 
room in feet. Divide by 1,000 (point 
ofi" three places) to find the number 
of thousand cubic feet in the room. 
For example, a room 10 feet square 
and 10 feet high contains 1,000 cubic 
feet. Use 6f ounces crystals of po- 
tassium permanganate for each 1,000 
cubic feet of room space, or 10 
ounces ,.when the temperature is be- 
low 60 degrees F. Over these pour 
16 ounces of 40 per cent aqueous so- 
lution of formaldehyde (formalin) 
for each 1,000 cubic feet of room 
space, or 24 ounces when the tempera- 
ture is below 60 degrees F. 

Thoroughly seal the room from 
within so as to prevent the escape of 
the gas until disinfection has been 
accomplished. Carefully close all 
windows and doors except one door 
for exit. Leave the windows un- 
locked so that they may be opened 
from without. Securely paste wet 
strips of paper over all registers, 
transoms, keyholes and cracks above, 
beneath and at the sides of windows 
and doors, over stove holes and all 
openings in walls, ceilings and floor. 
Use several thicknesses of paper if 
the openings are large. Gummed 
paper put up in rolls is made for this 

purpose. Or adhesive surgeon's plas- 
ter may be used. But common news- 
paper cut into narrow strips will do. 
It should be thoroughly wet with the 
Standard Solution No. 3 or No. 5 
(bichloride 1:500 or formaldehyde 
5 per cent), in order to disinfect the 
surfaces upon which it is used. Soft 
soap may be used for pasting paper 
strips so that they may later be eas- 
ily washed off. Or use paperhanger's 
paste, which may be prepared, and 
afterwards removed, by methods de- 
scribed elsewhere in this volume. 
After the strips are in place go over 
them on the outside with the brush 
dipped in the paste so as to wet them 

Stop up the fire place with a sheet 
of tin or zinc and paste strips of pa- 
per around the edges. Or securely 
_paste large sheets of heavy wrapping 
paper over the opening so that they 
cannot be displaced by the draft. 
There must be no opening through 
which gas can escape. 

Now spread out on chairs, or 
clothes-racks, all articles that can- 
not be boiled. Clothing, bed covers 
and the like should be hung on a 
line stretched across the room. Open 
the mattresses and set them on edge. 
Stretch the window shades and cur- 
tains to their full length. Open the 
doors of closets or clothes-presses. 
Lift the lids of trunks or chests and 
remove and spread out their contents. 
Open one of the long seams of pil- 
lows so that the fumes can reach the 
feathers. Do not pile articles to- 
gether. Open books and spread out 
the leaves. In short, arrange the 
room and its contents so as to secure 
free access of gas to all parts and to 
every object. If the room has been 
properly cleansed and ventilated dur- 
ing the course of the disease and 
especially if it was stripped of car- 
pets and unnecessary furniture wlien 
first set apart as a sick room, the dif- 
ficulties of disinfection will be great- 
ly reduced. 

Humidity. — When all is in readi- 
ness make the air of the room damp. 
This is absolutely necessary for dis- 



infection either by sulphur or formal- 
dehyde. Dampness may be produced 
by boiling a quantity of water in a 
wash boiler on a gas or gasoline stove, 
by pouring boiling water from a tea 
kettle into a tub, or by pouring cold 
water onto hot bricks or stones, or 
dropping hot bricks or stones into 
vessels containing cold, or preferably 
hot water. Under no circumstances 
is efficient disinfection possible with- 
out in some way making the air of 
the room quite damp. The tempera- 
ture should be from 60 to 70 degrees 
F. or over, the higher the better, but 
there must not be any fire or exposed 
flame in the room. 

Formaldehyde Generators. — For- 
maldehyde is a gas which may be 
generated in large quantities by the 
addition of formaldehyde solution 
(formalin) to crystals of potassium 
permanganate in the right propor- 
tions. A number of patented genera- 
tors and processes for disinfection 
with formaldehyde have been placed 
upon the market. Many of these are 
inefficient and the use of any of them 
is an unnecessary expense. A home- 
made device equal to the best patent 
generator ever devised may be ar- 
ranged by means of a common wood 
or fiber wash tub, two or more ordi- 
nary red bricks and a tin or galva- 
nized iron pail, such as a common 
milk or water pail, having the seams 
rolled, not soldered. Place the tub 
in the middle of the room with the 
pail inside resting upon two or more 
bricks standing edgewise. Now fill 
the tub with water nearly but not 
quite up to the level of the top of the 
bricks and the generator is ready for 
use. If the bricks can be previously 
heated in a very hot oven and the 
water poured in at, or near the boil- 
ing point, so as to give off a quantity 
of steam, so much the better. 

Before the pail is put in place 
spread the potassium permanganate 
crystals evenly over the bottom. 
Meantime have in readiness wet 
strips of paper and paste, or ad- 
hesive plaster, with which to seal up 
the cracks of the door immediately 

on leaving the room. When every- 
tlilng is in readiness and the pail 
containing the permanganate crystals 
is in place, pour over them the for- 
maldehyde solution. Leave the room 
and seal up the door on the outside 
as quickly as possible. The formal- 
dehyde is promptly liberated in great 
quantities. Hence the necessity that 
all preparations be made in advance 
and that the operator leave the room 
at once on the combination of the two 
chemicals. Leave the room closed for 
at least four hours. 

Quantities and Proportions. — Care 
must be taken not to put too much 
formaldehyde into a single container. 
The reaction is violent and there is 
great effervescence and bubbling. If 
the rooms are large, as in the case of 
school rooms, public halls and the 
like, more than one container should 
be used. 

The following quantities may be 
used safely in the containers recom- 
mended : 

10 or 13-quart milk-pail. 
Formaldehyde, 16 ounces. 
Permanganate, 6f ounces. 

14-quart milk-pail. 
Formaldehyde, 24 ounces. 
Permanganate, 10 ounces. 

A receptacle of ample capacity, not 
less than mentioned above, should al- 
ways be used, as otherwise, the effer- 
vescence resulting from the reaction 
between the two substances may 
carry the mixture, or some of it, over 
the sides of the receptacle and stain 
the carpet or floor. As permanga- 
nate of potassium is liable to stain 
anything with which it comes into 
contact, use great care in handling it. 

Remember that the permanganate 
must always be put in before the for- 
maldehyde solution. 

Conservation of Heat. — If the 
bricks and water which are placed in 
the tub are cold, it is a good plan to 
set the tin pail snugly into a wooden 
or pulp bucket. Or wrap it tightly 
with several layers of asbestos paper. 
This is done to retain within the 
generator the heat, which is very im- 



portant to the proper generation of 
the gas. If the bricks and water are 
hot this will not be necessary. 

Selection of Materials. — The chem- 
icals required for formaldehyde disin- 
fection are not expensive and the 
best quality should be obtained from 
a reliable dealer. Secure the higiiest 
grade 40 per cent aqueous solution of 
formaldehyde on the market. An in- 
ferior grade may fail to do its woric 
and thus bring about unfortunate re- 
sults by giving a false sense of se- 
curity. The fine needle-shaped crys- 
tals of potassium permanganate are 
better than the rhomboid. See that 
you get this substance in crystals. 
Do not accept the dust which often 
contains impurities. Never use for- 
maldehyde candles. They are not re- 
liable. Do not rely upon advertised 
apparatus, disinfectants, and procf 
esses. Nothing can be better or 
cheaper than the plan above set forth. 

Formaldehyde Solution. — The fair- 
ly rapid liberation of gas may be se- 
cured by sprinkling 40 per cent for- 
maldehyde solution over sheets hung 
in the room requiring disinfection and 
containing the articles to be disinfect- 
ed. One pint of formaldehyde should 
be used for every 1,000 cubic feet of 
air spape in the apartment, if there is 
not too much opportunity for the es- 
cape of the gas through cracks, win- 
dows, doors, etc. If the gas can find 
easy escape, proportionately more of 
the solution must be used. Since by 
either the permanganate method or 
by the sheet method, formaldehyde 
gas is rapidly liberated, it is essen- 
tial that all preparations be made in 
advance for the operator to leave the 
room promptly. The door should be 
closed and sealed and the room left 
closed for not less than six hours, 
after which the door and windows 
may be opened and the room aired. 

The odor of formaldehyde, if it 
persists so as to be objectionable, can 
be removed, or at least moderated, by 
hanging up towels or sheets in the 
room and sprinkling them with am- 
monia water. 

Cautions. — Formaldehyde is in- 

tensely irritating to the eyes, nose and 
mouth. It kills the upper layers of 
the skin if applied in too strong solu- 
tions. The inhalation in ordinary 
quantities of such formaldehyde as is 
given off while sprinkling sheets in a 
room about to be disinfected, is un- 
comfortable, but not dangerous. The 
discomfort may be lessened by tying 
a moist towel over the mouth and 
nose while engaged in such work. In- 
jury to the hands can be avoided by 
greasing them well before they come 
into contact with the formaldehyde 
solution, or by wearing rubber gloves. 

Sulphur Fumigation. — Sulphur will 
be found a thoroughly reliable gase- 
ous disinfectant of considerable pene- 
trating power if it is intelligently 
employed. To obtain satisfactory re- 
sults the following essentials of suc- 
_cessful disinfection, established by 
repeated experiments, must be ob- 
served: (a) the infected room, or 
rooms, must be thoroughly closed, 
every crack and crevice sealed; (b) 
sufficient sulphur must be used; (c) 
there must be ample moisture in the 
room; (d) the time of exposure must 
be sufficient. Ten hours is the mini • 

If sulphur is preferred for disin- 
fection, use four pounds of powdered 
sulphur to every thousand cubic feet 
in the room. Seal and otherwise 
prepare the room in all respects as 
for disinfection with formaldehyde. 
Place a common wood or fiber tub on 
a table — not on the floor. In this 
place an iron pot or earthenwai*e 
crock supported by two or more 
bricks placed edgewise. Pour in 
water to the level of the top of the 
bricks. The disinfecting apparatus 
will then be in working order. Now 
fill the room with steam. Fumiga- 
tion with sulphur is not efficient un- 
less the air is very moist. Pile the 
sulphur in the form of a low cone 
with a depression on top about as 
large as the bowl of a tablespoon. 
Fill this with alcohol, turpentine or 
coal oil, and set it on fire. Immedi- 
ately leave the room and close and 
seal the door. The sulphur in burn- 



ing throws oflf sulphurous acid gas 
which, in the presence of steam, kills 
all infection. Keep the room closed 
for ten hours at least and preferably 
for twenty-four hours after starting 
the fumes. Then open the windows 
from the outside for ventilation and 
thoroughly air the room before using. 

Sulphur candles can be used in- 
stead of crude suljihur but take care 
to use sufficient candles. The average 
candle on the market contains one 
pound of sulphur. Four of these 
will be required in the disinfection 
of a small room 10x10x10. Do not 
use a smaller number, no matter what 
directions may accompany the candle. 
The water- jacketed candle is to be 
preferred. Partly fill the tin around 
candles with water and place them in 
a pan on a table, not on the floor. 
Let one-half pint of water be vajsor- 
ized with each candle. 

Cautions. — There is one serious ob- 
jection to the use of sulphur, which 
must be fully understood. The 
fumes have a destructive action on 
fabrics of wool, silk, cotton and linen 
as tapestries and draperies and tend 
to injure brass, copper, steel and gilt 
work. Colored fabrics are frequently 
changed in appearance and the 
strength impaired. Hence such ar- 
ticles should be separately disinfect- 
ed, as hereafter described, and re- 
moved from the room before it is dis- 
infected by sulphur. 

Sulphur fumigation has the ad- 
vantage over formaldehyde that it 
kills insects and thus prevents their 
conveying the disease. An ideal plan 
of fumigation is to use first one 
method and then the other. 

Additional Disinfection. — After 
the sick room has been fumigated 
with formaldehyde or sulphur, thor- 
oughly wash the floor and woodwork 
and all out of the way places, window 
ledges, picture moulding, etc., and 
thoroughly wet all dust and dirt in 
cracks with the half-strength Standard 
Solution No. 3, Bichloride of Mercury 
(1:1,000). Follow this up with hot 
soap suds, afterwards rinse with 
cloths wet in the disinfectant. Do 

not attempt to mix soap suds with 
the disinfectant solution. Scrape off 
and burn the wall paper. Whitewash 
the ceiling and walls before re-pa- 
pering and open the room to sunlight 
and air for several days. Apply a 
fresh coat of paint to the woodwork. 

Cotton Fabrics. — Disinfect all cot- 
ton and linen fabrics by immersing 
them in Solution No. 3 (1:1,000); No. 
4 (5 per cent) or No. 5 (10 per cent), 
for four hours, after which boil them 
for at least half an hour, then lavm- 
der as usual. Immerse soiled clothing 
in a disinfectant solution before it is 
dried. Before transporting dry cloth- 
ing or other infected material from 
the sick room to any other part of 
the house, wrap the articles in a sheet 
wet in No. 3 (1:1,000), or No. 4 
(5 per cent), or in the absence of 
these wet in water. 

Woolen Fabrics. — Disinfect woolen 
goods with formaldehyde fumigation 
in an empty trunk, wooden box or 
wash boiler, or in tight closets or oth- 
er air-tight enclosed spaces. All un- 
washable clothing, bed clothing, mat- 
tresses and simiKr objects may be 
disinfected in this manner. Place one 
layer at a time in any air-tight en- 
closure having a close fitting door, lid 
or other cover. Sprinkle each suc- 
cessive layer with a 40 per cent solu- 
tion of formalin, full strength, by 
means of a sprayer or small sprinkling- 
pot, at the rate of about two table- 
spoonfuls of the solution to each gar- 
ment. Protect silks or other delicate 
fabrics which might be spotted by di- 
rect contact with the drops of moist- 
ure by means of cotton sheets or tow- 
els placed between each layer. Spray 
the formalin on this protective cover- 
ing. Now close the receptacle, seal 
all cracks and crevices by means of 
wet strips of paper and leave it un- 
opened in a warm room for at least 
twelve hours. Afterwards expose the 
articles for a day or more to direct 
sunshine. If the smell of formalde- 
hyde persists, sprinkle a little aqua 
ammonia on the articles to remove it. 

Or, disinfect by soaking in corro- 
sive sublimate or formaldehyde solu- 



tions No. 3 (1:1,000), and No. 5 (fi% 
l^er cent), in a wooden or fiber wash 
tub. Afterwards boil for half an 
hour and launder as usual. 

Money, jewelry, letters, valuable 
papers and similar articles may be 
disinfected by spraying with a 40 per 
cent solution of formalin, full strength, 
by means of a hand atomizer. Place 
them in a small wooden or pasteboard 
box with a tight-fitting cover, seal 
and keep in a warm room for twelve 
hours. Burn all books, magazines, 
newspapers and other articles the 
value of which is not great enough 
to warrant disinfection. 

Bedding-. — Throw straw beds out of 
the window, empty out and burn the 
straw, and disinfect the tick as for 
cotton clothing. Disinfect feather 
beds, pillows, quilts, comforters and 
blankets in a steam disinfector when 
practical, or if not soiled, with for- 
maldehyde in large quantities. If 
mattresses have been soiled by the 
patient's discharges and steaming dis- 
infection is not practical, burn them. 

Rugs and Carpets. — These should 
be removed from the sick room be- 
fore the patient is installed, but if 
they remain and become infected, dis- 
infect with steam or by soaking in 
corrosive sublimate or formaldehyde 
solutions. If their value is slight 
burn them. 

Lounges, Couches and Other TIp- 
holstered Furniture. — Leave in place 
when the room is fumigated. Strip 
off and disinfect the covering as for 
cotton and linen clothing. Burn the 
filling and replace with new. 

The hands of nurses and others 
who have attended to the wants of 
the sick should be disinfected with 
thorough and prolonged washing and 
scrubbing with hot soap and water, 
and then immersed for several min- 
utes in a carbolic, bichloride or for- 
maldehyde solution. 

Sputum. — Receive on pieces of pa- 
per or rag or in paper sputum cups 
and burn. Or receive in cuspidors 
containing carbolic or formaldehyde 

Disinfection of the Dead. — Bodies 
of persons dying of smallpox, scar- 
let fever, diphtheria, membranous 
croup or measles, should be wrapped 
in several thicknesses of cloth wrung 
out of full strength corrosive subli- 
mate, carbolic or formaldehyde solu- 
tion and should not thereafter be ex- 
posed to view. The funeral should 
be private and no persons except the 
undertaker and his assistant, the 
clergyman and the immediate family 
of the deceased should attend. Car- 
riages used by persons attending the 
funeral ceremony should be fumi- 
gated. No person should enter the 
sick room until it has been thoroughly 

Rules for the Sick Room. — Sun- 
light kills disease germs and should 
be admitted freely to the sick room 
Hnless the patient is suffering from 
some condition which renders dark- 
ness necessary. 

Proper ventilation diminishes the 
number of disease germs in the sick 
room by carrying some such germs 
into the open air. The number of 
germs likely to pass from an ordi- 
narily well-kept sick room into the 
open air by means of ventilation is 
so small that such germs cannot be 
regarded as dangerous to people on 
the outside. Moreover, such organ- 
isms speedily die because they are not 
adapted to live in the open air. The 
ventilation of a sick room should not, 
however, be such as to permit air to 
pass from the sick room into the rest 
of the house. 

Have all utensils and materials nec- 
essary for disinfection placed where 
they can be used with the least possi- 
ble trouble. Failure to disinfect is 
often due to the fact that proper 
facilities for disinfecting are not con- 
veniently at hand. 

See that every bottle and box con- 
taining a disinfectant is properly la- 
beled and see that all such bottles 
and boxes are kept apart from bot- 
tles and boxes containing medicines 
for internal use. Accidental poison- 
ing may be thus avoided. 




Since the rise of the germ theory 
there has been a complete revolution 
in the attitude of well-informed per- 
sons toward the subject of disease. A 
large number of the most common 
and heretofore fatal enemies of man- 
kind are now well known to be abso- 
lutely preventable. 

The appearance of the first case of 
any communicable malady may be 
due to unavoidable accident; the 
spread of the disease must be attrib- 
uted to ignorance or to criminal care- 
lessness. In cities, persons ill with 
contagious diseases are either isolated 
in hospitals set apart for that pur- 
pose, or quarantined in their own 
homes by law. The necessary sani- 
tary regulations are enforced by 
trained inspectors under the authority 
of the Board of Health. The absence 
of such officials in most rural neigh- 
borhoods shifts this responsibility to 
the head of the family. Unless par- 
ents in such localities take the pains 
to inform themselves so that they 
can intelligently co-operate with the 
attending physician, unnecessary 
deaths from preventable diseases will 
continue to occur. 

No attempt will be made here to 
discuss the treatment of contagious 
or other diseases. In all suspected 
cases a physician should be promptly 
summoned. Our purpose here is sim- 
ply to make clear the causes of pre- 
ventable disease and to describe the 
ordinary sources and channels of in- 
fection. When these are fully under- 
stood and proper preventive measures 

taken, the likelihood of infection will 
be reduced to a minimum. Or, if by 
some unhappy accident a member of 
a family becomes infected, such 
knowledge will enable those in charge 
of the patient to prevent the spread 
of the disease. A careful study has 
been made of all the recent publica- 
tions of Boards of Health of city, 
state and nation throughout the 
United States. The most essential 
knowledge which they impart is here 
condensed for ready reference. Many 
of these bulletins, however, contain 
detailed information on each of the 
principal contagious diseases which 
would extend far beyond the limits of 
the present chapter. Hence, on the 
appearance of any contagious disease, 
in any family or neighborhood, ad- 
dress a postal card to the Secretary 
of the Board of Health at the near- 
est metropolitan city. Address an- 
other to the Secretary of the State 
Board of Health at the State Capital. 
Also a third to the Surgeon-General 
of the United States, Washington, 
D. C. Name the disease and request 
copies of all available circular mat- 
ter relating to it. Three cents thus 
spent on postal cards will bring back, 
without charge, full detailed practical 
information and instruction of great 
value. Also ask to have copies of 
these bulletins mailed to the heads of 
other families where contagious dis- 
eases have broken out, or where, 
through ignorance or neglect, condi- 
tions are so unsanitary as to threaten 
the public health. 




No ordinary person would know- 
ingly give poison to the members of 
his own family or those of his neigh- 
bor. Yet, through ignorance, many 
well meaning persons are permitting 
the existence of conditions within 
their control which result directly in 
the poisoning of others through the 
germs of contagious diseases. 

Contagious Diseases. — The most 
usual communicable diseases among 
adults are consumption (tubercu- 
losis), typhoid fever (typhus fever), 
smallpox, and, in some localities, yel- 
low fever, naalaria and hookworm 

Several other communicable dis- 
eases are most common among chil- 
dren, as diplitheria (membranous 
croup, diphtheritic sore throat), scar- 
let fever (scarlatina, scarlet rash), 
measles (German measles), chicken- 
pox, mumps, and whooping cough. 
Another class is most prevalent 
among small infants, as infantile pa- 
ralysis (anterior poliomyelitis), cere- 
brospinal meningitis, summer com- 
plaint, congenital blindness (ophthal- 
mia neonatorum). The preventable 
diseases of children are discussed in 
the succeeding chapter. 

There is a small class of virulent 
contagipus diseases the infection 
from which may usually be traced to 
immigration from foreign parts. 
These include Asiatic cholera, bubonic 
plague and leprosy. Another com- 
municable disease to which especial 
attention has been directed in recent 
years is hookworm disease. In addi- 
tion, pediculosis, trachoma, ringworm, 
scabies and impetigo contagiosa, are 
held to be so contagious as to be dan- 
gerous to the public health. 

Most of the above diseases ai'e 
known to be preventable. It is con- 
fidently believed that all can be con- 
trolled and their communication from 
one person to another prevented, if 
certain well understood precautions 
are observed. 


Typhoid Fever (Enteric Fever, 
Abdominal Typhus) is an infectious 

disease caused by a specific germ 
known as the typhoid bacillus. This 
is a low form of vegetable life be- 
longing to the group of bacteria. It 
was discovered by Eberth in 1880. 
Each germ is a minute vegetable cell 
shaped like a cylinder with round 
ends. Each is equipped with a num- 
ber of long, leg-like processes called 
flagella which give it the power of 
swimming rapidly in liquids. These 
bacteria can be seen only by the aid 
of the most powerful microscope. 
They are so small that half a million 
would scarcely cover the head of a 
pin. Yet, each is descended from 
another germ of the same kind, has 
its own individual life and can be 
produced in no other way. These 
germs, under favorable conditions, 
multiply very rapidly. Each splits 
into two, each two into four, each 
four into eight and so on. A single 
colony of a few score germs may, 
within forty-eight hours, develop into 
a billion. 

We do not "catch" typhoid, we 
swallow it. The germs invariably 
enter the system through the mouth. 
Thence they pass into the stomach. 
Here they may be destroyed by the 
acids present in the gastric juice, a 
fact which may explain why some 
persons who are known to have swal- 
lowed the germs do not develop ty- 
phoid fever. But if not destroyed in 
the stomach, they pass on into the 
intestine. The conditions present in 
the lower third of the small intes- 
tine seem especially to favor their 
growth. Here they multiply rapidly 
and become very active. It takes 
anywhere from seven days to three 
weeks to bring on the symptoms of 
the disease after the germs are swal- 
lowed. This is called the incubation 
period. The average is from ten to 
twelve days. The germ attacks pri- 
marily the glands of the intestines, 
causing small abscesses by which the 
intestinal walls are often perforated 
through and through. It also at- 
tacks other organs during the course 
of the disease and may attack any 
part of the body. 


Typhoid fever exists at all seasons 
of the year, but is most prevalent in 
autumn. The greatest number of 
deaths occur in September and Octo- 

Symptoms. — Typhoid fever is a 
very insidious disease since there may 
be no symptoms whatever during the 
period of incubation, that is, on an 
average, for ten to twelve days after 
infection has taken place. It is often 
diiiicult to determine the day on 
which the disease begins to make it- 
self manifest. Cases are usually 
dated from the day on which the 
patient gives up work and takes to 
his bed. The disease may then have 
been in existence for a considerable 
time. In cases known as "walking" 
typhoid, the patient is never pros- 
trated. The patient and his family 
may be unaware of the nature of the 
disease. Yet germs are being given 
off which may infect others with ty- 
phoid in its most malignant form. 
For these reasons it is advisable to 
summon a physician promptly in all 
suspected cases and to treat every 
case of fever as tyjihoid until the 
physician has completed his diag- 

Every case of so-called "typho- 
malarial fever" and every case of 
doubtful origin continuing more than 
seven days, should be reported to the 
local health officer, and due precau- 
tions taken. 

Painless diarrhoea, or simple "loose- 
ness of the bowels," occurring in 
one who has never had typhoid 
fever should excite suspicion if the 
disease is known to exist in the 
neighborhood. The mild, "walking" 
cases are by no means uncommon. 
Hence it is advisable that all diar- 
rhoeal discharges shoidd be disinfect- 
ed especially during the existence of 
typhoid fever in a community. 

As a rule the disease comes on 
slowly. The first symptoms are head- 
ache, with a general sense of fatigue 
and loss of appetite. The headache 
may be severe and confined to the top 
of the head, or may consist of more 
or less general soreness. Abdominal 

pain occurs in about one-third of 
all cases. A low fever is almost 
always present from the outset. But 
this may be so slight that the patient 
is unaware of it. Women or chil- 
dren in the first stages of the disease 
often keep up about the house, or 
they may be compelled to lie down a 
part of the day. Men frequently 
give up work for a day or two and 
after a little rest go to work again. 
When such symptoms are observed 
as tiring easily, digestive disturb- 
ances, headache, drowsiness, and ab- 
dominal pain that cannot be attrib- 
uted to any special condition, a physi- 
cian should be promptly consulted. 

If the onset of the disease is more 
sudden, there may be nausea and 
vomiting, accompanied by a chill and 
high fever. A slight cough and oc- 
casional nosebleed may be present. 
Whenever there is doubt as to the 
diagnosis, the attending physician 
should have a blood test made. The 
Widal test is made free for health 
officers and physicians in the public 
laboratories of most states. 

Prognosis. — During the first week 
of the disease, the symptoms gradu- 
ally grow worse, fever develops and 
the patient suffers chilly sensations. 
The temperature gradually rises to a 
height of 103 to 105 degrees F. In 
severe forms of the disease, diar- 
rhoea commences during the first 
week and is then continuous. 

During the second week the above 
symptoms become more severe. Ner- 
vousness and delirium develop. Mi- 
nute reddish spots resembling flea 
bites are frequently observed over 
the chest, abdomen and thighs. 
These spots disappear after a few 
days. Then a fresh crop ajipears in 
other situations. The bronchial tubes 
frequently become inflamed. Some- 
times pneumonia develops. Bleeding 
from the bowels is an occasional 
symptom in the second week of this 
disease and is highly characteristic. 

During the third week, in normal 
cases, the symptoms gradually abate. 
The fever lessens. The diarrhoea im- 
proves. The nervous symptoms and 



delirium diminish. The patient, 
though much emaciated, gradually 
returns to a normal condition. Or 
the symptoms may increase in se- 
verity, the patient become profound- 
ly prostrated, the delirium deepen 
and death occur. The hemorrhage 
from the bowels in some instances 
may be so severe that death is pro- 
duced even in comparatively early 
stages of the infection. This is 
quite as frequent in the mild cases 
known as walking typhoid as in oth- 
ers; hence the patient should receive 
equally careful attention. 

The mortality varies from five to 
twenty per cent, depending upon the 

The germs, or typhoid bacilli, can 
enter the body in no other way than 
through the mouth. Direct infection 
is thought to occur most often 
through contaminated milk or drink- 
ing water, but secondary infection— 
that is, where one member of a fam- 
ily "catches" the disease from an- 
other — is believed to occur chiefly by 
transmitting the germs to the mouth 
with the fingers. This may come 
about by handling the patient or 
something which has come in contact 
with him, or by means of food or oth- 
er articles which have been handled 
by the nurse or others with unwashed 
hands after coming into contact with 

•- • . . ■ ■>-«y-/^>--.-- • ■ 




Privy vaults and wells which connect underground lead to funeral processions. 

character of the disease and the na- 
ture of the nursing and treatment. 
A physician should be summoned 
and his directions implicitly followed. 
Nothing in this disease is of more 
importance than careful nursing. It 
is absolutely necessary that the pa- 
tient receive only liquid diet until 
the physician permits other food. 
Solid food given prematurely will 
cause death. 

Modes of Infection. — There is a 
common opinion among the laity that 
typhoid fever is contracted from foul 
drains and other things which con- 
taminate the atmosphere; this is 
probably never the case, although 
such conditions may be injurious to 

the patient. A little reflection will 
show how easily the virus may get 
upon cooking utensils, drinking cups, 
bed linen, door knobs and similar ar- 
ticles, or may be carried from place 
to place by pets or insects, particu- 
larly flies. 

The germs leave the patient's body 
in the discharges of the bowels and 
bladder, in some cases in the sputum 
and possibly in perspiration. Espe- 
cially must it be borne in mind that 
the urine of a typhoid fever patient 
is even more dangerous than the 

The germs may be found in very 
large numbers in these discharges, 
upon the bed linen, in the water with 
which the patient is bathed and upon 


the utensils used in nursing and feed- 
ing him. They are probably never 
carried on dust through the air. If 
every typhoid germ was destroyed as 
soon as it left the human body the 
disease would be speedily eradicated. 
But this, unfortunately, is by no 
means the case. 

Infection from Water Supply. — 
Investigation has shown that most 
epidemics of the disease are caused 
by the excreta of the patient having 
been thrown upon the ground or into 
an open vault or drain, whence by 
seepage or surface drainage they 
were carried into a spring, well, or 
other source of water supply. A well- 
known instance is an epidemic in an 
eastern city of about eight thousand 
population. Within a few weeks 
there were more than one thousand 
cases and over one hundred deaths. 
The water supply of this community 
is obtained from a mountain brook. 
It was contaminated by the discharges 
from a single typhoid fever patient 
thrown upon the snow, in winter, 
near the headwaters of the stream. 
The consequent expense to this small 
community in loss of wages and care 
of the sick was estimated as in excess 
of $100,000. The annual losses 
throughout the United States from 
this disease, which must be regarded 
as almost entirely preventable, are 
estimated at many hundred thousand 
dollars. Investigation shows that 
milk is usually contaminated in- 
directly through an infected wa- 
ter supply. Hence due precautions 
to secure the purity of the wa- 
ter supply is of prime impor- 
tance in the prevention of this 

Well water is frequently a cause of 
the disease. Too often we find a 
privy, or rather a hole in the ground 
containing fecal and urinary dis- 
charges, in close proximity to a well, 
and often upon higher ground. Un- 
less the soil possesses the best of 
filtering properties, and this is fre- 
quently not the case, the well will 
certainly become contaminated. In- 
fected discharges thrown on the 

ground may be washed into the well 
by the fixst rain storm. 

Water which has a bad taste or 
odor, or which comes from a source 
that renders it likely to be impure, 
is dangerous, but unfortunately the 
reverse is not true. Dangerously 
contaminated water may be, and 
often is clear and colorless and may 
have no bad taste or odor. 

Infected Milk Supply. — Milk is a 
very common and dangerous source 
of infection, because it is what med- 
ical men call an excellent "culture 
medium," that is, germs grow and 
multiply very rapidly in fresh milk. 
Nor do they cause the milk to be- 
come sour or in any other way give 
evidence of their presence. Milk is 
never infected when it comes from 
the cow. It is always infected by 
man. This usually takes • place 
through washing the milk cans or 
other utensils with polluted water. 
Watered milk may contain the germs 
of typhoid, for a milkman who adul- 
terates milk with water is not usually 
careful of the quality of his source 
of supply. The milkers or others 
who handle the milk may infect it, 
if typhoid germs are present on their 
hands or clothing. Or, infected flies 
may fall into the milk. The germs 
from infected milk may also be 
found in butter and cheese. Hence 
no milk or other dairy products 
should be sold from a dairy, farm, 
or house where there is a case of ty- 
phoid fever. 

Infection from Ice. — The germs 
of typhoid fever are not destroyed 
by freezing. Hence ice taken from 
sewage-polluted rivers or lakes, or ice 
manufactured from such waters, is 
unsafe to use. 

Infection from Vegetables. — Veg- 
etables often become infected with 
the germs of tyjihoid by irrigation 
with polluted water, by contamina- 
tion from night-soil used by farmers 
or market gardeners as a fertilizer, 
by flies and other insects. Creel, in 
a careful review of the results of 
recent scientific investigation, asserts 
that the typhoid bacillus may retain 



its vitality in privy vaults or in 
night-soil used as a fertilizer for a 
period of several weeks, or even 
months, and that plants cultivated in 
contaminated soil may take up the 
germs on their leaves and stems in 
the process of growth. He found 
living typhoid bacilli on the tips of 
leaves that to the naked eye appeared 

117) ere the flies 
come from. 

free from any particles of soil. He 
also proved by careful observation 
that rainfall will not free vegetables 
wholly from infected material. This 
source of pollution is especially dan- 
gerous in the case of such vege- 
tables as lettuce, radishes and celery, 
which are eaten raw. The remedy is 
to thoroughly wash or scrub them 
free from earth and bacteria by 
means of a stiff brush. All vege- 
tables should be cleaned in this man- 
ner, but the danger of infection is 

less from cooked vegetables, as most 
germs of disease are destroyed by 

All fruits, such as grapes, apples, 
pears, berries and the like, including 
lemons and oranges, should be care- 
fully washed in at least three waters 
or for five minutes in running water, 
especially in times of epidemic dis- 
ease. Dried figs and dates are very 
commonly eaten without being cooked 
or washed, yet they have been 
exposed for an unknown space of 
time to all kinds of contagion from 
dust, flies and dirty hands. Shelled 
nuts purchased in the market should 
be washed and scalded before they 
are used, as they are commonly ex- 
posed to similar infection. 

The Typhoid Fly. — This term has 
been applied to the common house 
fly by L. O. Howard to draw atten- 
tion to the danger of infection from 
this insect. Flies cannot become the 
carriers of disease germs unless they 
have access to some source of infec- 
tion. Hence the danger is much les- 
sened by the elimination of all nui- 
sances in the neighborhood of our 
dwellings. However, since flies may 
travel from considerable distances, 
the only assurance of safety against 
infection from them is to exclude 
them by screening or destroy them by 
means of traps and poisons. 

Flies having access to privy vaults 
or sources of typhoid infection else- 
where, and then, through unscreened 
doors and windows, to living rooms, 
alighting upon food already prepared 
for the table or to be used without 
subsequent heating, are a serious 
danger. Some of these articles, 
liquid, semi-solid, or with moist sur- 
faces, thus slightly infected, serve as 
congenial culture media for the rapid 
multiplication of the infection. A 
few typhoid germs brought on the 
hairy feet of flies may increase many 
fold if deposited in milk or on the 
surface of boiled potato. 

While typhoid is not ordinarily an 
air-borne disease, care should be 
taken to avoid the typhoid patient's 
breath and not to come unneces- 


sarily in his immediate vicinity espe- 
cially if he has pnemnonia, or an 
explosive cough. The sputum bear- 
ing infection may be sjirayed into 
the air during coughing, but the 
range of possible danger is slight — 
hardly more than four or five feet. 

The disease is also occasionally 
spread by the dust of dried urine or 
other excreta, which is carried 
through the air, thereby contaminat- 
ing food or water. Some authorities 

The hairy foot of a flij (magnified). 

still hold that the disease may be 
communicated by inhaling these par- 
ticles by mouth or nostrils. The 
diarrhoeal discharge, when dry, may 
preserve the poison as ett'ectually 
as the crusts of smallpox, the 
scales of scarlet fever, and the dried 
membrane of diphtheria preserve the 
specific poisons of those diseases. 

Among miscellaneous sources of 
infection may be mentioned bread, 
pastry, confectionery, fruits, vege- 
tables, meats, etc., handled by in- 
fected hands in bakeries, stores, 
markets and slaughterhouses, or the 
same articles and milk infected by 
flies recently arrived from sources of 

The general filth conditions in the 
homes of extremely untidy families 
favor the spread of tj^ahoid infec- 
tion, and in such homes or in any 

homes where there is neglect of the 
greatest possible cleanliness of the 
sick person, his bedding, clothing and 
everything else in the management of 
him, the danger from secondary in- 
fection is serious. 


Care of a Typhoid Patient. — As 
typhoid fever is one of the most 
common of communicable diseases, 
full instructions will be given here 
for the management of the sick room 
in such a way as to preclude the 
possibility of other members of the 
family becoming infected. All of 
these instructions apply equally to 
other contagious diseases with the 
addition of especial precautions in 
certain other ailments which will be 

Isolation. — The first and most es- 
sential precaution in the case of ty- 
phoid or other communicable disease 
is that the patient should be com- 
pletely isolated. Unless this is done, 
other members of the family are al- 
most sure to contract the malady. 
The safest course is to send the pa- 
tient to a hospital. When this is not 
possible, select a large airy room as 
the sick room. This should be lo- 
cated on the sunny side of the house, 
and should have a fire place if the 
weather be cold. It should be as far 
from living and sleeping rooms of 
other persons as jjossible. It is of 
the utmost consequence that the 
room have windows and doors by 
means of which it can be at all times 
thoroughly ventilated. At all sea- 
sons of the year a room on the low- 
est floor of the house is more satis- 
factory, since it is warmer in the 
winter and cooler in the summer. 
The room should not be uncomfort- 
ably cold, though it is much better 
to have the temperature too low than 
to have it stuffy. In most diseases 
ventilation is of supreme importance, 
and should be secured at any cost. 
There are no better disinfectants 
than pure air and sunlight. A tem- 
perature of about 70° F., if com- 



patible with thorough ventilation, is 
generally considered most desirable. 
The sick room should have its win- 
dows always open day and night, and 
there should be an open fire if pos- 
sible, otherwise recovery will be 
greatly delayed, for bad air of itself 
makes well persons sick. Keep the 
jiatient out of drafts. 

Preparing the Sick Room. — Be- 
fore installing the patient, take up 
the carpet and remove all rugs, orna- 
ments, curtains, portieres, bureau 
scarfs and hangings of every descrip- 
tion. Empty bureau drawers, remove 
the contents of closets and clothes- 
presses, in short, take everything out 
of the room that is not necessary, 
and especially all sorts of fabrics 
which may serve as catch-alls for the 
germs of the disease. The room 
should contain no more furniture 
than is necessary. Metal bedsteads, 
plain wooden chairs and tables, are 
best. Remove all scarfs from tables 
and cushions, doilies and the like 
from chairs. Seal up door cracks 
and keyholes communicating with 
other rooms by pasting over them 
strips of wrapping paper. Suspend 
over the doorway a sheet reaching 
from the top to the floor, moistened 
with full strength carbolic or bi- 
chloride solutions No. 3 and No. 4, 
Tack this across the top and one side, 
leaving the other side free to be 
pushed aside to gain entrance. Only 
such toys, books and the like should 
be given the patient as can be de- 
stroyed after recovery or death. 

The floor, woodwork and furniture 
should be frequently wiped with 
cloths moistened with half strength 
Standard Disinfectant Solution No. 
3, 4 or 5. Throw away the broom 
and duster. Use only damp cloths 
moistened with half strength Solu- 
tion No. 3, 4 or 5, for cleaning floor 
and furniture. These should be at 
once thrown into the disinfectant so- 
lution or burned. It is well to wash 
the floor each day with one of the 
. same solutions. 

Cleanliness. — Keep the premises 
clean. All decaying animal and 

vegetable master and every kind oj 
filth in and around the house should 
be removed, and disinfectants freely 
used. Surface drains and gutters, 
areas, outhouses, privies, shelters for 
domestic animals, fowls, etc., should 
receive close and constant attention. 
Use Standard Disinfectant No. 1 or 
No. 2, freely and regularly, in every 
such place. 

Odors. — Never allow bad smells to 
exist. If free ventilation, sunshine 
and cleanliness do not keep out bad 
smells, sprinkle diluted formalde- 
hyde, one part formaldehyde to 50 
parts of water, upon the floor, or 
spray it into the air with an ato- 

Bed and Bedding. — Place the pa- 
tient's bed in the middle of the room, 
or at least away from the wall. Do 
not suff^er the bed covers to come in 
contact with the walls or floor so as 
to contaminate them. The bed should 
be narrow. A mattress is much to 
be preferred to a feather bed. The 
cover should consist of a sheet long 
enough to fold back at the head 
over the other coverings for some 
distance. Blankets should be used 
for warmth in preference to quilts. 
Keep the bed scrupulously clean, and 
remove the linen and coverings 
promptly when soiled. The nurse 
should see to it that bread crumbs do 
not remain in the bed. 

The best way to make up the bed 
for the typhoid patient is the follow- 
ing: (1) Over the mattress (no 
feather bed) spread smoothly and 
tuck in the sheet. Under the sheet 
have preferably a once-folded sheet 
or blanket. (3) Next spread a rub- 
ber sheet crosswise the bed, the two 
ends tucked smoothly under the 
edges of the mattress. (3) A folded 
sheet (draw-sheet) also crosswise 
over the rubber sheet. (4) A second 
rubber sheet. (5) Over that a sec- 
ond draw-sheet. 

To Remove Soiled Bed Clothes. — 
Move the patient to one side of the 
bed as near the edge as possible, and 
loosen the sheet beneath him at the 
head and foot and on the opposite 


side. Then roll it up toward the pa- 
tient and push it well up under him, 
leaving the side of the bed opposite 
to that upon which he is lying bare. 
Upon this place the new sheet. Tuck 
this under the edges of the mattress, 
and pull the patient back over on it. 
Now remove the soiled sheet and pull 
the edges of the fresh one over the 
l^ortions of the bed still uncovered, 
and secure in the usual way. 

Cleanliness greatly aids recovery, 
hence the utmost cleanliness of the 
patient and his surroundings should 
be the rule. If there is diarrhoea, 
the mattress should be protected by 
an impervious rubber sheet placed 
under the linen sheet, or by newspa- 
per pads. Oilcloth cracks and wrin- 
kles too badly to be suitable. Pro- 
vide two or more rubber sheets so 
that they can be changed and cleaned 
as often as required. Sponge the 
rubber sheets with standard carbolic 
acid solution No. 4 (5 per cent) and 
dry and air them in the sun for sev- 
eral hours daily. If the condition of 
the patient makes it diflBcult to avoid 
the soiling of his bed, provide smaller 
squares of rubber sheeting and fold- 
ed sheets to be placed above the ordi- 
nary sheets. Remove all soiled sheets 
and clothing promptly before drying 
occurs. (See Disinfection.) Take 
care to cleanse and disinfect the pa- 
tient locally with a solution of corro- 
sive sublimate 1:2,000 — half a dram 
to tlie gallon of water, or one tablet 
to the quart. 

Bathing. — All patients, if the at- 
tending physician approves, should 
have a daily bath, special attention 
being given to the hair, teeth, mouth 
and nails. In many cases it is neces- 
sary to wash the patient's mouth fre- 
quently with some antiseptic wash. 
But this should only be done on the 
express instructions of the doctor. 

Disinfection. — A pail or tub should 
be kept in the room, containing a 
standard disinfectant solution such 
as No. 3, 4 or 5 for the purpose of 
disinfecting every article of clothing 
before it is carried through the house. 
One of these solutions should be kept 

standing in the tub and renewed at 
frequent intervals. All blankets, 
sheets, towels, napkins, bandages and 
clothing, used either by the patient 
or the attendant should be at once 
immersed in this tub and remain at 
least three hours. After this they 
should be boiled for at least one- 
half hour. The body linen of the 
patient should be changed daily or 
oftener if soiled. When removed 
it should be immersed immediately in 
this tub. Rags, closet paper or other 
material used about the person of 
the patient should be immediately 

The discharges from the throat, 
mouth and nose are especially dan- 
gerous and must be cared for at 
once. It is well to prepare a num- 
ber of squares of old soft cloth — 
old sheets or pillow cases are good — 
to receive these discharges. These 
cloths should be burned as soon as 
soiled. If there is no fire in the sick 
room, it is convenient to have a small 
tub containing any strong standard 
disinfecting solution, to receive these 
cloths until they can be carried from 
the room and burned. 

The nurse or attendant should 
wear washable clothing and over all 
a washable gown, preferably with a 
hood attachment for the protection 
of the hair. The gown and hood 
should be removed and the exposed 
surface disinfected when leaving the 
sick room, even though temporarily. 
A good rule is to consider that every- 
thing which has been brought into 
the sick room has become infected 
and should be carefully disinfected 
before it is carried out. 

The hands of the attendant should 
be immediately washed and disinfect- 
ed after any contact with the patient 
or his clothing. A good supply of 
towels and tin or porcelain basins 
for this purpose should be kept on 
hand. Probably the best disinfectant 
for this purpose is standard solu- 
tion of corrosive sublimate No. 3, 
consisting of one gram to one quart 
of water. No one should ever leave 
the sick room without first thoroughly 



washing the hands in a disinfectant 
solution, or with carbolic or other 
antiseptic soap, with especial care to 
clean and scrub the finger nails. It 
is best to then soak the hands for 
two or three minutes in lialf strength 
disinfectant solution No. 3 or 4, and 
then wash them off in fresh water. 

A large bottle of such a solution 
should be kept in tlie sick room for 
this purpose. Otherwise the nurse 
may handle something outside the 
room leaving the germs thereon to 
be picked up by some one else. It is 
probable that 90 per cent of all cases 
of secondary infection are brouglit 
about in this manner. The nurse 
should carefully avoid soiling door 
knobs or anything else which may be 
touched by others. While typhoid 
fever is both contagious and infec- 
tious there is no danger of contract- ■ 
ing the disease if we prevent the 
germs from getting into our mouths. 
This can be easily done. The only 
occasion for a second case occurring 
in a household must come either 
from ignorance or carelessness. "With 
proper disinfection of the hands and 
general cleanliness the nurse or at- 
tendant may take her meals at the 
household table. At all events she 
shouM not eat in the sick room. 

Food and Drink. — The tray, 
dishes, and other utensils used in the 
sick room should be set apart for 
the exclusive use of the patient. 
Never wash them in the same pan as 
other dishes for the family. Use a 
separate dish cloth and wiping towel. 
First immerse these articles for an 
hour in a half strength standard dis- 
infectant solution No. 3, 4. or 5 and 
then boil for half an hour and keep 
apart from all other household uten- 
sils. It is best to use paper napkins, 
which should be burned. If cloth 
napkins are used they should be im- 
mersed in the same disinfectant so- 
lution as the bed and body linen. 
All solid food brought into the sick 
room and not consumed by the pa- 
tient should be placed in paper bags 
to be removed by the attendant and 
burned. Liquid foods should be 

poured into a disinfectant. Neither 
the nurse nor any other person should 
be permitted to eat any portion of 
the food remaining. Nothing should 
be eaten by a well person while in 
the sick room nor should anything 
which has been in the room be eaten. 
Nurses and attendants should al- 
ways wash their hands in a disinfect- 
ant solution before eating or put- 
ting anything into their mouths. It 
is absolutely necessary that this rule 
be scrupulously observed. 

If milk is delivered to the house 
in bottles, never let these be taken 
into the room of the typhoid 
case. If you do, these bottles may 
be the means of carrying the disease 
to someone else. Keep special bot- 
tles of your own for the patient's 
milk. Empty the milk into one of 
these as soon as received. Then 
scald out the dairy bottle and keep 
it as far as possible from the sick 
room until it is given back to the 

Quarantine. — -Vll imnecessary vis- 
itors should be excluded from the 
sick room. If a nurse can be pro- 
vided, all members of the family 
should be kept away. Otherwise, one 
or two persons should be detailed as 
attendants and all others should be 
excluded. Certainly there is no need 
that all the relatives, neighbors and 
friends should visit the patient. This 
can do no good but in the majority 
of instances will do harm, and they 
take a chance of getting the disease. 
The quieter the patient is kept, both 
during illness and convalescence, the 
better for him. Children, especially, 
should be carefully excluded. They 
have little or no sense of cleanliness 
and are constantly putting their fin- 
gers and other things into their 
mouths. It has been shown that chil- 
dren contract communicable diseases 
much more readily tlian grown per- 
sons. If visitors are permitted to see 
the patient they shoidd touch nothing 
in the room, or if they do, should 
wash their hands in a disinfectant 
solution upon leaving. All visitors, 
including members of the family. 


should be cautioned not to shake 
hands with or kiss the patient. No 
one should sit for any length of time 
in the sick room unless compelled to 
do so. 

Removal of Excretions. — The dis- 
charges from the bowels and kidneys 
should be received into a bedpan or 
vessel containing at least a quart of 
full-strength disinfectants No. 1 or 
No. 2. Enough of the same should 
be added to cover them and be thor- 
oughly mixed by stirring. Solid 
masses should be broken irp with a 
stick which can be burned, or a glass 
rod which can be disinfected. See 
that all lumps are thoroughly broken 
up. Disinfectants cannot kill germs 
unless they come in contact with 
them. They should stand in the ves- 
sel for not less than an hour. Where 
there are sewers they may then be 
emptied into the water closet, tak- 
ing care not to soil the seats or 
covers. In the country it is best to 
deposit the contents of the vessels 
in a trench. This must be remote, 
and, if possible, down hill from the 
well or nearest watercourse. The 
trench should be about four feet 
deep and two wide. Each deposit 
should at once be well covered with 
quicklime and earth well beaten 
down. When half filled in this man- 
ner the trench should be covered in 
with earth. But care must be taken 
that none of the excretions from per- 
sons afflicted with typhoid are ever 
emptied until thoroughly disinfected. 
Under no circumstances should these 
be poured out in the neighborhood of 
springs or wells. It should also be 
remembered that the water in which 
typhoid fever patients are bathed 
necessarily becomes infected. This 
should also be thoroughly disinfected 
before being emptied out. Vomited 
matter and the sputum from the pa- 
tient also contains the germs of ty- 
phoid and should receive the same 
care and thorough disinfection. These 
precautions should be continued for 
some time after the patient has re- 
covered. About three per cent of 
all cases are carriers of the disease 

for many months or even years. It 
is well to request the attending 
physician to ascertain by means of 
blood tests whether or not the germs 
of typhoid have left the system. 

A great responsibility rests upon 
the household in the management of 
a case of typhoid fever. To pour 
out the discharges from a patient in 
the back yard or expose them in 
open vaults or drains may be, and 
often is, equivalent to the murder of 
innocent neighbors by poisoning. Yet 
this is being done, in many thousands 
of irtstances, as the result of ignor- 
ance of the fatal nature of the in- 
visible germs of the disease. 

Vermin. — Steps should be taken, if 
necessary, to destroy all such vermin 
as fleas, bedbugs, lice and especially 
rats and mice, by means described 
elsewhere in this volume. The sick 
room should be carefully screened 
against flies and mosquitoes. In- 
sects worry sick people and hinder 
recovery. Above everything else flies 
should not be permitted to enter the 
room, or, if they get in, should be 
killed before they get out. Screens 
are cheaper than additional cases of 
typhoid in the family. If flies are 
numerous in the vicinity a number 
of vessels containing fly poison 
should be exposed in the room. If 
sticky fly paper is used, it must hz 
burned at frequent intervals. Fly 
traps may be used if care is taken 
to destroy the insects with boiling 
water and to burn their bodies or de- 
posit them in a disinfectant. Or 
single flies may be killed by means of 
the ordinary fly swatter and then 
dropped into a disinfectant solution. 

After recovery and during con- 
valescence the patient is to be con- 
sidered dangerous so long as the in- 
testinal discharges continue to be 
more copious, liquid and frequent 
than natural; and these should be 
disinfected until the attending physi- 
cian advises that it is no longer 

In the event of death the body 
must be wrapped in a sheet thor- 
oughly soaked in full-strength Stand- 



ard Disinfectant No. 3 or 4, and 
placed in an air-tight coffin. This 
must remain in the sick room until 
removed for burial, ^ublic funer- 
als and wakes over such bodies are 

Quarantine. — It is entirely un- 
necessary to quarantine a case of 
typhoid fever, or the premises in 
which it exists, provided proper care 
is given to all the details of the sick 
room, as recommended. The use of 
placards has been largely discontin- 
ued in this disease. If the disinfec- 
tion is practiced as strictly as it 
should be, there is no danger of the 
disease being communicated to others 
from a given case; but constant 
cleanliness and disinfection are ab- 
solutely necessary to secure such re- 

Anti-Typhoid Vaccination. — Ty- _ 
phoid fever in normal cases is a self- 
limiting disease. That is, unless the 
patient dies, the body develops within 
itself the power of resisting the virus. 
The patient then recov.s and re- 
gains his health even though the 
germs are still developed in large 
numbers in the intestines. In recent 
years many attempts have been made 
by scientific men to perfect a serum 
for lanti-typhoid vaccination and a 
number of different typhoid vac- 
cines are now upon the market. The 
use of typhoid vaccine was first pub- 
licly advocated in 1896 by Pfeiffer 
and Kolle in Germany and by A. 
Wright in England. In 1904 elabor- 
ate experiments were made and since 
I'.iat time the results obtained have 
been very encouraging. The degree 
of immunization obtained has not 
yet been equal to that secured by 
vaccination against smallpox, but sta- 
tistics indicate that the likelihood of 
infection is greatly reduced by this 
means and that the death rate may 
be reduced at least one-half. It has 
been shown that, if proper precau- 
tions are observed, anti-typhoid vac- 
cination in healthy persons is harm- 
less and that the personal discom- 
fort caused by its application is or- 
dinarily very slight. The duration of 

immunity is not yet determined, but 
it is thought to be at least two and a 
half years and probably longer. It 
is the most effective method of pre 
tection yet devised against the chron- 
ic bacillus carrier. Every member 
of the American army from the Sec- 
retary of War down is now required 
to be vaccinated against typhoid. 
And this is believed to be the princi- 
pal cause of the immunity of the 
troops in recent army maneuvers. 

Anti-typhoid vaccination should al- 
ways be done by a competent physi- 
cian. The infection often gives rise 
to slight fever and some painful local 
and general symptoms. These dis- 
appear in from 24 to 48 hours. It 
may also result in temporarily weak- 
ening the power to resist infection. 
Hence preventive vaccination should 
be undertaken before the usual time 
that epidemics appear. Persons vac- 
cinated should take the strictest pre- 
cautions to avoid the chance of ty- 
phoid infection by carefully boiling 
all water that is drunk and cleansing 
the food that is eaten and by rigor- 
ous personal hygiene and cleanliness. 
These precautions need only be taken 
during a period of two or three 
weeks at most. No one should be 
vaccinated who has been exposed to 
typhoid fever or during the begin- 
ning of an attack. In such cases 
vaccination may aggravate the dis- 
ease. It should be practiced only 
upon perfectly healthy subjects, free 
from all organic or other defects 
and from local or general ailments 
no matter what their nature, espe- 
cially tuberculosis. The vaccination 
of debilitated or delicate persons 
should be avoided. Anti-typhoid vac- 
cination is especially recommended 
for physicians, internes, medical stu- 
dents, male and female nurses in 
hospitals; persons, members of fam- 
ilies in which bacillus carriers have 
been found; and the population of 
localities where the disease is fre- 
quent, especially young persons of 
both sexes who have recently come 
to such localities from more salubri- 
ous regions. 



This is a germ disease produced by 
a parasite belonging to the very low- 
est order of animal life. It attacks 
and destroys the red cells of the 
blood. It also produces a toxin or 
poison that causes the characteris- 
tic symptoms of the disease. 

Symptoms. — The most common 
and well-recognized symptoms occur 
in the cases known as malarial or 
intermittent fever, fever and ague, 
or chills and fever. Chilly sensa- 
tions occur at intervals for several 
days together with a feeling of full- 
ness in the head and general bodily 
depression. Then come chills fol- 
lowed by a high fever, with subse- 
quent profuse perspiration. After 
a few hours the patient returns to 
a normal condition and feels about 
as usual until the next attack occurs. 
The paroxysms of chills and fever 
occur at various intervals depending 
upon the particular parasite which 
produces them. A common form is 
that which produces a chill every 
other day. Or there may be a con- 
tinuous slow fever, or attacks of 
fever at irregular intervals. In 
severe cases the brain becomes affect- 
ed and the malady often terminates 
in chronic Bright's disease. 

Treatment. — Home doctoring is 
often thought sufficient for malaria, 
quinine usually being considered a 
specific. But the constitutional ef- 
fects of this disease are so serious 
that a physician should be consulted 
and his recommendations implicitly 

Prevention. — The germ or parasite 
which causes malaria can be com- 
municated to man only by the bite 
of the Anopheles mosquito. This 
species as shown in the illustration 
has a body which is placed parallel 
to and almost on the same plane 
with the front portions of the in- 
sect. Hence, when at rest on walls 
or other objects, the back portion 
sticks out almost or quite at right 
angles with the surface upon which 
it is resting. Observe that the back 

portion of the common mosquito 
forms an angle with the front part 
of its body. Hence both ends of the 
mosquito point toward the object 
upon which it rests. There are other 
diflferences that clearly differentiate 
the malarial from the common mos- 
quito, but the one given serves to dis- 
tinguish between them. The malarial 
mosquito is preeminently a house 
gnat. It is scarcely ever seen in the 
woods or open, but may be found 
oftentimes in great numbers in all 
malarial localities, lying quietly dur- 
ing the day in dark corners of rooms 
or stables. This mosquito practically 
ne\'er bites in the day, but will do 
so in a darkened room, if a person 
will remain perfectly quiet. Their 
favorite time for feeding is in the 
early part of the night and about 
daybreak. This accounts for the 
fact, long observed, that malarial 
fever is almost invariably contracted 
at night. 

The malarial mosquito bites and 
then goes back to some dark corner 

a b 

Anopheles Culcx 

{Malarial Mosquito) (Common Mosquito) 

Courtesy State Board of Health of 


where it remains quiescent for forty- 
eight hours. Then it again comes 
out to feed. Contrary to the gen- 
eral opinion mosquitoes bite many 
times. They frequently remain alive 
for months. The malarial mosquito, 
particularly, oftentimes lives in cel- 
lars and attics throughout the entire 
winter. If one of these mosquitoes 



bites a person with malaria, the para- 
sites are sucked in along with the 
blood. They pass into the stomach 
of the gnat and make their way ulti- 
mately into the body substance. Here 
the parasites undergo a series of mul- 
tiplications. A single bacterium 
sometimes produces as many as ten 
thousand young malarial parasites. 
After these have developed fully, 
which requires eight days in warm 
weather, they make their way into 
the venom gland of the mosquito. 
Here they remain imtil it bites. They 
are then injected into the body of 
the individual attacked along with 
the poison. 

After getting into the human 
blood, each parasite attacks a red 
blood cell, bores into it, and grows 
at the expense of the cell until it 
reaches maturity. It then divides up 
into from seven to twenty-five young" 
parasites which are liberated and 
each in turn attacks a new cell. This 
process goes on until a sufficient 
number of parasites are produced in 
the individual to cause the symptoms 
of malaria. The new subject of the 
disease thereafter becomes a source 
of danger to others in the vicinity 
through the intervention of still other 
malarial mosquitoes. 

Hence the proper way to avoid 
malaria is to screen houses so that 
mosquitoes cannot enter them. Per- 
sons in malarial districts should not 
sit on open porches at night. They 
should also be very careful to sleep 
under properly constructed nets. If 
these measures are taken there is ab- 
solutely no danger of any one ever 
contracting the disease. These pre- 
cautions are not necessary in the 

Those who have the disease are 
a constant source of danger to peo- 
ple living in the vicinity. Hence 
they should be doubly careful to 
avoid being bitten by mosquitoes at 
night. They should vigorously treat 
the disease until the parasites are no 
longer present in their bodies. They 
then cease to he a menace to others. 

Manv children have malaria with- 

out showing symptoms. If allowed 
to sleep without being properly cov- 
ered with a net, they are very apt 
to infect a large number of malarial 
mosquitoes. The blood of children 
in malarial localities should be ex- 
amined from time to time. If the 
parasites be found they should be 
given the proper remedies until a 
cure is effected. 

Almost all negroes in malarial lo- 
calities harbor the parasites, though 
Aery few of thcna show sjTuptoms of 
their presence. It is, therefore, very 
important tliat they be treated prop- 
erly. Their white neighbors should 
see to it, for their own safety, that 
negroes do not sleep in houses un- 
protected by nets. 

If the precautions herein detailed 
were properly carried out every- 
A\here for even a few months, malaria 
would practically cease to exist. Nor 
could it recur in any locality until 
individuals suffering from the dis- 
ease imported it from other places. 

Yellow Fever. — Yellow fever like 
malaria can be communicated to man 
only by the bites of mosquitoes, in 
this case the Stegomyia Calopus 
variety. From the standpoint of pre- 
ventive medicine the procedure indi- 
cated for the two diseases is entirely 


A nation-wide campaign has been 
set on foot for the extermination of 
consumption — often called "The 
Great AVhite Plague" — the ravages 
of which justify the characterization 
of this disease as "the captain of the 
men of death." Several voluntary 
associations are engaged in this cam- 
paign and a number of the great 
insurance companies are giving their 
active co-operation. The following 
is a summary of the latest scientific 
information upon this subject pre- 
]iarcd imder the supervision of the 
JNIetropolitan Life Insurance Com- 
pany of New York: 

Its Nature. — This disease, known 
also as "phthisis," is caused by a 


living germ, called the "bacillus lu- 
berculosis," which multiplies with 
great rajjidity. The germ is called 
"bacillus" because it resembles a little 
rod, this being the meaning of the 
word "bacillus." A picture of these 
germs, much magnified, is shown 
on another page. 

Outside of the human body, the 
germ may live in warm, moist, dark 
places for a long time. By direct 
sunlight the germ is killed in a few 
hours, in a few days by ordinary 
daylight, and immediately by boiling 

whole communities. Nearly every- 
body at some period of his life 
breathes in the living germs of the 
disease, but owing to the power of 
resistance of a healthy body they are 
not able to multiply. If they do not 
immediately die they produce little 
lumjjs called "tubercles," from which 
comes the name "tuberculosis." If 
these form in the lungs, they con- 
tinue to grow, soften, break open, 
and are eventually expelled by cough- 
ing or otherwise. For this reason, 
the sputum, or "spit," of an individ- 




Uow the (jcrms of consumption are carried from the sick to the well. 

INTEMPERANCE AMO r^^.^_^. l'^ 
Consumption's allies 


avoid them and sjou are safeguarding against the disease. 

water. If the germ finds its way into 
the lungs it rapidly increases in 
number. A strong, healthy person 
will resist the germs, but in an in- 
dividual who is wealv, they rajiidly 
multiply until the lungs are con- 
sumed and the person dies. 

The germ generally obtains access 
to the body through the mouth, and 
most frequently lodges in the air 
passages of the lungs. It may, how- 
ever, get into the glands of the neck, 
attack the throat, the bowels, the 
kidneys, the brain, or any other or- 
gan of the body as well as the bones 
of the joints. Fortunately, strong, 
healthy people possess the power of 
resisting these germs, otherwise it is 
likely that the disease would kill off 

ual who has consumption is fiUed 
with the germs of tuberculosis. 

In early stages of the disease the 
germ is found in small numbers in 
the sputum, in larger numbers as 
the disease progresses, and in count- 
less millions in the later stages. Un- 
less this sputum is destroyed by 
burning or by disinfectants, it may 
become the most common method of 
carrying tuberculosis to other in- 

Not Hereditary. — It is generally 
believed now that consumption is not 
inherited. It is true that the children 
of consumptives are frequently of 
low vitality and generally of poor 
physique. This does not mean, how- 
ever, that they are bound to become 



consumptives. They will get con- 
sumption only if the germ enters 
their body. Being weak, however, 
and being unable to resist the action 
of the bacillus, they are more sus- 
ceptible than individuals who are 
physically well and strong. There is 
no reason whatever why such chil- 
dren, if properly cared for, should 
not grow to healthy and M'ell-devel- 
oped men and women who will never 
be consumptive. 

It is possible to have the disease 
for some time and not know it or 

will be seen that as consumption is 
a germ disease, it is a communicable 
disease and as such a preventable 
disease. If it is treated properly in 
its early stages it is a curable dis- 

The Extent of the Disease. — Tu- 
berculosis is the great disease of 
middle life. It causes about one- 
third of all the deaths that occur be- 
tween the ages of twenty and fifty 
years. More deaths result from con- 
sumption than from any other dis- 
ease. It is estimated that two hun- 





A careful consumptive — not dangerous to live icith. 





In case of consumption look to these for cure. 


suspect it. An examination of the 
patient's chest bj^ a competent physi- 
cian and a microscopical examination 
of the sputum may discover it, but 
if both of these tests fail, it does not 
definitely mean that tuberculosis is 
not present. 

Repeated examinations should be 
made from time to time if the eai'lier 
symptoms of tuberculosis are present. 
Among these (if they are present, 
the individual should consult a physi- 
cian at once) are the following: 
Slight cough, lasting a month or 
longer; loss of weight; slight fever, 
each afternoon; bleeding from the 
lungs; tired feeling. We repeat, if 
these symptoms are present, do not 
delay, but consult a physician at 

From what has been said above, it 

dred thousand people die each year 
in the United States from tuberculo- 
sis. Between the ages of fifteen and 
forty-five years, one-third of all 
deaths are from tuberculosis. Be- 
tween the ages of twenty and thirty- 
five, one-half of all deaths are from 
tuberculosis. During the four years 
of the Civil War, the total loss of 
life was two hundred and five thou- 
sand and seventy. In the same time, 
the tubercle bacillus destroyed in the 
United States alone over seven hun- 
dred thousand people. 

When we hear of yellow fever, we 
make ev-ery possible effort to stamp 
out the disease at once. The same 
is true of smallpox and other so- 
called contagious diseases, and yet 
it is estimated that the total number 
of deaths from yellow fever in the 


United States during one hundred 
years was only one hundred thou- 
sand. The annual economic loss 
from consumption in the United 
States is $330,000,000. 

The Spread of the Disease. — The 
great medium for the spread of the 
disease is the consumptive's spit. 
When the consumptive coughs or 
sneezes, he fills the air before him 
with particles of moisture, almost too 
small to be seen, which are filled with 
germs. When he spits upon the floor, 
or the walk, millions of germs are 
deposited, and are ready to find their 
way ujpon the clothes or hands and 




i"\. "^ij^ 

Bacteria of consumpUon. 

thus into the mouths and into the 
lungs, stomach and intestines of chil- 
dren who play upon the floor, or 
walk. The careless consumptive's 
handkerchief, the pocket in which 
he carries it, the bedding, especially 
the pillow cover, and the towel 
used by him, are laden with 

When a member of the family has 
consumption and the spit is not care- 
fully collected and destroyed, the 
house is apt to become infected and 
other members of the family take the 

When a consumptive removes or 
dies, and other persons move into 
the house, some of them are very 
apt to take the disease unless the 
house is thoroughly cleaned and dis- 

infected, particularly the floors and 

Impure air and deficient sunlight 
favor the development of the bacil- 
lus. For this reason a consumptive 
is more frequently met with in the 
crowded parts of cities, where houses 
are built closely together, air can- 
not circulate freely, and sunlight 
does not enter. Overcrowded, poorly 
ventilated houses, offices and work- 
shops, all tend to spread the disease. 
Consumption is much less com- 
mon where people live in separate 

Dirt, dampness and darkness are 
three of the most active allies of the 
tuberculosis germ. On the other 
hand, sunshine, pure air and cleanli- 
ness are its greatest enemies. It is 
highly desirable for this reason that 
you keep your home perfectly clean 
and constantly remove from it dust 
and dirt. Every room should have 
a thorough spring and fall house 
cleaning each year. Rooms which 
have been occupied by consumptives 
frequently become infected with the 
germs. Such rooms should never be 
used without having been previously 
disinfected. Remember that the most 
active agent for spreading tubercu- 
losis is the spit of the consumptive. 
If this is thoroughly burned or 
destroyed at once, there is little dan- 
ger of infection. 

If the body is weakened by over- 
work, or by dissipation or by ex- 
cesses of any kind, the individual is 
more apt to contract tuberculosis than 
if he keeps himself strong and well. 
In fact, healthy persons, living a 
proper life, when infected frequently 
get over the disease so quickly and 
so readily that they do not even 
know that they have had it. 

People addicted to the use of alco- 
hol in any form are more likely to 
have tuberculosis than others. 

The Cure of the Disease. — Con- 
sumption is no longer the hopeless 
disease of the past — it is curable. 
The earlier it is detected in an in- 
dividual case, the surer the cure. 
Therefore, help your friend, your 



neiglihor, your relative, to recognize 
and treat his disease at the start. 

If you should be unfortunate 
enough to be afflicted with tubercu- 
losis or consumption, first of all get 
the advice of a reliable physician, and 
follow his instructions conscientiously 
and religiouslj'. There is no anti- 
toxin for treating tuberculosis such 
as is used for diphtheria. The only 
cure we know for tuberculosis is to 
increase the bodily strength, so that 
the body will resist and gradually 
destroy the germ. This is a slow 
process. Its principal means are 
plenty of fresh air all the time, 
plenty of good food, rest, freedom 
from worry and out-of-door life. 
Medicines are of comparatively little 
use in the cure of consumption. Pat- 
ent medicines do not cure consump- 
tion. ]\Iost of them are alcoholic 
drinks in disguise, which are danger- 
ous to the consumptive. 

Sanatoria. — For the best treatment 
of tuberculosis, so as to afford tlie 
patient outdoor treatment as much 
as possible, si^ecial hospitals, called 
sanatoria, have been erected in all 
parts of the United States and Eu- 
rope. It is highl}'^ desirable, in order 
to cure the consumptive as rapidly as 
possible, that he be treated in such 
a sanatorium. There are, however, 
as yet not sufficient of these to ac- 
commodate everybody, and for this 
and for other reasons it is frequently 
necessary for the patient to be treat- 
ed at home. If the latter method be 
resorted to, it should be done under 
tlie advice of a physician. 

Home Treatment. — The physician 
will tell you how to carry on this 
home treatment in the best manner. 
A person who has pulmonary tuber- 
culosis, or consumption, is not dan- 
gerous to have in the house if he is 
careful and clean, and if he follows 
the usual rides laid down to prevent 
infection of other members of the 
family. The patient's window should 
be open day and night and he should 
occupy the room alone. Preferably 
there should be no carpet or rug on 
the floor. The sheets and the body 

linen should be frequently washed 
and well boiled. The room should be 
dusted with a damp cloth or a damp 
broom. The food which he eats 
should be used by him exclusively 
and should be well boiled. 

The Prevention of the Disease. — 
To prevent consumption, two things 
are required: (1) the removal of the 
source of contagion; (2) the removal 
of the predisposing cause. These 
can be accomplished, (1) by collect- 
ing and destroying the germs in tlie 
consumptive's spit, and (^) by keej}- 
ing the body in good general health, 
so that it will be able to resist the 

The consumptive, if he carefully 
destroj^s all his spit, is hai'mless. He 
should preferably use paper napkins, 
which can be burned immediately. 
_ They should not be carried loose in 
the pocket after using. When cough- 
ing or sneezing, he should hold one 
of these before his mouth. If the 
handkerchief is ever used for this 
purpose it should be immediately 
disinfected, by being placed either in 
boiling water or in a 3 per cent solu- 
tion of carbolic acid. 

He should spit into a pasteboard 
sputum cup, which at the end of 
each day can be burned, or into a 
vessel which can be easily and com- 
pletely cleaned daily. The ordinary 
spittoon is most difficult to clean, 
and should never be used by a con- 
sumptive. When the consumptive is 
at work, riding on the street car, or 
traveling, he should use a pocket 
sputum cup or flask which can be 
kept tightly closed until he can 
empty it at night. 

The Careful Consumptive is Not 
Dangerous. — Tuberculosis is not con- 
tagious by the breath (except when 
the consumptive coughs or sneezes), 
or in the same way as smallpox, or 
diphtheria, or scarlet fever, but 
through the sputum. 

Even though every effoi-t is made 
to collect and destroy the germ it 
is probable that every one of us, on 
account of the prevalence of the dis- 
ease and the large number of con- 

PREV£:NTI0N of communicable disease 165 

Sumptives who are careless or do not 
understand the importance of de- 
stroying their spit, will receive at 
some time or other the germs in our 
lungs. It is most important, there- 
fore, that the lungs be in proper 
condition and that the general health 
be good. 

Thorough ventilation of bedrooms 
is one of the most important means 
to this end. Too often the bedroom 
is small, dark and unventilated, the 
windows sometimes being nailed shut. 
To nail one's bedroom window shut 
is to drive a nail in one's coffin. We 
spend more hours each day in our 
bedrooms than in any other room in 
the house, yet they are usually the 
smallest, worst lighted, and least ven- 

Sleeping out of doors is urged 
upon the consumptive, and it is prob- 
able that most of us would be in 
far better condition to resist tuber- 
culosis if we slept out of doors a 
good portion of the year. 

Excessive hours of hard work, 
whether on the farm or in the fac- 
tory, lower the vitality. Insufficient 
food or indigestible food also in- 
jures the health. The steady drink- 
ing of alcoholic liquors, whether or 
not we become drunk, injures the 


Smallpox is an acute, contagious, 
infectious disease characterized by 
the well-known eruption of small 
boils or pustules all over the body. 
Varioloid and variola are terms 
sometimes applied to mild cases of 
smallpox under the mistaken impres- 
sion that they are a different and 
less virulent disease. This is not the 
case. The mildest cases communicate 
the disease in its most malignant 
form. Smallpox is sometimes called 
by false names, such as Cuban itch, 
Porto Rico itch, Porto Rico scratch- 
es, or elephant itch, to conceal its 
existence in the community. There 
are, in fact, no such diseases and 
tills practice is most reprehensible. 

Smallpox has all the characteristics 
of a germ disease, but tlie germ 
which causes it has not yet been iden- 
tified. It may occur at any season 
of the year, but is most i^revalent in 

History. — No other disease, not ex- 
cepting the bubonic plague or "Black 
Death," has contributed an equally 
interesting chapter to the history of 
mankind. It is known to have pre- 
vailed in the far east many centu- 
ries before the Christian era. Europe 
was first visited with smallpox in the 
sixth century. Later it was widely 
disseminated by the crusades. It de- 
populated an entire colony in Green- 
land in the thirteenth century, con- 
tributed largely to the conquest of 
Mexico by Cortez in the sixteenth cen- 
tury, and destroyed far larger num- 
bers of the American Indians than 
did the firearms and fire water of 
the white man. By the eighteenth 
century smallpox was distributed 
throughout Great Britain and the 
continent of Europe. Over 90 per 
cent of the population is said to 
have been affected and about one- 
tenth of the entire mortality was 
caused by this disease. More than 
one-half of all the living are said 
to have been scarred and disfigured 
by it. Historians aver that women 
whose faces were not pockmarked 
were the exception. Not a little of 
the great reputation of famous beau- 
ties of this period is said to have 
been due to chance immunity from 
this disease. Smallpox before the 
days of vaccination spared neither 
high nor low. It spread its terrors 
alike in the homes of rich and poor, 
and even penetrated into the palaces 
of princes. More than a score of 
deaths in royal families were thus 
caused. A half dozen reigning mon- 
archs were attacked but recovered. 
More than once it threatened the 
total extinction of representative 
European dynasties. George Washing- 
ton, during his early manhood, was 
"strongly attacked by the smallpox" 
while on a visit to the West Indies. 

Smallpox is now a rare malady and 



is rapidly vanishing. This great 
change has been wrought in a single 
century by the discovery of vaccina- 
tion on May 14, 1796, by Edward 
Jenner. On that day Jenner per- 
formed the first vaccination on a hu- 
man being. Eight weeks later he 
fearlessly exposed his patient in 
smallpox hospitals and brought him 
into contact with smallpox patients 
without causing him to contract the 
disease. Vaccination has been called 
the greatest discovery ever made for 
the preservation of the human spe- 
cies. Millions of lives have been saved 
by it, and a thorough and continuous 
practice of vaccination will undoubt- 
edly blot out smallpox from the face 
of the earth. 

Jenner's discovery was based on a 
widespread belief that persons who 
had become infected with a similar 
disease of cattle, known as cowpox, 
were thereafter immune from small- 
pox infection. A remark made in 
his presence to this effect by a milk- 
maid was the "awakening impulse 
which after years of study and ex- 
periment culminated in the discovery 
which has conferred the greatest 
benefits upon the human race." 

The practice of vaccination up to 
a comparatively recent date was not 
always surrounded by proper sani- 
tary safeguards. The vaccine was 
sometimes impure and sufficient care 
was not always taken to prevent in- 
fection of the sore with the germs 
of tetanus (lockjaw) and other dis- 
eases. The progress of modern 
science has now overcome all these 
dangers. Vaccination at the hands 
of a competent physician is not only 
an entirely safe and almost painless 
operation: it is an absolute preven- 
tive of smallpox and the only possi- 
ble safeguard against its ravages. 
Vaccination against smallpox is com- 
pulsory upon all inhabitants by law 
in Germany and Japan. In both 
countries it has been practically 
stamped out. The vaccination of 
school children is compulsory by regu- 
lation of the school board or board 
of health in many American cities, 

but is not enjoined upon the general 
public by state or national legisla- 
tion. Hence sporadic outbreaks are 
constantly occurring. The disease in- 
variably attacks persons who have 
never been vaccinated and may also 
attack those who were vaccinated in 
childhood, but have not been revac- 
cinated after an interval of ten or 
more years. In such cases, however, 
the disease assumes a milder form. 

Opposition to compulsory vaccina- 
tion when not due to mere ignorance 
or prejudice is based upon one of 
the following grounds: i. e., (1) that 
vaccination does not protect, (2) 
that it may transmit other diseases 
or is otherwise harmful cr dangerous, 
or (3) that compulsory vaccination 
is an invasion of the rights of an 
individual. The experience of Japan 
and Germany, and especially the im- 
munity of the German army as the 
result of vaccination during the 
Franco-Prussian war, 1870-1 (when 
the opposing French army was rav- 
aged by smallpox), and the universal 
testimony of expert sanitarians, 
proves that the first of these objec- 
tions is totally unfoimded. 

The chance that vaccination may 
transmit other diseases, or otherwise 
prove injurious to the patient has 
now been entirely overcome. Ai'm 
to arm vaccination was formerly the 
custom, i. e., the scab from a suc- 
cessful vaccination was used as a 
vaccine for others. Occasionally such 
diseases as tuberculosis "and syphilis 
were transmitted in this way. But 
this method is a practice of the past. 
The only vaccine now employed is 
prepared from healthy young calves 
under Government supervision. It is 
true that there is the possibility of 
blood poisoning or lockjaw if the 
sore become infected. But this will 
not occur if the vaccination is prop- 
erly performed and protected by a 
suitable dressing. The danger from 
this source is much less than that 
from pricks and scratches from 
thorns or minute splinters, or the 
claws of domestic pets. In a word, 
the possible danger from vaccination 


is grossly exaggerated. Pure vac- 
cine is harmless and it is doubtful 
whether a single death has been 
caused by vaccination conducted in 
a proper manner. 

The notion that compulsory vac- 
cination is an invasion of the rights 
of an individual might be sustained 
if a person could suffer from the 
disease without requiring the care of 
other members of society, and sub- 
jecting them to the dangers of in- 
fection. The loathesomeness of 
smallpox, the helplessness of the suf- 
ferer and the necessity of providing 
pesthouses for the treatment of pa- 
tients of this disease bring the sub- 
ject of vaccination well within the 
police power of state and nation. 
Every effort should be made to 
arouse public sentiment in favor of 
a state and national compulsory vac- 
cination law. 

A Vaccination Creed. — Seven 
years ago the Department of Health 
of Chicago made the following dec- 
laration of their faith in vaccination: 

"First. — That true vaccination — re- 
peated until it no longer 'takes' — al- 
ways prevents smallpox. Nothing 
else does. 

"Second. — That true vaccination — 
that is, vaccination properly done on 
a clean arm with pure lymph and 
kept perfectly clean and unbroken 
afterwards — never did and never will 
make a serious sore. 

"Third. — That such a vaccination 
leaves a characteristic scar, unlike 
that from any other cause, which is 
recognizable during life, and is the 
only conclusive evidence of a suc- 
cessful vaccination. 

"Fourth. — That no untoward re- 
sults ever follow such vaccination; 
on the other hand thousands of lives 
are annually sacrificed through the 
neglect to vaccinate — a neglect be- 
gotten of lack of knowledge." 

How to Vaccinate. — Vaccination 
should, as a rule, be performed only 
by a competent physician, but may 
be safely performed by anyone if 
the following instructions are care- 
fully observec}; Secure the pure vac- 

cine from a first-class drug store, or 
if there is no drug store in the vicin- 
ity, write or telegraph the state board 
of health at the capital city of your 
state, and ask them to forward 
through the mails enough vaccine for 
the required number of persons. If 
buying from a drug store ask for 
glycerinized lymph. It is both safer 
and more reliable than the vaccine 
from dried points. A good plan is 
to make the inoculation on the in- 
side of the arm above the elbow 
where the scar will be out of sight. 
But if preferred, the wound may be 
made on the leg or, indeed, on any 
part of the body. The part should 
be thoroughly washed with soap and 
hot water. Then rinse with a 50 
per cent solution of alcohol. But 
this must be allowed to fully evap- 
orate. Otherwise it may kill the 
vaccine. The operator's hands should 
be thorouglily scrubbed with hot wa- 
ter and soap, preferably carbolic or 
green soap, with especial attention 
to the finger nails. If the virus 
comes on bone points, it is best not 
to use a knife at all. Scrape the 
parts with the point over a spot 
about as large as the little finger 
nail, until the upper layers of the 
skin have been rubbed away and 
serum appears and mingles with the 
virus which thus gains entrance into 
the system. If a knife is used for 
scarifying the parts thoroughly dis- 
infect it in standard solution No. 4, 
carbolic acid (5 per cent) and after- 
wards rinse free of the antiseptic 
solution in boiling water. In either 
case dry the parts thoroughly before 
the operation is attempted. If the 
knife is used, scarify very lightly 
and stop as soon as the serum ap- 
pears and before the red blood com- 
mences to flow. If the wound is 
deep enough to draw blood there is 
much more danger of infection and, 
moreover, the flow of blood tends to 
wash the virus away. 

When the serum begins to run, rub 
in the vaccine with the knife or vac- 
cine point. If the virus is dry, first 
dip the point m tepid water which 



has been freshly boiled. After the 
virus has been thorouglily rubbed in, 
leave the scar uncovered until it is 
dry. Now cover tlie wound with an- 
tiseptic gauze or sterilized gauze, or 
cotton, and bandage with great care 
so that the bandage will not get out 
of place and the wound become in- 
fected. The best plan, after covering 
the wound with gauze, is to cover the 
gauze and adjacent parts with strips 
of adhesive surgeon's plaster. The 
dressing should be changed every day 
or two until the scab falls off. Sani- 
tary precautions must be taken at 
every dressing to avoid infecting the 

If the vaccination "takes" a small 
red spot appears at the site of in- 
oculation on the third day. The tem- 
perature rises slightly on the third 
or fourth day, and ma^;^ continue a 
little above normal until the eighth 
or ninth day. On the eleventh or 
twelfth day the soreness begins to 
subside and a brownish scab forms 
over the wound. This becomes dry 
and hard and falls off on the twenty- 
first to the twenty-fifth day. It 
leaves a circular pitted scar. The 
sore must be kept clean and free 
from irritation and disturbance. It 
must nbt be rubbed or scratched. If, 
after six or seven days there is an 
undue degree of inflammation, a 
physician should be consulted. Prac- 
tically every case of ill effects from 
vaccination is due to scratching or 
picking at the sore, or otherwise 
handling or dressing it with dirty 
hands or fingers. 

A successful vaccination usually 
confers immunity from smallpox for 
life. In other cases the power of re- 
sistance seems to decrease with time. 
Hence adults vaccinated in childhood 
should be revaccinated if exposed to 
smallpox or if an epidemic of the 
disease breaks out in a community. 
The second vaccination will "take" 
only on those who need it. 

When to Vaccinate. — Every child 
should be vaccinated during the first 
year and again at the age of puberty, 
i. e., twelve or fourteen years of 

age. If a case of smallpox occurs 
in the family or neighborhood, or 
even if it is known to exist in the 
community, every member of the 
family should be promptly revaccin- 
ated. Inoculation within three days 
after exposure has been found to 
give immunity, and if performed as 
late as the fifth day the attack will 
be averted or much modified. This 
is especially the case when revaccin- 
ation is performed In one recorded 
case a mother and three small chil- 
dren were vaccinated after the father 
was taken down with the smallpox. 
The wife nursed her husband during 
the disease and took care of her 
children, but no other member of 
the family became infected. 

Symptoms. — The period of incuba- 
tion varies from 7 to 20 days, the 
-average being 13 days. Inoculation 
shortens the time to 7 or 8 days. 
During this period the symptoms are 
very slight. The invasion of the dis- 
ease is sudden. It begins with a 
chill which may be followed by 
others. There is severe aching in the 
small of the back, sometimes in the 
limbs, intense headache, vomiting and 
fever. The pulse is rapid and strong. 
Convulsions often occur in children. 
An initial rash in the form of a dif- 
fused redness somewhat similar to 
the rash of scarlet fever occurs in 
a few cases on the second day. The 
distinctive eruption appears on the 
third day on the forehead, around the 
mouth, and on the wrists. Now the 
temperature, which has been continu- 
ously high, begins to fall. Within 
twenty-four hours the eruption 
spreads all over the body, and at this 
stage the disease strongly resembles 
measles. On the fourth and fifth 
days the eruption is papular and a 
characteristic "shotty" sensation is 
obtained by passing the fingers over 
the skin. 

In the milder cases commonly 
called varioloid or variola, the fever 
falls at once after the appearance 
of the eruption on the third or fourth 
day, and the patient feels comfort- 
able. The eruption is slight, scat- 


tered, and often limited to the face 
and hands. 

There is danger that this disease 
may be mistaken for measles, scarlet 
fever, chickenpox or some other in- 
fection. The characteristic symp- 
toms are the severity of the attack 
together with chills, backache, head- 
ache and vomiting. The presence of 
these symptoms associated with a 
high fever from 103-^^ to lOoj^V F. 
continuing for three or four days 
and falling on the appearance of an 
eruption should excite suspicion of 
smallpox, especially when the disease 
is prevalent. 

The symptoms of measles have 
been described elsewhere. The erup- 
tion occurs about the fourth or fifth 
day without the fall of temperature 
which is characteristic of smallpox. 
In scarlet fever the eruption ap- 
pears on the second day and gradu- 
ally fades after two or three days. 

Chickenpox (Varicella). — This is a 
mild disease of children of impor- 
tance chiefly because the mild cases 
of smallpox may be mistaken for tliis 
disease. Chickenpox is ordinarily 
confined to children under six years 
of age. The initial symptoms are 
much milder than smallpox, although 
there may be fever, vomiting and 
pains in the back and legs. The 
eruption appears during the first 
twenty-four hours on the back, chest, 
or face in tlie form of red pimples 
which in a few hours become filled 
with a clear or turbid fluid. In three 
or four days the eruption dries up 
into scabs which soon fall off". There 
is little or no scarring. 

Prognosis of Smallpox. — From the 
sixth to tlie eighth day after the on- 
set of the disease the vesicles change 
to pustules with a slight depression 
in the center surrounded by a red 
border or halo. The temperature 
rises again, what is known as the 
secondary fever sets in, and the gen- 
eral symptoms return. Pustules are 
especially thick on the face which 
is much swollen and disfigured. On 
the twelfth or thirteenth day, about 
four or five days from their first 

appearance, the pustules begin to dry 
up. A few days later the scabs be- 
gin to fall off first from the face and 
later from other parts of the body- 
The temperature falls to normal and 
convalescence begins. 

Or, in severe cases such as the con- 
fluent form or hemorrhagic smallpox, 
the symptoms become more severe 
and death occurs, usually at the state 
of maturation, about the tenth or 
eleventh day. When recovery takes 
place, the process of desquamation, 
or peeling off" of the scales, is usually 
completed in three or four weeks, 
but may extend to six or eiglit weeks. 

Modes of Infection. — The virus of 
smalljaox has an extraordinary vitali- 
ty. Infected clotliing and other ar- 
ticles may transmit the disease after 
an interval of months or even years. 
Contagion may be direct from con- 
tact with the patient, or may be car- 
ried from the sick room on the per- 
son or clothing of the nurse or physi- 
cian or by means of bedding and 
other articles. AH who enter the 
sick room should wear a washable 
hooded gown. This should be disin- 
fected on leaving the room as else- 
where recommended. After leaving 
the room the hands, face and hair 
should be washed in a disinfectant 
solution. The contagion exists in all 
the secretions and excretions of the 
body, and the exhalations from the 
lungs and perspiration. The pus 
from the pustules is the most fertile 
source of contagion and the dust 
from dried pus scales is the usual 
medium of its dissemination. The 
disease is most contagious while the 
eruption is in active progress, but 
begins to be contagious before the 
eruption appears and so continues 
until the process of scaling is com- 

Quarantine. — As soon as the case 
is known to be smallpox, convey the 
patient if practicable to a hospital 
or pesthouse, or isolate in a sick 
room prepared in all respects as for 
typhoid fever. Placard the premises. 
Vaccinate every member of the fam- 
ily. Allow no one to leave the house 



until the vaccination "takes" or it 
appears that the person is immune 
by reason of previous vaccination. 
The bread-winners may then leave the 
premises, after proper disinfection 
under the advice of a physician or 
public health officer, but must board 
and room elsewhere during the prog- 
ress of the disease. Do not allow the 
nurse and other members of the fam- 
ily to leave the premises or mingle 
with other persons. All members of 
the family who have been success- 
fully vaccinated and revaccinated at 
the outbreak of the disease will be 
immune. They are in no danger 
from the disease themselves, but 
should not come in contact with other 
persons as they may communicate 
the disease on their person or cloth- 
ing. Household pets, flies and in- 
sects should be rigidly excluded from 
the premises. No visitors should be 
admitted under any pretext. Every 
sanitary precaution described under 
typhoid fever should be observed 
with redoubled vigilance on account 
of the virulence of the germs. All 
excreta should be thoroughly disin- 
fected and afterwards buried. After 
the recovery or death of the patient, 
not only the sick room but every 
room in the dwelling should be thor- 
oughly fumigated with formalde- 
hyde or sulphur or preferably with 

Quarantine should be observed un- 
til the process of desquamation is 
complete. The length of time will 
depend entirely on the individual 
case. A safe rule is to await the 
disappearance of the peculiar red 
specks at the bottom of the pits or 
scars. As long as these spots are 
visible the desquamation is going on. 


This disease has existed from time 
immemorial, but especial attention 
has been directed to it in the United 
States in recent years. Investiga- 
tions by Dr. Chas. Wardell Stiles of 
the United States Public Health arid 
Marine Hospital Service and those 

made under the supervision of the 
Rockefeller Institution, have proved 
that this disease is widely prevalent, 
esi^ecially in the southern states, and 
is of enormous economic importance. 
It is caused by soil pollution. The 
eggs and larvae of the hookworm are 
passed in large numbers in the dis- 
charges of infected persons. Thence 
they may be communicated to others 
by contaminated food or water or 
directly from the soil through the 
skin. This mode of infection is per- 
haps the most common in rural dis- 
tricts where all children and many 
adult members of the population go 
barefoot in summer and are thus 
more or less constantly in contact 
with infected soil. In the rural sec- 
tions of the southern states all the 
factors necessary for the propaga- 
tion of this disease are found. The 
Conditions most favorable to its de- 
velopment are warmth, moisture, an 
open porous soil and infected people 
who pollute the soil. North of the 
Ohio and Potomac Rivers the climate 
is too cold and in the arid west too 
dry to favor the disease. 

The adult hookworm is about one- 
third or two-thirds of an inch in 

This shows the head of a hookworm as 
the parasite is feeditig, attached to 
the wall of the iowels. (P. H. & 
M. H. Serrice.) 

length and about the thickness of a 
small hairpin, or a No. 30 thread. 
Its head bends back on its neck like 


a hook, hence the name. The mouth 
is equipped with lances which pierce 
the flesli and make openings through 
which the blood can escape. These 
carry a poisonous secretion from a 
gland in the worm's head which 
keeps the blood from clotting. In 
severe cases, the worms occur in 
enormous numbers and take large 
quantities of blood from the system. 
Much more is lost from constant ooz- 
ing of the wounds. The secretion 
injected by the worm is poisonous 
and causes a chronic inflammation 
which impairs digestion. The wound 
also aifords entrance for disease- 
producing bacteria to the system. 
There is also a general lowering of 
the body tone which exposes the vic- 
tim to all sorts of diseased condi- 

The symptoms in general are those 
of malnutrition and may be mild, 
medium or severe. In general the 
patient becomes very much weak- 
ened, the body looks bloodless and 
development is stunted. The prover- 
bial laziness of the Georgia "crack- 
er" and other so-called "poor whites" 
in southern states is now believed to 
be the result of hookworm infection. 
Treatment and Prevention.— Hap- 
pily this disease may be readily and 
quickly cured and is entirely pre- 
ventable. The following method of 
treatment is advised by Dr. Stiles, 
the leading authority on the subject. 
He says: 

"The fundamental principle under- 
lying the treatment of hookworm dis- 
ease is the same as that which under- 
lies the treatment of all other zoo- 
parasitic diseases, namely, first treat 
the parasite, not the patient. After 
the parasite is treated, attention may 
be directed to treating the patient. 
"Although hookworm disease may 
- occur in persons in any walk of life, 

H|^ it is particularly among the poorer 
■ classes that it is found, and the 

average hookworm patient (children 
excepted, to a certain extent) can 
not afford to lose several days' wages 
to undergo treatment. It is there- 
fore frequently expedient to conduct 

the treatment Saturday evenings and 
Sunday mornings. It will often be 
found difficult to arouse the interest 
of a community in regard to the 
presence of hookworm disease and 
the need of treatment. This can fre- 
quently be done, however, if it is 
borne in mind that the resulting ane- 
mia is, in common with other ane- 
mias, a frequent cause of amenor- 

Warning. — "Notwithstanding that 
primarily we are to treat the para- 
site, not the patient, it should be re- 
membered that if too great a quan- 
tity of thymol is absorbed by the pa- 
tient, alarming symptoms and even 
death may occur. Accordingly, the 
patient and the patient's family 
should be carefully warned not to 
permit the patient under any circum- 
stances to have on the Sunday during 
which the treatment is given any 
food or drink containing alcohol, 
fats, or oil. Patent medicines should 
be mentioned in particular, because 
of the alcohol many of them con- 
tain, and even milk and butter should 
be forbidden. I know of one case of 
serious thymol poisoning which fol- 
lowed promptly after the patient 
took a copious drink of milk the day 
thymol was taken. 

Preliminary Treatment. — "On Sat- 
urday evening give a dose of Epsom 
salts. The reason is this: The hook- 
worms are surrounded by more or 
less mucus and partially digested 
food. Unless this is removed, the 
thymol may not reach the parasites, 
but may reach the patient, and this 
is contrary to what is desired, as 
thymol is intended for the parasite, 
not the patient. 

Thymol Treatment on Sunday. — 
"Position of patient: Instruct the 
patient to lie on his right side im- 
mediately before taking the drug and 
to remain in that position for at 
least half an hour. The reason for 
this is that many of these patients 
have enlarged stomachs, and if they 
lie on their right side, the drug has 
the benefit of gravity in passing rap- 
idly from the stomach to the intes- 



tine; but if any other position is 
assumed, the drug may remain in 
the dilated cardiac portion of the 
stomach for some hours and result 
in considerable complaint on the part 
of the patient and delay of the drug 
reaching the worms. 

"Time of dosage: The time of giv- 
ing and size of dose should be ar- 
ranged on one of two plans, depend- 
ing on existing conditions. 

"The plan usually followed is: At 
6 a. m., one-half of the total dose 
of thymol; at 8 a. m., one-half of the 
total dose of thymol; at 10 a. m., 
Ej^som salts (never castor oil). 

"If the case is an especially severe 
one, or if the patient has, upon the 
first Sunday's treatment, complained 
of burning or other effects of thymol, 
the following plan is adojjted: At 
6 a. m., one-third of the total dose 
of thymol; at 7 a. m., one-third of 
the total dose of thymol; at 8 a. m., 
one-third of the total dose of thy- 
mol (if unpleasant symptoms, as a 
sensation of severe burning in the 
stomach, have apjjeared this third 
dose should be omitted) ; at 10 a. m., 
Epsom salts (never castor oil). 

"Food: No food is allowed until 
after the 10 o'clock dose of Epsom 
salts, but- the patient is permitted to 
take a glass or so of water after the 
thymol, if he desires. 

"Thymol: Finely powdered thymol 
in capsules, preferably in five-grain 
capsules, should be used. 

"General rule as to age: In the 
table of dosage given in the next 
paragraph, the maximum dose per 
day to be adopted as a routine is 
given for various age groups. In 
determining the dose, however, the 
rule should be followed of taking the 
apparent rather than the real age 
and of not hesitating to cut down the 
dose even lower in case of unusually 
severe cardiac symptoms or other un- 
favorable conditions. Thus for a 
boy sixteen years old, who appears to 
be only twelve years old, or in wliom 
the anemia is especially marked,, 
resulting in severe cardiac symp- 
toms, the quantity of thymol should 

be reduced to the twelve or even the 
eight-year dose. Some authors give 
the impression that it is useless to 
give thymol for this disease imless 
the full dose is administered. This 
view is not in harmony with my ex- 

"Size of dose: The following doses 
represent the maximum amount to 
be used during one day's treatment 
for the age groups in question. It 
is practically the same table that the 
Porto Rican Commission has been 


Under 5 years old 7i 

From 5 to 9 years old 15 

From 10 to 14 years old 30 

From 15 to 19 years old 45 

From 20 to 59 years old 60 

Above 60 years old 30 to 45 

Total dose, to be divided as pre- 
viously indicated. 

Repetition of Treatment. — "The 
foregoing treatment is repeated once 
a week, preliminary treatment Satur- 
day evening and thymol on Sunday 
morning, until the patient is dis- 

Duration of Treatment. — "To rec- 
ognize whether the parasites are all 
expelled, and therefore to determine 
when to end the thymol treatment, 
either of two plans may be adopted, 

"Microscopic examination : On 
Saturday morning make ten micro- 
scopic preparations of a fresh stool. 
If eggs are still present repeat the 
treatment; if eggs are not found, 
discontinue the thymol. It takes 
about forty to sixty minutes to make 
this examination of ten slides thor- 

"Cheese-cloth method: A much 
easier way of recognizing the com- 
pletion of the treatment, and for 
practical results nearly as satisfac- 
tory as the miscroscopic examination, 
is the following: Instruct the pa- 
tient to wash all of his stools Sun- 
day, Monday and Tuesday, through 
a cheese cloth and to keep the cheese 
cloth moist and bring it to the office 


on Tuesday. While the fecal ma- 
terial will wash through, the worms 
will be retained in the cloth. Con- 
tinue treatment as long as worms are 
found in the cheese cloth. 

Other Treatment. — "If desired, 
iron may be administered on the days 
on which the tliymol is not taken. It 
is a good j^lan, however, not to give 
iron during the first week, for it is 
quite important to convince the pa- 
tient that the thymol treatment is the 
one which is really accomplishing the 
lasting good. If the drug is taken 
Sunday, the patient is likely to begin 
to feel some benefit by Wednesday 
or Thursday; his family is likely to 
notice it on Thursday or Friday. If 
iron is given during the first week, 
the conclusion may possibly be drawn 
by the patient that it is really the 
iron which is causing the improve- 
ment, and he may discontinue the 
thymol. Of the two, the thymol is, 
of course, the far more important, 
for it reaches the parasite, while the 
iron reaches only the patient." 

The prevention of hookworm dis- 
ease lies in proper sanitation to pre- 
vent soil pollution, and especially in 
the construction of sanitary privies. 
State laws to this end, if properly 
enforced by an adequate system of 
local supervision, would undoubtedly 
put an end to the disease v/ithin 
comparatively few years. ThoEc in- 
terested in this subject should ad- 
dress a letter or r>ostal card to the 
Surgeon-General of the United 
States, Washington, D. C, requesting 
detailed information. 


A small class of communicable dis- 
eases sometimes occur in the United 
States as the result of infection from 
foreign parts. Notable among these 
are Asiatic cholera, bubonic plague 
and leprosy. 

Asiatic Cholera. — This disease is 
native to India. Thence it has 
spread in epidemic form from time 
to time throughout the civilized 
world. It is caused by a specific 

micro-organism sometimes called the 
"comma" bacillus on account of its 
shape. The presence of this is often 
the only test by which this disease 
can be distinguished from gastro- 
enteritis, ptomaine poisoning and 
other similar diseases. Asiatic chol- 
era closely resembles typhoid fever 
as regards modes of infection, and 
should be treated in an entirely simi- 
lar manner. Like typhoid it may be 
spread by healthy carriers and com- 
municated by the mild or "walking" 
cases of the disease. There is an 
anti-cholera vaccine similar to the 
anti-typhoid vaccine, by means of 
which the death rate has been greatly 
lowered. This disease is entirely 
preventable if the precautions recom- 
mended under typhoid fever are ob- 
served. Needless to say a physician 
should always be summoned even in 
the mildest cases. 

The period of incubation is from 
one to five days, although it may be 
greatly prolonged. The symptoms 
are similar to ptomaine poisoning: 
vomiting, diarrhoea, sub-normal tem- 
perature, loss of pulse, suppression 
of urine and collapse. They are 
common to the action of various poi- 
sons and can only be distinguished by 
a competent physician. 

Bubonic Plague (Black Death). — 
This historic disease which destroyed 
upwards of 50 per cent of the 
population of England in the four- 
teenth century has, from time to 
time, ravaged nearly every part 
of the civilized world. It is 
caused by a vegetable micro-or- 
ganism, the Bacillus pestis. Rats 
and otlier small rodents are very sus- 
ceptible to this disease and it is com- 
municated by them to man through 
the medium of fleas. There are three 
types of jjlague: (a) bubonic, char- 
acterized by glandular swelling. This 
is the form transmitted from rats to 
man by means of fleas; (b) pneu- 
monic, which is very mudi like pneu- 
monia and which may be transmitted 
by contact infection in tlie same 
manner as typhoid fever; (c) septi- 
cemic, in which the patient is liter- 



ally saturated with plague bacilli. 
This is transmitted by contact infec- 
tion. The mortality ranges from 
15 per cent up to as high as 50 per 
cent or 75 per cent. Death in the sep- 
ticemic type is a matter of hours; in 
the pneumonic type, of days; and in 
the bubonic type, of one or two weeks. 
In rats the disease may become chronic. 
It is most prevalent among rats when 
they are shut up in their holes in 
winter, but is most often communi- 
cated to human beings during sum- 
mer. Then the rats are abroad and 
the fleas which have bitten the in- 
fected rodents are widely scattered 
through the community. The disease, 
however, may be communicated at 
any season of the year. The only 
remedy is the destruction of rats by 
means elsewhere recommended. 

Leprosy. — Leprosy is a communi- 
cable disease of the skin occurring 
very rarely in the United States, 
fewer than three hundred cases hav- 
ing been reported. The chief inter- 
est in this malady is due to its sup- 
posed frequency in Biblical times. 
An almost insane fear of leprosy has 
been caused by a general knowledge 
of what is said about it in the Bible, 
but its virulence, at least in modern 
times, is believed to be greatly exag- 
gerated. There are said to be fifty 
or more lepers engaged in various oc- 
cupations in the city of London. 
These are not regarded as dangerous 
to the public health. 


There is a small group of conta- 
gious diseases of animals which are 
occasionally contributed to man. 
These include, notably, anthrax, glan- 
ders and rabies. Anthrax and glan- 
ders may be communicated by contact 
infection, but rabies occurs only from 
the bite of dogs or other infected 
animals. A veterinary physician 
should be promptly sent for in all 
cases of anthrax, glanders or farcy 
and his recommendations faithfully 
observed. Carcasses of animals 
dead of these diseases should be im- 

mediately buried in a grave not less 
than six feet deep. Eight or ten 
inches of unslaked lime should be 
placed in the bottom of the grave 
and a similar amount spread over the 
carcass before the earth is filled in. 
The site for burial should be distant 
from any stream or other source of 
water supply and a strong fence 
should be erected to enclose it. Sta- 
bles and all objects with which the 
dead animal has come in contact 
should be thoroughly disinfected. 
The germs of these diseases and their 
spores often retain their vitality for 
many years. Hence too much care 
cannot be given to the process of dis- 

Rabies (Hydrophobia). — This is a 
specific communicable disease which 
afi'ects chiefly the canine race, al- 
though all warm-blooded animals, in- 
cluding man, are susceptible to it. 
There is a widely prevalent belief 
that if persons or animals are bitten 
by a dog they are liable to become 
rabid if the dog should contract the 
disease at any future time. It will 
be a great comfort to many persons 
who have been bitten by animals to 
know that there is no foundation for 
this impression. Rabies is transmit- 
ted only by animals that are actually 
diseased at the time the bite is in- 
flicted. Every animal or person bit- 
ten does not necessarily develop the 
disease. This depends on the location 
and size of the wound, the flow of 
blood produced and other conditions. 
The nearer the bite is located to the 
central nervous system and the deep- 
er it is, the greater danger of a fatal 
result. Rabies is believed to be 
caused by a specific germ but this 
has not yet been identified. 

Symptoms. — There are two types 
of rabies: (1) the furious, violent 
or irritable; (3) the dumb or para- 
lytic. Cases of furious rabies in a 
dog usually develop between three 
weeks and three months after the 
animal has been infected. A marked 
change in the disposition of the ani- 
mal should arouse suspicion. An af- 
fectionate dog may become morose 


and depressed. A snappy, treacher- 
ous dog may become mild or aifec- 
tionate. Then comes an irresistible 
tendency to roam. A dog will fight 
or bite at any restraint which inter- 
feres with its freedom. He may roam 
about for several days, aimlessly, in 
a nervous and irritable condition. 
He tends to eat or chew indigestible 
objects such as rags, leather, straw, 
feathers, sticks and the like. He be- 
comes unable to swallow and his sa- 
liva becomes frothy from constant 
champing of the jaws. But foaming 
at the mouth is not a reliable symp- 
tom, nor is fear of water, since rabid 
dogs sometimes swim streams. When 
tired of roving a dog tends to return 
home and hide in some secluded 

Paralysis of the throat sets in 
early. This changes the normal bark 
of the' affected dog to a long, reson- 
ant, peculiarly drawn-out cry, like 
the yelp of a coyote. Later the pa- 
I'alysis extends to the muscles of the 
jaw. This causes the lower jaw to 
drop and the tongue to hang out, 
collect dirt and appear dry and black 
in color. The pupil of the eye di- 
lates, the paralysis extends to the 
hind legs and the dumb form of the 
disease results. Death follows in 
from four to eight days after de- 
velopment of the first symptoms. 

The dumb or paralytic form of 
rabies in the dog is much more infre- 
quent. The dog is depressed and 
seeks quiet spots in which to hide. 
The first symptom observable is 
often paralysis of the lower jaw, 
suggesting that the animal may^ave 
a bone in its throat. Paralysis quick- 
ly progresses and death results in 
from one to three days. 

Rabies in Cattle. — The symptoms 
are similar to those of the dog. 
There is loss of appetite, stoppage of 
the secretion of milk, great restless- 
ness, anxiety, manifestation of fear 
and change in the disposition of the 
animal. Then comes excitation or 
madness, loud bellowing, violent but- 
ting, with an insane desire to attack 
other animals and sometimes the de- 

sire to bite. The paralysis progresses 
rapidly with loss of flesh and finally 
the animal lies in a comatose condi- 
tion and dies, usually in from four 
to six days. The temperature re- 
mains normal or even sub-normal. 

Eabies in Cats. — The animal hides 
in a dark corner and dies unobserved 
in the course of a day or two, or 
becomes violent and suddenly attacks 
animals or persons, especially chil- 
dren. The cat loses its voice or mews 
hoarsely. It becomes emaciated and 
succumbs within a few days. 

Other animals as horses, sheep, 
goats, hogs, chickens and wild ani- 
mals exhibit much the same symp- 

Rabies appear to be spreading, but 
can be readily controlled by proper 
local regulations for licensing and 
muzzling dogs, since the disease is al- 
most always spread to other animals 
by dogs. As many as sixteen persons 
have been bitten by a single small 
dog, which also wounded a great 
many other animals. 

Treatment for Eabies. — Any 
wound made by a dog or other ani- 
mal showing symptoms of rabies 
should be promptly cauterized. Go 
to a doctor or drug store, if there is 
one at hand. Otherwise cauterize the 
wound with nitric acid, carbolic acid 
or if necessary red-hot iron. Or 
tincture of iodine may be used, if 
nothing better is at hand. The best 
agent is nitric acid. Carry this on a 
swab or glass rod to every recess and 
part of the wound. Carbolic acid 
and other acids are less efficient; ni- 
trate of silver is useless. A red-hot 
iron is not as effective as a suitable 
acid, is very painful and makes a 
wound more severe than is necessary. 
Great care must be observed when 
using strong acids or red-hot iron 
about the face. Children or very 
nervous subjects should preferably 
be put under an anaesthetic before 
the cautery is used. 

Capture the suspected animal alive, 
if possible, by means of a lasso or 
net, or by turning a box or barrel 
over it. Or snare it by means of a 



loop of stout cord on the end of a 
pole. Put the animal into a stout 
box or pen but take care not to in- 
jure or mistreat it, or deprive it of 
food and water. If it remains alive 
and well for ten days there is no 
danger of rabies. But if it dies or 
the symptoms become immistakable, 
send the head to the nearest labora- 
tory for examination. 

In killing an animal suspected of 
rabies avoid shooting through the 
head or beating on the head. This 
may interfere with a proper exami- 
nation. Shoot the animal through the 
back or behind the shoulders. Cut 
off the head close to the shoulders, 
wrap it in a cloth wrung out of a 
standard solution of bichloride of 
mercury (1:500), place it in a new tin 
pail with a tight-fitting cover and 

pack the pail in a larger bucket or 
box surrounded by ice. Ship by ex- 
press to the laboratory and notify 
the director by telegram of the ship- 

Should the investigation show the 
existence of rabies, the only method 
of treatment which offers any protec- 
tion is immunization by the Pasteur 
vaccine. This requires about three 
weeks and usually demands attend- 
ance at a hospital or sanitarium, but 
may be given by any competent 
physician. The Pasteur treatment, 
if given in time, is almost always 
successful. The proportion of fail- 
ures is less than 1 per cent, whereas 
from 10 per cent to 15 per cent of 
untreated persons who iiave been bit- 
ten by rabid animals develop the dis- 





A normal, well born baby is hard 
to kill. Nature intends that every 
such baby shall be well and strong, 
and grow to maturity. Yet the cen- 
sus shows that of the two and one- 
half million babies born every year 
in the United States, one-half die be- 
fore they reach their twenty-third 
year. One-fourth never reach their 
fifth birthday; one-eighth, or nearly 
one-third of a million, die within the 
first year of life. One-third of all 
deaths occur under the fifth year of 
age; one-fifth, during the first year 
of life. The chance of living a week 
is less for a new born child than for 
a man of ninety. The chance of 
living a year is less than for a man 
of four score. 

Since the rise of the germ theory 
of disease, wonderful discoveries 
have been made by the high power 
microscope as to the effects of germ 
life upon human health. It has now 
been proved that a large part of the 
mortality among infants is due to 
preventable causes. Much of this 
death rate is due to dirt. By this is 
not necessarily meant uncleanliness 
in the ordinary sense of dirt which 
can be seen, but a lack of sanitary 
precautions in the scientific sense, 
resulting in dirt invisible to the 
naked eye but which under the micro- 
scope is seen to contain millions of 

injurious bacteria. The best proof 
of the vitality of infants is that so 
many do live and grow up in spite 
of the unsanitary conditions with 
which they are surrounded, and the 
poisonous milk and other substances 
they are compelled to swallow. 

Now that science has shown that 

Save the halies. 

so many deaths among infants are 
preventable, a nation-wide campaign 
to save the babies has been set on 
foot. A special effort has been made 
to discover the sanitary and other 
rules that must be followed by moth- 
ers to keep their babies well, and 
cause them to thrive and grow 
strong. The following is a collection 
of these rules as laid down by the 
public health authorities throughout 




the United States. It contains the 
latest and most authentic scientific 
information obtainable. 

What Kills Babies? — Out of every 
himdred deaths under two years of 
age, thirty-five are the result of im- 
proper food and feeding. About 
ninety-five per cent of these are 
avoidable. Twenty-six are due to ac- 
cidents and defects at birth. Aliout 
one-half are avoidable. Eighteen 
are caused by impure air diseases 
(pneumonia and bronchitis) ; seven- 
ty-five per cent avoidable. Two 
are caused by tuberculosis and six by 
acute contagious diseases. All of 
these are avoidable. The remainder 
are due to miscellaneous causes, 
many of which could be and ought to 
be avoided. 

The two principal factors which 
multiply the deaths of infants are 
the denial of its birthright — its moth- 
er's breasts — and the heat of summer. 
In other words, the bottle feeding of 
infants in warm weather is what 
causes the death rate to run extreme- 
ly high. Ten times as many bottle- 
fed babies succumb to diarrhoeal dis- 
eases as breast-fed babies. When the 
motlier from necessity or convenience 
takes away the natural food of the 
child — tier own breasts — she takes 
from it nine-tenths of its chance of 
life. Hot weather in itself has little 
to do with the death rate of infants 
from diarrhoea, as breast-fed chil- 
dren do not show much, if any, in- 
crease of death rate during the sum- 
mer months. The two factors that 
bring about the high death rate, 
namely, bottle feeding and the hot 
season, combine to produce a single 
condition, namely, milk containing a 
dangerous quantity of injurious bac- 
teria or germs. When the child takes 
nourishment from its mother's breast 
it gets a practically sterile or germ- 
free food. When it is fed modified 
cow's milk or other artificial food 
from a bottle, especially in hot 
weather, it may be, and often is, 
swallowing a quick or slow poison. 
This, however, is wholly preventable 
if proper sanitary precautions to in- 

sure strict scientific cleanliness are 


Fontanelles. — In the middle line 
from before bacltwards on the top 
of a baby's head in the eai'ly weeks 
of his life, are two openings or soft 
places not yet covered with bony 
formation. The one in front is called 
the "anterior fontanelle." This closes 
in five or six weeks. But the larger 
one, just back of the forehead, is 
usually not closed until the child is a 
year and a half old or a little older. 
If widely open as the time for clo- 
sure approaches, or if the closure is 
much delayed, it may indicate rickets 
or other serious diseased condition. 
In such cases the advice of the fam- 
_ily physician should be had. 

Respiration. — Trustworthy infor- 
mation about respiration, pulse and 
temperature are a great help in judg- 
ing when to send for the doctor. The 
normal standards are given below. 
But remember that the action of a 
baby's lungs and heart is quicklj'^ 
accelerated by exercise or by excite- 
ment. And respiration, pulse and 
temperature are often much affected 
by causes which are comparatively 
trivial. Both the pulse-rate and 
respiration are more regular and 
slower in sleep than while awake. 
There is a progressive decrease in 
the rapidity of the pulse ^nd respira- 
tion from infancy to adult life. 

Approximately, the number of 
respirations per minute at different 
ages are: 

At birth, 35 or more 

" 1 year, 27 
" 3 years, 25 
" 6 " 2^2 
" 12 " 20 
In adult life, 15 to 17 

In serious illness, as, for instance, 
in pneumonia, young children may 
breathe as rapidly as 60 to 80 times 
in the minute. 

Pulse. — The rate of the pulse in 
health at different ages is: 



In the first month, 120 to 140 

At 1 year, 

110 to 130 

" 2 years. 

100 to 110 

« 6 " 

90 to 95 

" 12 " 

80 to 88 

In adult life. 

72 or lower. 

These are the rates while at rest. 
During infancy a rise of twenty, 
tliirty or more beats per minute is 
not uncommon as the result of slight 
effort or disturbance. In the serious 
acute diseases, as in scarlet fever or 
pneumonia, the pulse may run to 160, 
180, or higher. 

Temperature. — A training in moth- 
erhood should include the use of the 
clinical thermometer so that correct 
observations on the temperature and 
its variations may reveal indications 
of the approach of serious conditions. 
Buy a good clinical thermometer at 
your drug store. Or ask your physi- 
cian to get one for you and explain to 
you how to use it. 

The normal temperature of the hu- 
man body is about 98^° F. In early 
infancy, it is slightly higher than 
from later childhood on. The tem- 
perature of 100° indicates the pres- 
ence of fever; 103° to 103° consti- 
tutes moderate fever; 104° to 105° 
shows a high fever; above 105° means 
a very high and very dangerous fever. 


Ophthalmia Neonatorum (Infan- 
tile Blindness). — About 15 per cent 
of all cases of total blindness are 
caused by inflammation of the eyes in 
nev/-born babies. This disease is al- 
ways due to an infection entering the 
eyes of the baby at the time of, or 
shortly after birth. It may be almost 
always prevented by proper care and 
by early and correct treatment. If 
precautions are not taken, and the 
disease develops and runs its course 
unchecked, the sight is totally de- 
stroyed, often within a fortnight. 

Tor All Mothers. — All women dur- 
ing pregnancy should thoroughly per- 
form daily external cleansing with 
soap and water and a clean wash 

cloth. Should the pregnant woman 
have any irritating discharges, or 
even profuse white discharge, she 
should be instructed to immediately 
consult her physician or the nearest 

For All Children. — Immediately 
after the delivery of the head, and 
before the delivery of the body, the 
eyelids should be carefully cleaned 
by means of absorbent cotton or a 
soft linen cloth, dijijDed into warm 
water that has been boiled or boric 
acid (saturated) solution. A sejia- 
rate cloth should be used for each 
eye, and the lids washed, from the 
nose outward, free from all mucus, 
blood or discharges. All wipes 
should be burned after using. No 
opening of the lids should be at- 
tempted. At this time also the lips 
and nose should be wiped free of 
mucus in like manner, and the little 
finger, wrapped with a piece of 
moist linen, should be passed into the 
child's mouth and any accumulated 
mucus removed by an outward sweep 
of the finger. As soon after birth 
as . possible, the eyelids should be 
again wiped clean of mucus, and two 
drops of a one per cent solution of 
nitrate of silver should be dropped 
into each eye. One application only 
of the silver solution should be made. 
Ordinarily no further attention 
should be given the eyes for several 

The silver nitrate solution is best 
kept in a dark-colored bottle with a 
ground glass stopper. The neck of 
the bottle should measure about half 
an inch in diameter. The glass rod 
used is six inches long, very smooth 
and round at each end. The silver 
solution will keejD for many months, 
but it is best to renew it about once 
in six weeks. 

Each time that the child is bathed, 
the eyes should be first wiped clean, 
as above described, with the boric 
acid solution. The hands of the per- 
son charged with the care of the 
child must be washed with soap and 
dried with a clean towel before the 
eyes of the child are touched. Every- 



thing that is brought near the eyes 
must be, in every instance, absolutely 

The cotton that is used on the eyes 
of the child must, in every instance, 
be immediately burned after using. 
The water, towels, old linen and the 
cotton that have been used on the 
mother must, under no circum- 
stances, be applied to the child. The 
air of the bedroom must be kept as 
pure as possible, and the linen should 
never be dried in the sick room. 

Inflammation of the Eyes. — Should 
the lids become red and swollen, or 
gummed along their borders, or 
should a mattery discharge be mixed 
with the tears as the child sleeps or 
cries, call an oculist or a physician 
immediately, or take the child to the 
nearest dispensary. Each hour of 
delay adds to the danger. While 
waiting, bathe the child's eyes every 
half hour with pledgets of cotton 
dipped in a warm solution of boric 
acid. Open the lids wide and allow 
the warm solution to flood the eyes 
and wash out any matter which may 
have gathered there. 

AH of those in the home should be 
warned of the danger of catching the 
disease by getting the matter into 
their own eyes. Do not fondle the 
child. Take care that nothing which 
has been used about its eyes or face 
shall be used for any other purpose. 
Do not listen to those who say it will 
amount to nothing, or to those who 
say to bathe the eyes of the child 
with the mother's milk. Such advice 
is bad. The milk is a means of 
spreading the germs of this disease. 
The slightest delay may result in 

Trachoma. — This is an infectious 
disease of the eyelids which often 
results in total blindness. It occurs 
chiefly among children who are 
brought up under unsanitary condi- 
tions. Contributory causes are lack 
of cleanliness and lack of proper 
nourishment. It may be communi- 
cated from one person to another by 
the use of a common towel, by inter- 
changing or lending handkerchiefs, or 

by the contact of infected hands 
among children at play. This disease 
is most prevalent among school chil- 
dren and in institutions, work-shops, 
army camps and other places where 
large numbers of persons are herded 
together and toilet or other facilities 
are used in common. 

Any symptoms of redness, or in- 
flammation of the eyes, or granula- 
tion of the eyelids should be brought 
to the attention of a physician, espe- 
cially if accompanied by pain, sensi- 
tiveness to light, swelling or dis- 
charge. About 15 per cent of all 
cases of preventable blindness are due 
to this disease. Diligent effort should 
be made to prevent it from spreading. 
When a case occurs, all possibility of 
the infection of other persons should 
be eliminated. The patient should 
have separate towels, wash basins and 
the like set apart for individual use. 
Children with this disease should be 
excluded from the public schools 
until the acute stage is over. Under 
proper treatment, if taken in its early 
stages, blindness can ordinarily be 


Summer Complaint (Cholera In- 
fantum). — This fatal disease which 
kills thousands of infants every year 
attends continued high temperature. 
Excessive heat if long endured pro- 
foundly affects the nerves and fret- 
fulness (nervousness) always pre- 
cedes attacks of cholera infantum. 
The digestion is depressed by ner- 
vousness. Then if the child happens 
to over-eat, or to be fed unwhole- 
some food, it quickly develops this 
dreaded disease. The micro-organ- 
isms (germs) which cause this and 
other intestinal diseases of infancy 
are most numerous and active in hot 
weather. Thus they are always at 
hand to attack infants when their 
powers of resistance have become les- 
sened by a long continued heated 

Cholera Morbus (summer diar- 
rhoea and dysentery) also occurs 



principally during the summer and 
autumn. This is caused by improper 
food and sudden chilling of the body 
after exposure to great heat. Cer- 
_ tain substances will produce it in cer- 
tain persons, as, for instance, veal or 
shell fish. And all dishes cooked with 
milk such as rice pudding, cream 
puffs and even ice cream, are dan- 
gerous when tliey have been kept too 
long. Take care that the baby does 
not get any remnants of stale food. 
Under-ripe and over-ripe fruit — 
especially if taken with large 
draughts of ice water — ^will cause this 
disease. But sound ripe fruit is a 
natural food in hot weather for chil- 
dren over two years of age, and 
wholesome. Avoid chills during 
sleep. In temperate and changeable 
climates have a light blanket always 
at hand to draw over an infant, if 
the weather suddenly becomes cold 
during the night. Persistent summer 
diarrhoea is sometimes caused by ma- 
laria or impure water. Any condi- 
tions liable to contaminate air and 
water should be carefully sought out 
and remedied. Water of doubtful 
purity can and should be rendered 
safe by boiling. Mosquitoes and flies 
should be exterminated. As dysen- 
tery is often epidemic, it is wise to 
consider every case as a possible 
source of danger to others and to dis- 
infect all diarrhceal discharges with 
the greatest care. 

Symptoms of Intestinal Diseases. 
— Vomiting of soured and partly di- 
gested food (not simple regurgita- 
tion or "raising" of milk from over- 
feeding in young infants) is often 
the first sign of approaching illness. 
Vomiting may indicate one of the 
serious diseases of childhood or, more 
commonly in hot weather, "summer 
complaint" or simple diarrhoea. Diar- 
rhoea does not come from teething 
but from too mucli food, too fre- 
quent feeding, too little water, too 
little sleep and too much handling. 
The most frequent cause is over- 
feeding. This often causes pro- 
longed sickness and finally death. 
Vomiting due to this cause may be 

the first sign of trouble. The bowels 
may not become loose until several 
days later. A certain symptom of 
danger is loose, green passages from 
the bowels, or passages containing 
mucus or curds. A healthy bottle- 
fed infant should have at least one 
and not more than two or three 
movements of the bowels each day. 
These should be yellow or "ginger- 
bread color" and not too hard to be 
passed easily. If they become green- 
ish, frotliy, or otherwise unnatural, 
and more frequent than two or three 
a day, consult your doctor. In sum- 
mer it is dangerous to wait. Any 
diarrhoea or simple looseness of the 
bowels indicates the presence of some 
irritation in the intestinal tract. 

These diseases are often mild at 
the beginning. There may be no 
fever and the child may show no 
signs of illness other than diarrhoea 
or vomiting. Such a baby — often in 
a few hours — may become danger- 
ously, if not fatally, ill. The sim- 
plest cases of diari-hoea and vomiting 
during the summer must not be ig- 
nored. Neglect of the first symp- 
toms of indigestion may lead to in- 
fection and inflammation and be fol- 
lowed by the death of the child. If 
taken in hand promptly, this condi- 
tion will almost always yield to sim- 
ple remedies and serious trouble may 
be averted. If the movements remain 
green in color and increase in num- 
ber to five or six or more in twenty- 
four hours, the baby is beginning to 
have bowel trouble or summer diar- 

Causes and Remedies. — When the 
baby vomits or has diarrhoea the first 
thing to do is to find and remove the 
cause. The trouble is probal)ly due 
to improper feeding or over-feeding. 
The child may be given too much 
food, the milk may be too strong for 
its age, or it may be dirty and un- 
sanitary. A child gets diarrhcEa 
more ofbr^n in summer than in win- 
ter because the heat makes him weak 
and spoils his food, and because you 
fail to re alize that he needs less food 
in hot j.veather. Stop all food at 



once. Evefy drop of milk that goes 
into the baby's mouth after this 
warning simply adds to the poison 
that is already there. You will cause 
serious or fatal illness by feeding 
your baby after the bowels become 
loose and the movements green in 
color. Give nothing but pure boiled 
water or barley water. Send for the 
doctor and do not begin feeding the 
baby again without the doctor's or- 
ders. Meantime stop the milk at 
once. Give only cool boiled water or 
barley water until the child can be 
seen by a physician. 

Do not give any medicine, except 
perhaps a teas^Doonful of lime water 
every hour, to modify the acidity of 
the stomach. If the baby should 
have a convulsion before the doctor 
comes, put it in a warm bath and 
pour cool water on its head. But 
this must not be done if the convul- 
sion occurs immediately after a meal. 
Do not give any "cordials" or "teas" 
or diarrhoea mixtures to stop vomit- 
ing or check the bowels. Nothing but 
harm can be done by such means. 

If you cannot get a doctor prompt- 
ly, give the baby two teaspoonfuls of 
castor oil to remove the irritating 
matter from the bowels. Also wash 
out the bowels with an enema of 
tepid water containing two level tea- 
spoonfuls of salt to the quart. This 
should be given from a fountain 
syringe. Do not hold the bag more 
than eighteen inches or two feet 
above the baby, so that the water 
will run slowly. Babies under fifteen 
months almost invariably pass part 
of the water back by the side of the 
tube while it is flowing in. 

When vomiting occurs give the 
baby as much water as it will take. 
This will help to wash the remaining 
undigested food out of the stomach. 
After this for eight or ten hours 
give only one or two teaspoonfuls of 
boiled water every ten or fifteen min- 
utes, if wanted. A larger amount 
will be vomited. Give no food for at 
least six hours after the vomiting 
has stopped, then give barley water 
or rice water in gradually increas- 

ing quantities, or give broth or white 
of egg. Later, when the child is en- 
tirely well, it may be gradually 
worked back to its regular food. A 
weak mustard plaster on the pit of 
the stomach, left until there is a 
rosy color, then promptly removed, 
will assist in counteracting vomiting. 


Fever. — If the child becomes weak 
in hot weather, is fretful and espe- 
cially if it has fever and the skin is 
hot and dry, take off all its clothes 
except the diaper and put on a night 
dress. Sponge it all over with cool 
water at frequent intervals and do 
not wipe it quite dry. Let the water 
evaporate and thus carry off some of 
the fever. Give it all the cool water 
it will drink. No matter how high 
■ the fever a baby with bowel trou- 
ble always does better out of doors 
in pleasant weather than in a hot, 
stuffy room. A child with fever will 
not take cold if you keep it out of 
strong, cold drafts. 

Great care must be exercised in 
treating for fever. There are two 
principal kinds. In outer or sur- 
face fever, the hands and feet are 
warm and the skin hot. Place cold 
applications to the head, hot water 
bottle to the feet and bathe in cold 
water. In case of inward fever 
the hands and feet are cold and the 
skin cool and pale and mottled. 
Place cold applications at the head, a 
hot water bottle to the feet and batlie 
in hot mustard water to bring the 
blood to the surface. A sense of 
touch is unreliable as to fever. E%'ery 
mother should have a clinical ther- 
mometer and ask her physician to in- 
struct her in its use. 

Eruptions. — If the baby has any 
eruption or breaking out of the skin, 
consult the doctor promptly. Every 
rash is not prickly heat. It may be 
some serious disease like scarlet 
fever, smallpox or chickenpox and 
may require the promptest possible 

Teething. — A few words as to 
baby's teething. The first teeth — 



the two lower front ones — are usually- 
cut when the baby is from six to 
seven months old. Some babies cut 
their teeth with little trouble; others 
are restless, uneasy and wakeful. 
The latter is especially the case if 
the baby is constipated. 

The teeth are usually cut in pairs: 
v^'irst the two lower (in the center), 
next the two upper, then the outside 
two above, then two below, next to 
those first cut. These teeth usually 
are all present by the twelfth month. 
The cutting, however, does not al- 
ways follow the above order, and all 
children do not cut their first teeth 
by the sixth or seventh month. 

Symptoms of diiScult teething are 
fever, restlessness, sleeplessness and, 
locally, swollen or tender gums. 
There is often loss of appetite and 
thirst caused by fever. These symp- 
toms are present only in severe cases. 
"\\"hen a child's teeth begin to come, 
it should be given less food and 
more water. It will often take more 
food than it can digest because it is 
thirsty and the food is liquid. The 
result is diarrhoeal trouble due to in- 
testinal irritation from over-feeding. 
This is often mistakenly supposed to 
be due to teething, whereas if babies 
are properly fed and hygienic rules 
observed, very few will have any 
bowel trouble during the first or sec- 
ond year regardless of whether teeth 
are coming or not. 

For the sleeplessness and irritabil- 
ity which so often accompany teeth- 
ing, much can be done by the mother. 
Drugs should not be given, except un- 
der the direction of a j^hysician. A 
hot foot bath will often have a sooth- 
ing effect by relieving the congestion 
in the head and mouth. Mustard can 
often be added to the foot bath with 
benefit. A little castor oil will be 
beneficial, for a good movement of 
the bowels will relieve congestion in 
the gums. The mother's finger 
dipped in sirup of lettuce can be 
gently carried over the tender and in- 
flamed gum, and now and then by a 
little firmer pressure may allow the 
point of the tooth to free its way 

through. The baby may be allowed 
to bite on a small chicken or ham 
bone, or if over nine months, on a 
piece of rare roast beef. 

Beware of soothing sirups which 
merely "dope" the baby, and often 
cause great harm. 

Constipation. — If a bottle-fed baby 
is constipated, wash out the bowels 
with an enema of tej^id water con- 
taining salt in the proportion of a 
level teaspoonful to the pint. Give 
one or two teaspoonfuls of castor oil. 
If this does not afford relief within 
four hours consult your physician. 
At this time you will be able to pre- 
vent a serious summer comi^laint with 
which the baby is threatened. 

When the food does not agree 
•with the baby it will fail to gain 
weight or will be constipated, have 
colic, "rolling of gases in the stom- 
ach" (flatulence), loose stools and 
diarrhoea. Consult your doctor with- 
out delay. Remember the stitch in 
time. The fact that an infant under 
one year of age does not gain in 
weight may show that it needs a dif- 
ferent kind of liquid food, but does 
not indicate that it requires any sort 
of solid food and under no circum- 
stances should solid food be given to 
babies under twelve or thirteen 
months of age. In hot weather reduce 
the amount of food and give more 
water. Pour out about one-fourth 
of the milk, replace with water and 
make the feedings farther apart, giv- 
ing water between. These simple 
rules are intended to help you take 
care of the babj' when it is well and 
to prevent its becoming sick. But 
the first thing to do when the baby is 
sick is to send for your physician. 
The home rem.edies above given will 
help you to check the trouble and 
keep it under control until the doctoi 
comes and prescribes the proper 
course of treatment. 


Soothing Sirups. — There is no such 
thing as a harmless soothing sirup, 
teething powder or "baby's friend", 
as such drugs are ironically called by 



unprincipled manufacturers. This is 
a fact which all right-thinking moth- 
ers should take to heart and seek to 
impress upon others who are respon- 
sible for the care of infants. Hun- 
dreds of thousands of children have 
been poisoned to death in infancy by 
such compounds. Other children 
have survived their use with weak- 
ened constitutions, or have become 
the victims of drug habits in later 
life from the effects of these mix- 
tures. The chief active agents in 
most of these compounds are opium, 
morphine, heroin, codein, chloroform 
and chloral hydrate — all active poi- 
sons and especially deadly to chil- 

Since the passage of the Pure 
Food Law, the manufacturers of 
preparations containing habit-form- 
ing drugs, or drugs dangerous to life, 
have been compelled to print on the 
label a list of these substances. 
Hence mothers should read carefully 
the labels of any cough mixtures, 
soothing sirups or other preparations 
recommended for children and dis- 
card them if they are found to con- 
tain any of these ingredients. You 
may safely regard with grave susjii- 
cion the manufacturer, dealer or 
physician who tells you that these 
substAnces are not likely to occur, in 
the widely advertised preparations, 
in quantities dangerous to your 
baby's health or life. 

Mrs. Winslow's Soothing Sirup is 
a well known preparation with which 
thousands of helpless infants have 
been drugged into insensibility by 
ignorant or indiiferent mothers and 
nurses for more than a generation. 
It contains opium in the form of 
morphine sulphate. There is little 
doubt but that this nostrum has 
caused the death of many children 
and has done incalculable injury to 
others. Collier's Weekly — to which 
much credit is due for its exposure 
of the nostrums which are such a 
menace to the lives and health of the 
American people — tells the following 
story: "A prominent New York 
lawyer was asked by his office scrub- 

woman to buy a ticket to some asso- 
ciation ball. He replied: 'How can 
you go to these affairs, Nora, when 
you have two young children at 
home?' 'Sure, they're all right,' 
she returned blithely. 'Just wan tay- 
spoonful of Winslow's and they lay 
like the dead till marnin'.' " 

The great demand for soothing 
sirup by mothers who wish their ba- 
bies to "stay put" has produced a 
rival to the late Mrs. Winslow under 
the touching name of "Kopp's Baby's 
Friend." This also contains opium. 
Collier's states that it is made of 
sweetened water and morphine sul- 
phate. It is well styled "the king of 
baby soothers," since it is said to 
contain in each teaspoonful enough 
morphine to kill an infant. Morphine 
should be given to a child under ten 
years of age only in very rare in- 
stances and never except under the 
direction of a physician. Read care- 
fully the following list of such prep- 
arations and what they contain. This 
was compiled by the Bureau of 
Chemistry of the United States De- 
partment of Agriculture: 

Mrs. Winslow's Soothing Sirup, 
morphine sulphate. 

Children's Comfort, morphine sul- 

Dr. Fahrney's Pepsin Anodyne 
Compound, onorphine sulphate. 

Dr. Fahrney's Teething Sirup, 
morphine and chloroform. 

Dr. Fowler's Strawberry and Pep- 
permint Mixture, morphine. 

Dr. Grove's Anodyne for Infants, 
morphine sulphate. 

Hooper's Anodyne, the Infants' 
Friend, morphine hydrochloride. 

Jadway's Elixir for Infants, 

Dr. James' Soothing Sirup Cor- 
dial, heroin.* 

Kopp's Baby's Friend, morphine 

Dr. Miller's Anodyne for Babies, 
morphine sulphate and chloral hy- 

* Heroin and Codein are derivatives of opi- 
um, the same as morphine, and their action is 



Dr. Moffett's Teethina, Teething 
Powders, powdered opium. 

Victor Infant Relief, chloroform 
and cannabis indica. 

To allay the fears of mothers, 
manufacturers and dealers often 
print on the label of such prepara- 
tions statements of the following 
character: "Contains nothing injuri- 
ous to the youngest babe"; or "Moth- 
ers need not fear giving this medi- 
cine, as no bad effects will come from 
its continued use." All such state- 
ments associated with the presence of 
opium or any of its derivatives — mor- 
phine, codein, heroin — chloroform, 
cannabis indica (hasheesh) or chloral 
hydrate, are deliberate falsehoods 
made with the calculated intention to 
deceive. There is always danger that 
an undue proportion of these drugs 
may be present in a given bottle or 
that an over-dose may be given and 
the baby put to sleep never to awake 
again. Numerous such cases are on 
record. In other instances when the 
remedy is freely used, the child does 
not succumb but develops a craving 
for the drug comjDarable to a drug 
habit in adults. As soon as one dose 

SootJiing sirups are poisons to hahies. 
They contain opium. Opium kills 
hahies. Don't dope your baby. 

of the drug passes away, the child 
becomes irritable and fretful with 
the result that another dose is ad- 
ministered. When the craving is thus 

met the child is quieted and the 
mother or . nurse feels j ustified in 
"recommending" the remedy to her 
neighbors. Sometimes such children 
look plump and healthy when, as a 
matter of fact, their flesh is soft and 
flabby and they are jjoorly prepared 
to withstand the attack of disease. 

Don't Dope Colicky Babies. — Sooth- 
ing sirup is most often recommended 
and used in case of colic. Paregoric, 
whisky, brandy or soothing sirup are 
improper remedies for that disease. 
Colic is often a symptom of some 
condition which needs attention. 
Drugging the baby into insensibility, 
or making it drunk, will not remove 
the cause of illness. Colic is often 
due to constipation, in which case an 
enema of warm water — with the addi- 
tion of salt at the rate of a level tea- 
spoonful to the pint — is required fol- 
lowed by one or two teaspoonfuls of 
castor oil or other gentle laxative 

Or, colic may come from cold 
hands and feet. Keejj a flannel belly 
band on a "colicky" baby both sum- 
mer and winter, but don't dope or 
drug the baby. When it is sick 
enough to need soothing sirup, it is 
sick enough to need a doctor. Proper 
feeding will usually overcome the 
trouble. In correcting errors in feed- 
ing a physician is your best ad- 


Mothers, school teachers and other 
persons in immediate charge of small 
children should be constantly upon 
the look-out for symptoms of com- 
municable diseases and other common 
conditions requiring medical atten- 
tion. In general, any marked de- 
parture from the normal is a danger 
signal. The most common symjjtoms 
of acute contagious diseases are as 
follows: very red or pale face; red 
or discharging eyes, ears or nose; un- 
usual dullness or sleepiness; evi- 
dences of sore throat; coughing, 
vomiting or diarrhoeal discharges. 



Eruptions of any sort demand espe- 
cially prompt attention. Chronic dis- 
eases may be suggested by emacia- 
tion; defective vision of one or both 
eyes; deafness; mouth constantly 
open; marked odors from the ear, 
nose, mouth or person; peculiar pos- 
tures when sitting or walking; fre- 
quent requests to go out or to the 
toilet; pain or swelling, or constant 
scratching of any part of the body. 

The following summary will be 
found convenient for ready refer- 
ence : 

Symptoms of Fever. — Headache, 
dullness or sleepiness and indisposi- 
tion for play or study; languid ex- 
pression of the eyes; sometimes 
flushed cheek and other times pallor; 
heat of skin and increased frequency 
of pulse, all indicate fever. Take the 
child's temperature promptly with a 
clinical thermometer. A normal tem- 
perature is between 98° and 99°. 

Eruptions. — The rash of scarlet 
fever is of a bright color. It usually 
appears on the neck and chest 
spreading thence to the face. A very 
characteristic symptom is a pale ring 
about the mouth. There is usually 
sore throat. 

The eruption of measles is a rose 
or pur,ple red. It occurs in blotches 
about the size of a pea. It appears 
first on the face and is associated 
with running of the nose and eyes. 

The eruption of chickenpox ap- 
pears first as small red pimples 
which quickly become small red blis- 

Colds and Sore Throat. — Symp- 
toms of a cold in the head with run- 
ning eyes, sneezing and discharges 
from the nose and sore throat may 
mean nothing more than coryza or 
tonsilitis. But very often they indi- 
cate diphtheria, scarlet fever or 
measles. A thin watery nasal dis- 
charge which irritates the nostrils 
and upper lip indicates diphtheria. 
Weak and running eyes indicate 

Coughs. — A cough may mean a 
simple cold or slight bronchitis. But 
^ spasmodic cough which occurs in 

paroxysms and is uncontrollable indi- 
cates whooping cough. A croupy 
cough — harsh and ringing — indicates 
diphtheria. A painful cough indi- 
cates diseases of the lungs, especially 
pleurisy or pneumonia. A long-con- 
tinued, hacking cough indicates tu- 

Vomiting'. — This may mean only 
some digestive disturbance. But it 
may indicate the onset of diphtheria, 
smallpox or scarlet fever, 

Quarantine. — All children or other 
persons exposed to infection from the 
following diseases should be kept 
under observation and excluded from 
schools and other public places dur- 
ing the following period of incuba- 
tion dated from the latest exposure 
to such infection: Infantile paraly- 
sis (anterior poliomyelitis), 14 days; 
_ diphtheria, 8 days; scarlet fever, 8 
days; measles, chickenpox, whooping 
cough and mumps each 14 days. Pa- 
tients convalescing from any of the 
above diseases should be isolated for 
the following periods reckoned from 
the date of onset or final diagnosis 
of the disease, namely: Infantile 
paralysis (anterior poliomyelitis), 28 
days; chickenpox, 15 days and there- 
after until all scabs have fallen off; 
diphtheria, 15 days and thereafter 
until two successive negative cultures 
have been obtained from the site of 
the disease secured at least twenty- 
four hours apart; measles, 21 days 
and thereafter until all catarrhal 
symptoms have ceased; mumps, 21 
days and thereafter until all gland- 
ular swelling has disappeared; scarlet 
fever, 42 days and thereafter until 
desquamation (peeling) is complete 
and all discharges from mucous mem- 
branes have stopped; whooping 
cough, 35 days and thereafter until 
all spasmodic cough and whooping 
have ceased. 

Children afflicted with ringworms, 
scabies or impetigo contagiosa should 
be kept from school and contact with 
other persons until the disease is 
cured, or until a reliable physician 
can certify that they are not liable to 
spread infection, 



Diphtheria. — This disease often 
runs a very mild course. A child 
may hardly feel sick enough to take 
to its bed. Such cases may, and 
often do, give other children the form 
that kills. Hence every case of fever 
with sore throat in children should 
be looked on with suspicion. Look 
out especially for nasal diphtheria 
marked by a thin watery discharge 
from the nose which irritates the 
nostrils and may cause bleeding from 
the nose and sores about the nostrils 
and upper lip. Any hoarseness or 
thickness of the voice should suggest 
an examination of the throat. If the 
tonsils, the palate and surrounding 
mucous membrane are inflamed and 
swollen, and particularly if there are 
white patches in any part of the 
throat, have a culture taken and 
tested for diphtheria. 

Scarlet Fever. — A sudden attack 
of vomiting, redness of the throat, 
headache and fever suggests scarlet 
fever. The rash appears on the first, 
or more often the second day and ex- 
tends from the back of the neck to 
the chest and thence all over the 
body. It is usually uniformly scat- 
tered but may be patchy. The color 
is a characteristic deep red which 
may become more livid, approaching 
purple. A very characteristic sign is 
a pale ring about the mouth. The 
eruption lasts from three to five days 
and fades. Peeling follows in the 
shape of scales and persists for sev- 
eral weeks. 

Measles. — The early symptoms are 
those of a feverish cold. Observe 
esi^ecially that the eyes are red and 
sensitive to the light. There is a 
discharge from the nose, sneezing and 
a dry hacking cough. Look for Kop- 
lik's sign, i. e., minute, pearly white 
blisters on the inside membrane of 
the mouth near the molar teeth. This 
is a sure sign. But observe that 
these may be few in number and not 
surrounded by any inflammation. 
Hence be sure to examine the patient 
carefully in a good light. The rash 
comes out the third or fourth day, 
first on the forehead and face and 

then over the front and down the 
sides. As the red spots increase in 
number they form distinct crescent- 
shaped figures composed of papules 
just raised above the skin. In se- 
vere cases the color may deepen to 
purple. The rash lasts four or five 
days, then fades and is followed by 
peeling. The disease is highly con- 
tagious from the beginning of the 

Whooping Cough. — A persistent 
paroxysmal cough frequently accom- 
panied by vomiting is indicative of 
whooping cough, whether or not there 
is any distinct whoop. But as a rule, 
whooping cough comes in distinct 
spasms. During these the face is 
puflFed and reddened, the eyes con- 
gested and watery, and the charac- 
teristic whooping sound is made. A 
paroxysm is often followed by vomit- 

Mnmps. — Any swelling of the 
glands behind the angle of the jaw 
should suggest mumps. The swell- 
ing extends just in front, just be- 
hind and below the ear and is ex- 
tremely painful. A very frequent 
symptom is swelling inside the mouth 
and opposite the second molar 

Smallpox. — The first symptoms are 
severe headache, backache, rapid rise 
of temperature and vomiting. The 
eruption appears about the third day. 
Then the fever subsides and the pa- 
tient sometimes feels perfectly well. 
In mild cases a child may be able to 
play or return to school. The symp- 
toms in mild cases are very similar 
to chickenpox. But observe that 
smallpox cannot occur if a child has 
been successfully vaccinated. If not, 
it is best to be on the safe side and 
promptly call a physician. 

Chickenpox. — The symptoms are 
those of a cold in the head with a 
slight fever. The characteristic rash 
breaks out the first or second day 
in the form of small blisters. A few 
of these may be seen about the roots 
of the hair, but they occur mostly 
on the body. These soon break and 
produce a drying scab. 



Scabies (Itch). — Small pimples are 
hotlced on the back of the hands and 
especially the spaces between the fin- 
gers or on the arms or whole body. 
These are caused by an animal para- 
site which burrows in the skin. They 
are seldom seen on the face or scalp. 
Itching and an irresistible desire to 
scratch are the principal symptoms. 
These become more intense when the 
patient stands near a hot fire or 
about the time of going to bed at 

Pediculosis (Lice).— Intense itch- 
ing and scratching of the hair and 
scalp are indications of vermin. 
Constant scratching may cause in- 

Protect your haiy from the preventable 
perils surrounding it. 

flammation of the scalp and skin of 
the neck. Look for the eggs (nits) 
which are always stuck on to the 
hair and not readily brushed off. 

Bingworm. — All eruptions of the 
skin in the form of circles or rings 
should be examined by a physician 
for ringworm. This is a vegetable 
parasitic skin disease which is com- 

Impetigo. — This is a contagious 
disease which is often spread by tow- 
els, toys and other things handled by 
children. It is characterized by large 
or small pustules (boils) or festers 
upon the skin. These usuallj^ appear 
on the face, neck or hands and occa- 
sionally upon the scalp. 


This is a communicable disease 
which has become epidemic in recent 
years and seems to be spreading rajD- 
idly throughout the United States. 
It is due to a germ which attacks the 
spinal cord and to a less extent the 
brain. It injures and destroys the 
tissues, and causes temporary or per- 
manent paralysis of the muscles. 

It attacks chiefly young children 
during the first year of teething, but 
may also be communicated to older 
children, and adults are not exempt. 
Hence the name infantile paralysis 
is somewhat misleading. The nature 
and source of this disease were for- 
merly obscure, but recently Flexner 
has proved it to have all the char- 
acteristics of a germ disease and 
early in 1913 he announced that the 
specific germ by which it is caused 
has been isolated. 

If the germs of this disease become 
as widespread as those of measles 
or scarlet fever, the result will be 
appalling. Not only is the death rate 
high, but tlie after eff^ects, in about 
three- fourths of all cases, are more 
or less severe permanent paralysis 
of the arms or legs, or other parts of 
the body. About 30,000 cases have 
been reported in the last few years in 
the United States, with 5,000 deaths 
and upwards of 15,000 children crip^ 
pled. The death rate varies in dif- 
ferent localities from 5 p6r cent to 30 
per cent. The disease is most preva- 
lent in July, August and September. 
In respect to its permanent after ef- 
fects it is one of the saddest of all 

Modes of Infection. — The germs 
gain entrance into the S3^stem through 
the mucous surfaces of the nose and 
throat. Infection may be direct by 
inhaling germs from the breath 
laden with infection from the mucous 
surfaces of the patient's nose and 
throat; or indirect, from the clothing 
of the nurse, phj'sician, or other bed- 
side visitor, or from objects contam- 
inated in the sick room. There is 



danger also from the healthy carriers 
of the disease. Epidemics are prob- 
ably due to mild cases and to "car- 
riers" attending day or Sunday 
schools, fairs, or other public gather- 

Symptoms. — The period of incuba- 
tion is from one to fourteen days. 
The average is from five to ten days. 
This is one of the most difficult of all 
diseases to recognize, unless the phy- 
sician is put on guard by the pres- 
ence of other cases in the locality. 
It is especially difficult to recognize 
in the case of children. The onset 
of the disease is usually sudden. The 
fever rises from 101° to 103° in the 
first twenty-four hours. There is 
usually malaise, profuse sweating, 
vomiting and general severe pains in 
the arms and back, sometimes re- 
ferred to the joints. Convulsions 
frequently occur in children. Ten- 
derness, generally in the lower ex- 
tremities, less frequently in the spine 
and trunk, but sometimes in the up- 
per limbs and neck, is a frequent and 
highly important symptom. 

Paralysis of one or both legs gen- 
erally occurs within from twelve 
hours to three or four days, but the 
paralysis may extend to any part of 
the body. The fever lasts from five 
to nine days, accompanied by deliri- 
um, but rarely rises above 104° even 
in fatal cases. Diarrhoea often sets 
in on the second day. 

This disease often occurs in a mild- 
er form without paralysis, and these 
cases may give the form that kills. A 
physician should be promptly sum- 
moned in suspicious cases, especially 
if this disease has been reported in 
the locality. The patient should be 
isolated until a positive diagnosis can 
be made. 

Prevention. — The work of Flexner 
gives strong hope of the discovery of 
an antitoxin for poliomyelitis, but 
at present there is no certain means 
of cure. Hence the only safety lies 
in preventive measures. Children 
should be kept absolutely away from 
homes in which this disease has ap- 
peared and from association with 

members of the afflicted families, 
even though they are apparently well. 
The patient should be isolated and 
the sick room should be prepared in 
all respects as for typhoid, and every 
sanitary precaution suggested for 
that disease should be observed. As 
the infection is present chiefly in the 
discharges from the nose and throat, 
special care should be taken to re- 
ceive them on soft cloths which 
should be promptly burned. The 
nurse and physician should take the 
precaution to suspend a cloth moist- 
ened in a disinfectant solution over 
their inouth and nostrils when ap- 
proaching the patient closely enough 
to take his infected breath. 

The use of a 10 per cent solution of 
peroxide of hydrogen as a gargle or 
spray for the throat is advised both 
for the patient and also for the 
nurse, physician and members of the 
family, or others who may have been 
exposed to the infection. Contact 
with this substance kills all germs of 
this disease. 

Special care should be taken to dis- 
infect all excreta from the patient. 
The germs have great vitality, and 
being extremely small, it is probable 
they may be scattered through the 
air on particles of dust. Hence spe- 
cial care should be observed to wash 
floors, rather than sweep them, and 
to dust only with cloths wet with a 
disinfectant. After the death or re- 
covery of the patient, the room 
should be disinfected with about dou- 
ble the ordinary quantity of sulphur 
or formaldehyde, and on account of 
the extreme vitality of the germ, the 
entire exposed floor and all surfaces, 
woodwork and furnishings should 
also be washed with full strength 
standard solution. No. 3, bichloride of 

Quarantine. — Most boards of 
health now require all cases to be re- 
ported, the premises to be placarded, 
and strict quarantine maintained. 
No one except the nurse and physi- 
cian should be admitted to the sick 
room during the sickness, or for 
some months after recovery. There 



is danger that the patient may con- 
tinue to carry the germs of the dis- 
ease. Several epidemics have been 
stamped out by strict quarantine. 
The period of infection is not pre- 
cisely known, but is supposed to be 
chiefly while the fever lasts — usually 
about three weeks. The quarantine 
of the other members of the family 
than the patient need not extend 
beyond this period. The bread win- 
ners should board and room else- 
where, especially during the quaran- 
tine period and for three weeks after 
their last exposure. They should 
avoid all public gatherings and min- 
gle as little as possible with other 
persons. Or, preferably, the patient 
should be removed to a hospital at 
the outset of the disease. 


This malady, also called spotte^ 
fever, or simply meningitis, was for- 
merly one of the most terrible and 
fatal of all diseases, the mortality 
in some local epidemics running up 
to as high as 100 per cent. It is an 
inflammation of the membrane cover- 

Germs of ceretrospinal meningitis: a, 
pus-cell; b, pus-cell containing germs 
of meningitis shonn at c; d, the same 
germ lying outside of pus-cells. 

ing the brain and spinal cord and is 
caused by a specific germ. 

Flexner has discovered a serum 
which cures this disease and leads to 
the hope that a similar antitoxin may 
be discovered for the control of in- 
fantile paralysis. The germ of this 
disease has been identified, and is al- 

ways present in the brain and spinal 
cord of the patient, and in the spinal 
fluid. It may also occur in the 
nasal passages of the patient and of 
healthy carriers who have been in- 
fected from him. It attacks most 
frequently children between one 
and ten years of age. It is most 
prevalent in the late winter and 
spring months, especially in March, 
April and May. It is always pres- 
ent in certain neighborhoods and 
may occur at any season of the year. 

Modes of Infection. — The germ 
of meningitis occurs in the discharges 
from the mouth, nose and ears of the 
patient, and the infection may be 
spread by direct contact with the 
patient or healthy carriers, or by ob- 
jects infected by them. The germ is 
not thought to live long outside the 
human body. Hence the spread of 
'the disease is easily controlled by the 
isolation of the patient and by 
proper sanitary precautions. 

Symptoms. — The first symptoms of 
infection are those of an ordinary 
cold. But when the brain is attacked, 
the onset of the disease becomes very 
sudden. There is usually a chill 
with intense headache, vomiting, rest- 
lessness, and a great dread of noises 
and bright light. In many cases the 
reddish spots appear beneath the 
skin, which suggests the name, spot- 
ted fever. These spots are usually 
quite tender on pressure. The mus- 
cles of the neck become very stiff and 
contract, drawing the head backward. 
This is a characteristic symptom. 
The chill is followed by irregular 
temperatures, sometimes very high. 
After a few hours or days, unless the 
antitoxin serum is injected, the pa- 
tient becomes unconscious and shortly 
dies. Or, in mild cases, the symptoms 
quickly subside and recovery is 

Prevention, — The symptoms of an 
ordinary cold in the head should be 
regarded with suspicion during an 
epidemic of meningitis. A physician 
should be summoned in all suspicious 
cases, and the patient isolated in the 
sick room as for typhoid fever, until 



a positive diagnosis can be made. 
This may be done by withdrawing a 
sample of the spinal fluid from the 
spinal column by means of a hypoder- 
mic needle. This is a simple proced- 
ure when performed by a competent 
physician, and quite free from dan- 
ger. If the germs of meningitis are 
present, both local and state health 
authorities should be promptly noti- 
fied and the Flexner serum should 
be obtained and Injected into the 
spinal column by an experienced 
physician. Prompt action is impera- 
tive, as death will occur in most 
cases within a few days unless this 
remedy is administered. 

The sick must be kept away from 
the well. All discharges, especially 
from the nose and throat, must be 
thoroughly disinfected. The nurse 
or attendant in the sick room, the 
physician and all the members of the 
family who may have been infected 
before the nature of the disease was 
recognized, should thoroughly disin- 
fect the nasal passages and throat by 
a spray or gargle of one part per- 
oxide of hydrogen to three parts of 
water, or with equal parts of water 
and liquor antisepticus U. S. P. 
This should be followed by a spray 
of menthol, gum camphor and liquid 
alboline. As an immunizing dose, 
about 10 c. c. of Flexner serum may 
be injected for three or four days, 
twenty-four hours apart, in cases of 
known exposure. 

The use of urotropin in doses of 
from 5 to 10 grains dissolved in 
water an hour after meal time, three 
times a day^ — ^under the advice of a 
physician — as a preventive, is also 
recommended. Observe that if this 
drug is taken too soon after eating, 
digestive disturbances may result. 

These measures with the ordinary 
sanitary precautions in the sick room, 
including disinfection of all excreta, 
have been found to thoroughly con- 
trol this disease. Fresh air and sun- 
shine quickly destroy the germs. 

ftuarantine. — Placard the prem- 
ises and keep the members of the 
family to themselves until cultures 

taken from their nasal passages are 
found to be free from germs of the 
disease. After recovery or death, 
disinfect the house thoroughly with 
formaldehyde or sulphur. The effect 
of sanitary precautions is shown from 
the fact that nurses and attendants 
very rarely contract this disease. 


Diphtheria is a germ disease caused 
by the growth of the diphtheria ba- 
cillus, usually in the throat, nose or 
bronchial tubes. This bacillus was 
discovered by Klebs (1803) and 
shown to be the cause of diphtheria 
by Loeffler (1884), hence it is called 

Diphtheria germs greatly magnified. 
These minute plants, by growing in 
the throatj cause diphtheria. 

the Klebs-Loeffler bacillus after its 
discoverers. It throws off in process 
of growth a powerful poison, or 
toxin. This is absorbed in the blood 
and tissues and produces the symp- 
toms of the disease. Adults are not 
as susceptible to this poison as 
are children over one year old, nor 
are all persons equally susceptible. 
Hence all cases are not equally se- 
vere. The germs are often found in 
the throat or nasal passages of per- 
sons who are perfectly well or who 
may exhibit only the mildest symp- 
toms. But if there is any redness 
or soreness in the throat and the 



diphtheria bacillus is present, the dis- 
ease should be regarded as diphtheria 
and treated accordingly. These ba- 
cilli frequently live and grow for 
months and even years in the throats 
and noses of persons who have re- 
covered from diphtheria even after 
they have become quite well and 
strong. Recovery from the dis- 
ease does not necessarily mean 
freedom from the germs that caused 

Symptoms. — The symptoms of 
diphtheria vary from a mild redness 
of the throat to the formation, in 
severe cases, of a thick, grayish- 
white membrane which may cover the 
whole throat and cause death by 
choking. It is extremely important 
to recognize this disease at the out- 
set, since there is an antitoxin which 
cures diphtheria if administered 
promptly. It is the delay in securing 
treatment that kills. A case treated 
on the first day very rarely termi- 
nates in death. Every case of simple 
sore throat in children should be sus- 
pected as possibly diphtheritic. Call 
the doctor early. Give antitoxin as 
soon as a diagnosis of diphtheria is 

The patient first complains of sore 
throat. This gradually grows worse 
and in a few hours fever is ob- 
served. But sometimes the throat is 
not complained of until the fever has 
appeared. Or nausea and vomiting 
may be the first symptoms. After 
the fever appears the child usually 
becomes sleepy. This condition is 
brought about by the absorption of 
the poisonous product of the germs. 
In severe cases this drowsiness may 
pass into a stupor from which the 
child is hard to rouse. The germs 
do not usually circulate in the blood 
but grow in masses in the throat. 
First a small whitish speck will ap- 
pear on one or both tonsils. The ex- 
tent of this growth varies with the 
severity of the disease from small 
patches to the entire surface of the 
throat. Any grayish deposit on the 
tonsils or other part of the throat, if 
attended with the slightest fever, 

should arouse suspicion and a physi- 
cian should be promptly consulted. 

The first symptom of membranous 
croup or diphthei'ia of the larynx 
may be a harsh cough or difficulty in 
breathing. Croupy conditions, not 
promptly relieved by ordinary reme- 
dies, should always be suspected as 
possibly diphtheritic, especially if 
there is diphtheria in the community. 
Diphtheria of the lining membrane 
of the nose is frequently mistaken 
for ordinary cold. The discharges, 
however, are different, being fre- 
quently tinged with blood and caus- 
ing lip sores. Such conditions when 
diphtheria is prevalent should be re- 
garded as suspicious. 

Diphtheria occurs chiefly in chil- 
dren between the ages of two and fif- 
teen years. Girls are attacked in 
larger numbers than boys. But adults 
- are not infrequently infected. The 
disease is most prevalent in late fall. 
It prevails more in winter than in 
summer. It develops in from two to 
seven days, oftenest two days after 

If a child or adult has sore throat 
with the formation of a thick gray- 
white membrane in any part of the 
mouth, throat or nose, the disease is 
diphtheria. The sick room should be 
made ready, as recommended under 
typhoid fever, and the patient 
promptly isolated. If there is no 
membrane formation, but the patient 
appears to be stupid, drowsy or much 
prostrated, the case may be diph- 
theria and should be isolated until a 
positive diagnosis can be obtained. 
A "culture" should be taken from the 
throat of all persons who have come 
into contact with the patient before 
he was isolated. If the germs of 
diphtheria are present they should be 
protected by an immunizing dose of 
1,000 imits of diphtheria antitoxin. 

Prevention and Disinfection. — 
Isolate the patient in a sick room pre- 
pared as recommended for typhoid 
fever and observe all the precautions 
therein suggested to prevent secon- 
dary infection. The germs are most 
numerous in the discharges from the 



nose and throat. Hence take especial 
care to receive the sputum on soft 
rags which should be i?romptly 
burned, or in a sputum cup contain- 
ing disinfectants No. 4, carbolic acid 
(5 per cent), or No. 5, formalin (5 
per cent). The nurse and attending 
physician should wear a gown of 
washable material, preferably with a 
hood, to avoid carrying the infection 
in their hair and clothing. After the 
recovery or death of the patient, the 
sick room should be thoroughly dis- 
infected by formaldehyde or sulphur 

Quarantine. — Quarantine the en- 
tire household as recommended under 
scarlet fever. Keep children from 
day and Sunday school. Keep the 
members of the family indoors and 
arrange for the bread-winners to 
board and room elsewhere. Quaran- 
tine must be continued until the 
diphtheria bacilli disappear from the 
throat of the patient. This will or- 
dinarily require about four weeks 
after recovery. "Cultures" should 
then be taken by the physician and 
quarantine should not be lifted until 
the bacilli are found to be absent 
from two successive "cultures." Re- 
member that the mild cases and well 
persons who are carrying the germs 
of the disease are the most danger- 
ous sources of infection. The only 
sure precaution is the bacteriological 
test made by a competent physician 
and the isolation of all infected per- 
sons until the bacillus disappears. 


Scarlet fever has all the character- 
istics of a germ disease, though the 
specific germ which causes it has not 
yet been identified. Hence there is 
no antitoxin against scarlet fever and 
no etficient method for its control. 
Scarlatina, scarlet rash, canker rash, 
fever rash and Duke's disease are 
merely other names for scarlet fever. 
They are often applied to the mild 
cases under the mistaken belief tliat 
these are a different and less danger- 
ous malady, but this is not the case. 

The mild cases will give the form 
that kills. Scarlet fever is highly 
contagious, but, like other germ dis- 
eases, is wholly preventable. It is, 
or should be, among the most dread- 
ed of all the acute diseases of child- 
hood. It attacks chiefly children be- 
tween the ages of one and 10 years, 
although about 5 per cent of all cases 
occur in adult life. The death rate 
is about one out of every fifteen or 
twenty cases. 

Occasionally parents expose a child 
to a mild case from the mistaken no- 
tion that all children must have the 
disease and that it is best to have 
it light. Parents frequently permit 
children suffering from mild cases or 
convalescing to play about the house 
or even run about the neighborhood 
at wiU. Such contacts of infected 
with healthy children are of great 
assistance in spreading the disease. 
Persons who knowingly permit them 
often cause cases of death, and with 
the increase of sanitary knowledge 
the law will undoubtedly recognize 
such crimes and visit them with ap- 
propriate penalties. After childhood 
the liability to take the disease is 
very much lessened. Many persons 
who escape the disease in childhood 
have been immune to it although 
many times exposed in later life. 
Two-thirds of all deaths occur in 
children under five. When the dis- 
ease does not kill it frequently leaves 
its victim crippled for life. The 
commonest after-effects are inflam- 
mation of the kidneys, heart, ears, 
glands and joints. Deafness some- 
times results. Hence, although one 
attack usually renders a patient im- 
mune, the utmost care should be 
taken to protect all children from 

Symptoms. — The period of incuba- 
tion after exposure varies from one 
to fourteen days. Hence, a child ex- 
posed to scarlet fever should be care- 
fully watched during the following 
two weeks. Upon the first symptoms 
of shivering, lassitude, headache, fre- 
quent pulse, hot, dry skin, flushed 
face, furred tongue with much thirst 



and loss of appetite, the sick room 
should be prepared as for typhoid 
fever and the patient isolated until 
a positive diagnosis can be made by 
a pliysician, 

^'onliting is usually among the first 
positive symptoms. Other symptoms 
are sore throat, intense fever with 
lieadache or backache, and the char- 
acteristic scarlet rash. This usually 
ai)])ears in from twelve to twenty- 
four hours, first upon the lower part 
of the neck and adjacent parts of 
the chest and afterwards gradually 
spreading over the entire body. This 
disease, like typhoid or diphtheria, 
appears in varying degrees of sever- 
ity. It may cause deatli within twen- 
ty-four hours or may be so mild that 
the patient does not feel sick enough 
to stay in bed. There are many true 
cases of this malady with a very low 
fever and without vomiting or other 
acute symptoms, or even without the 
characteristic rash. A child with a 
sore throat is under suspicion of scar- 
let fever or diphtheria and should be 
kept away from school and from 
other children until a positive diag- 
nosis can be made. 

E-unniiig Ear. — During the third 
or fourth week of the disease, it is 
possible that the ears may become 
diseased and lead to what is known 
as a "running ear." The child by 
this time has had no fever for a 
number of days. He suddenly be- 
comes more or less feverish and rest- 
less, and complains at the same time 
of pain in the ear. This is a danger 
signal and calls for immediate action 
by the doctor. If this condition goes 
untreated, it may result in a running 
ear which sometimes lasts for years. 
With proper treatment, however, most 
of these cases are soon cured; 

Acute Nephritis, or inflammation 
of the kidneys, develops, at times, in 
the third to the fifth week of the 
disease. The child, who has seemed 
to be almost well, suddenly develops 
a fever. He complains of headache, 
usually vomits and may have convul- 
sions. The amount of urine pa:ssed 
is small. The patient may complain 

of trouble with the eyes, and of not 
being able to see distinctly. Should 
any of these symptoms develop, the 
doctor should be called immediately. 
Modes of Infection. — This disease 
is spread through carelessness. Every 
case comes directly, or indirectly, 
from some previous case, either by 
direct infection from inhaling the 
breath of a scarlet fever patient, or 
by secondary contact infection. Most 
cases of direct infection are due to 
neglect of mild cases and careless- 
ness of those recovering from the dis- 
ease. If every case could be thor- 
oughly isolated — quarantined — the 
disease would disapjjear from the 
face of the earth. The only safe 
course to pursue is to isolate the pa- 
tient and to quarantine and disinfect 
the sick room in all respects as for 
typhoid fever. 

The nurse and attending physician 
should wear a hooded gown of wash- 
able material to avoid carrying in- 
fection from the sick room upon the 
hair or clothing. On leaving the sick 
room this gown may be disinfected 
by sprinkling it with one or two 
tablespoonfuls of 40 per cent solu- 
tion of formaldehyde and packing it 
in a small valise or other tightly 
closed receptacle. Both the nurse 
and physician should avoid direct in- 
fection from the patient's breath. No 
one else should be permitted to enter 
the sick room. 

The chief danger from contact in- 
fection is from scales from the skin, 
the spittle from the throat and mouth 
and the nose and ear discharges. But 
all the discharges of the patient 
should be disinfected as for typhoid 
fever. By confining the patient ab- 
solutely to the sick room until the 
danger of infection is passed and by 
proper and efficient disinfection, as 
elsewhere recommended, the spread 
of the disease can be absolutely pre- 

The germs of scarlet fever are 
very long-lived. They may communi- 
cate the infection after many months 
and at long distances by means of 
clothing, playthings, books, maga- 



zines, bedding, towels or any articles 
of household furniture or otlier ob- 
jects on which the contagion from the 
patient may have lodged. Heace 
nothing should be removed from the 
sick room without having first been 
thoroughly disinfected. 

Quarantine. — Most cities require 
strict quarantine in cases of scarlet 
fever. Keep the children from both 
day and Sunday school. Take care 
that the nurse and all members of 
the family remain indoors. Arrange 
for the bread-winners to room and 
board elsewhere during the course of 
the disease. Have milk and grocer- 
ies left at the door and disinfect 
all articles even including letters and 
postal cards. This may be done by 
baking them in a suitable receptacle 
at a temperature of about 250 de- 

Or, place the articles in an air- 
tight receptacle with a closely-fitting 
cover, sprinkle them freely with a 
40 per cent solution of formaldehyde, 
cover tightly and leave the recep- 
tacle in a warm room for at least 
four hours. No milk or groceries 
should be sold in, or accepted from, 
premises quarantined for scarlet 
fever. Milk from infected dairies 
is a frequent source of contagion. 

Desquamation or "Peeling" is a 
highly characteristic phase of scarlet 
fever. After the rash begins to fade 
the fever disappears and the patient 
usually feels good and is anxious to 
get out and play. The skin affected 
by the rash now begins to scale or 
peel from all parts of the body, 
sometimes in large or small flakes, 
but often in the form of a dry mealy 
powder. This is charged with the 
virus of the disease in its most in- 
fectious form. The process of peel- 
ing occupies a variable time from 
ten days to six weeks and this is the 
most contagious period of the dis- 
ease. The infectious dry skin is eas- 
ily spread about the room and may 
be carried elsewhere upon the cloth- 
ing of members of the family, or 
other objects. Or it may remain at- 
t^che^ to airticles of furpltvre, or 

as dust in out-of-the-way jilaces, to 
infect others with whom it may come 
in contact. To present all this, the 
patient must be confined to the sick 
room and bathed daily, under the ad- 
vice of the attending physician, with 
soap and warm water. Bathing with 
disinfectants is not advisable. But 
the water used for the bath 
must afterwards be thoroughly dis- 

After the bath the patient should 
be anointed with sweet or olive oil 
containing a little oil of Eucalyptus, 
or 3 per cent of carbolic acid, or 
with 3 per cent carbolized vaseline, 
or a boracic acid ointment at the 
discretion of the attending physician. 
This will not only allay the itching 
from the rash, but will confine the 
dry scales to the body and bed linen 
and facilitate the work of disinfec- 
tion. This should be continued until 
the skin is entirely smooth. The 
soles of the feet and palms of 
the hand are usually the last to 

Duration of Quarantine. — The 
length of time during which a scar- 
let fever patient is dangerous to 
others differs widely. Isolation must 
be enforced until all peeling or scal- 
ing off of the skin is completed, and 
until there is no further discharge 
from the ears, nose, throat, suppu- 
rating glands or inflammation of the 
kidneys. The time required for scal- 
ing varies from four to eight weeks. 
The soles of the feet and palms of 
the hands are the last to peel. Mild 
cases with very little scaling and 
without ear, nose, throat, kidney and 
glandular complications, should be 
isolated not less than four weeks, 
and severe cases not less than six 
weeks. This period must be pro- 
longed if the ears, nose, throat, 
glands or kidneys continue to be dis- 
eased. The advice of a reliable 
physician should be followed in all 

Disinfection. — After death or re- 
covery disinfect the sick room and 
its contents thoroughly as elsewhere 




Measles is the most contagious 
eruptive disease of childliood. It is 
probably a germ disease, but the 
germ by which it is caused has not 
yet been identified. German measles 
— more properly Rotheln or Rubella 
— is not a form of measles nor is it 
a mild type of scarlet fever. It is 
a distinct disease. Black measles — 
the malignant type of the disease — 
is very fatal. The black color is 
due to hemorrhages in the skin. 
Measles may occur at any time dur- 
ing the year, but is most prevalent 
in the fall and winter months. 

Symptoms. — The period of incuba- 
tion is from ten to fourteen days 
after exposure. The symptoms for 
the first two or three days are very 
much like those of an ordinary cold, 
in the head. The eyes become red 
and watery and are sensitive to light. 
The nose is stopped up or there is 
a discharge from the nose, with 
sneezing. The throat is sore and 
there is a dry, hard, high-pitched 
cough. The tonsils may be swollen 
or red, headache, fever, loss of ap- 
petite, drowsiness and irritability are 
usually observed. 

Oceasionally the disease comes on 
suddenly with vomiting and high 
fever, but usually the fever is not 
very high. It may disappear on the 
second or third day with improve- 
ment of all the other symptoms. 
Then the temperature again rises and 
continues very high until the fourth 
day when the eruption appears. The 
disease is contagious from the outset 
of the earliest symptoms. Hence any 
one suffering from these symptoms 
should be isolated and kept under 
observation for three or four days, 
especially if measles is prevalent. 
Children should be kept from both 
day and Sunday school. 

The characteristic skin eruption ap- 
pears on the fourth day on the face 
and neck and thence over the whole 
body as dull red blotches a little 
raised, and later running together. 
It gives the skin a peculiar mottled 

appearance. Before this occurs one 
cannot be positive that the case is 
one of measles. But generally there 
is an eruption of some light red spots 
on the inside of the cheeks two or 
three days before the external erup- 
tion. If care is taken to be on the 
lookout for this symptom the nature 
of the disease may be determined 
early. The eruption lasts usually 
four or five days and disappears as 
the other symptoms improve. It is 
followed by a fine bran-like desqua- 
mation or peeling, which is usually 
complete in about a week. 

Prognosis. — Measles is quite com- 
monly regarded as a slight and triv- 
ial disorder. Hence parents not in- 
frequently expose young children to 
this malady from the mistaken no- 
tion that they are certain to contract 
it some time and the sooner it is 
over the better. It is true that the 
disease is more severe in adult life. 
But on the other hand it is a very 
fatal disease among young children. 
It causes about three times as many 
deaths as smallpox and nearly as 
many as scarlet fever. Measles and 
whooping cough together cause near- 
ly as many deaths as diphtheria. The 
mortality from measles is much 
higher than is generally supposed. 
Ninety-five per cent of all deaths oc- 
cur in children under five years of 
age, and far more deaths occur under 
than over two years of age. The 
death rate from measles in times of 
epidemic ranges from 4 per cent to 
6 per cent and not infrequently ex- 
ceeds that from scarlet fever. 

The danger from measles is chiefly 
due to complication with other dis- 
eases, such as whooping cough and 
bronchial pneumonia, or to after-ef- 
fects, such as consumption, paralysis, 
meningitis, diseases of the skin and 
nervous disorders. Inflammation of 
the ear is a not infrequent compli- 
cation of measles. This often leads, 
to deafness or w^orse. Latent tuber- 
culosis in a child often becomes ac- 
tive after an attack of measles. If 
a child "seems to have caught cold" 
after measles consult a doctor at 



once. Hence exposure to infection 
should be avoided and every case 
should receive skilled medical atten- 

Modes of Infection. — Measles is 
contagious from the beginning of the 
symptoms — usually three or four 
days before the eruption occurs. It 
is during this first stage of the dis- 
ease, when the symptoms can hardly 
be distinguished from those of an 
ordinary cold in the head, that direct 
infection is most often communi- 
cated. The disease is usually con- 
veyed to others by direct exposure 
but may be conveyed by the dis- 
charges of the nose and throat and 
possibly from the fragments of skin 
thrown off from the surface of the 
body during peeling. Infection may 
be carried by the clothing of the 
patient, or those who come in con- 
tact with him, and by otiier objects. 
But the germs are not nearly so long- 
lived as those of diphtheria and scar- 
let fever. Hence the danger from 
secondary infection is much less. 
Mild cases may give the disease in 
its most malignant form and are 
equally as contagious. 

Quarantine. — When measles is 
prevalent and especially if there is 
likelihood that exposure has occurred, 
children should be kept under close 
observation for ten days to two 
weeks and promptly isolated on the 
appearance of the first symptoms. 
If red spots are not observed on the 
inside of the cheeks within two days, 
or if the eruption does not break 
out within four or five days after 
the first feverish symptoms, the case 
may be regarded as a simple cold in 
the head. But if there is any evi- 
dence of eruption, however mild, iso- 
late the child in the sick room pre- 
pared as for typhoid fever and 
promptly summon a physician. 

Practically everyone is susceptible 
to measles. One attack usually pro- 
tects a person against others, but 
this rule is by no means invariable. 
The course of the disease is usually 
more severe in adult life, hence in 
the management of the sick room ob- 

serve all the usual sanitary precau- 

Quarantine. — Isolate all suspicious 
cases, especially during periods of 
epidemic. Placard the premises. 
Keep all visitors out of the sick 
room. Protect, especially, children 
under five years of age and adults 
who have never had the disease. The 
disease is communicable until the 
peeling is complete, which will be, 
as a rule, within three weeks from 
the onset of the malady. 

The quarantine must be continued 
until the patient's temperature has 
been normal for forty-eight hours. 
Persons exposed to measles and who 
have never had the disease should 
be quarantined for two weeks from 
time of exposure. Adults who have 
had the disease may go about their 
ordinary business, providing they 
keep entirely away from the sick 
room. But no person from a home 
quarantined for measles should at- 
tend school, church, theater, or other 
public gathering. Everything coming 
from the patient's room should be 
disinfected. After recovery or death 
the sick room should be thoroughly 
disinfected with formaldehyde or 
sulphur as elsewhere recommended. 


This is a highly contagious disease 
characterized by severe inflammation 
of the bronchial tubes and accom- 
panied by a peculiar cough ending in 
the familiar "whoop." It has all 
the characteristics of a germ dis- 
ease but the germ which causes it 
has not yet been identified. Persons 
of all ages are liable to the attacks 
of this malady but practically all 
deaths occur under the age of five 
years. One-half of these occur un- 
der one year of age. The average 
age of death is one and a half years. 

Whooping cough, when severe, is 
a debilitating disease at any time of 
life. It lasts for several weeks and 
is not infrequently complicated with 
pneumonia. It often leads to chronic 
invalidism from exhaustion, with 



heart and lung changes which may be 
permanent. The disease may occur 
at any time of the year but the great- 
est mortality is in July and August. 
Children should never be knowingly 
exposed to whooping cough and great 
care should be taken to protect chil- 
dren under five years of age from 
infection. After this period the like- 
lihood of infection is much lessened 
and the danger of death from this 
disease is practically over. Many 
persons escape this malady alto- 

Symptoms. — The period of incuba- 
tion is from four to fourteen days 
after exposure. The symptoms for 
the first few days are those of an 
ordinary cold or simple catarrh but 
with less fever than measles. The 
cough is more severe than the other 
symptoms seem to warrant and grows 
harsher from day to day. After a 
week or ten days the characteristic 
whoop develops. This continues with 
varying degrees of severity for a 
month or six weeks. Then the par- 
oxysms cease, often leaving a simple 
catarrhal cough which may last in- 

Modes of Infection. — Infection is 
ordinarily by direct and fairly inti- 
matet- contact between the infected 
and healthy person. The virus of 
the disease is not as long lived as 
that of diphtheria or scarlet fever 
and hence not so likely to be con- 
veyed from the sick room on the 
hands and clothing of the nurse or 
by means of other objects. The dis- 
ease is probably not spread through 
the air except within the range of 
the fine spray thrown from the mouth 
of the patient while coughing. 

Quarantine. — Isolate the patient in 
a sick room prepared as recommend- 
ed for typhoid fever, especially if 
there is an infant in the family un- 
der two years of age. Keep on the 
safe side by observing all the sani- 
tary precautions recommended for 
the sick room in other communicable 
diseases and disinfect the sick room 
after the death or recovery of the 


Mumps is a glandular swelling in 
the angle between the jaw and the 
ear. It is a highly contagious but 
wholly unnecessary and preventable 
disease. It chiefly affects children, 
but may attack older persons who 
have not become immune from hav- 
ing had the disease in childhood. It 
usually develops in from two to three 
weeks after exposure. 

Symptoms. — The early symptoms 
are fever with pain below the ear on 
one or both sides. A slight swelling 
below one ear may be first noticed. 
Within two days there is great en- 
largement of the neck and side of 
the cheek. The other side usually 
becomes affected within a day or two. 
The swelling persists from seven to 
ten days then gradually subsides. A 
second or even a third attack may 
occur and troublesome complications 
are quite common. It is always ad- 
visable to consult a physician. 

Quarantine. — Isolate the patient in 
the sick room and exclude other chil- 
dren and adults who have not had 
the disease. Keep children from 
school for a period of three weeks 
following their last exposure. 


Pedicnlosis (Lice). — There are 
three varieties of these parasites 
which infest human beings, the head 
louse, body louse and crab louse. A 
single family of children so infested 
may communicate them to many 
others through the contacts of outer 
clothing hung up in school dressing 
rooms, or in play, or otherwise. In 
most states such children may be ex- 
cluded from schools until these para- 
sites have been exterminated. The 
following methods of treatment for 
killing parasites and nits are recom- 
mended : 

Add two teaspoonfuls of chloro- 
naphtholeum disinfectant to a pint of 
warm water. Wet the hair with this 
mixture. Put a towel around the 
head and let it dry on. When the 



hair is dry comb with a fine comb. 
Repeat this two or three times until 
the head is clear of vermin. The 
nits may be removed by combing the 
hair after it has been moistened with 

Or obtain half a pint of crude pe- 
troleum at a drug store and wet the 
hair thoroughly with this. Keep it 
wet for three hours. Then wash the 
whole head with warm water and 
soap. Repeat this process on three 
successive days. The nits may then 
be removed by combing the hair very 
carefully with a fine-tooth comb wet 
with vinegar. Repeat the combing 
for several days until no more nits 
can be found. To make the treat- 
ment easier and more thorough, the 
hair may be cut short, if there is 
no objection. 

All the children in a family are 
likely to be affected, and should 
also be treated as above. 

Brushes and combs should be 
cleansed by putting them in boiling 
water for a few minutes. 

Or head lice may promptly be 
destroyed with common kerosene. 
Pour a little into a small dish. 
Moisten a small rag with it. After 
squeezing the rag somewhat, moisten 
the hair with the kerosened rag. Do 
this in the afternoon, after the chil- 
dren return from school, or in the 
evening. Before morning the oil will 
have evaporated so that little or no 
odor will remain. Or remove both 
oil and odor with soap and water. 
Or to disguise the odor of kerosene, 
pour a small quantity into a vial, 
and add an equal amount, or less, of 
oil of sassafras. Shake until there 
is a complete mixture. 

Or, dip a small, clean hairbrush 
into kerosene oil or oil of sassafras 
poured into a shallow dish. Then 
brush and moisten the hair with it. 

Make these applications by day- 
light and be very careful not to let 
the children go near fire or lights. 
For the night, cover the head with 
a cap, which can be improvised by 
knotting the corners of a handker- 
chief, or wrap a cloth around it. 

Repeat this treatment several times 
to ensure complete destruction of the 
lice and nits. Applied as recom- 
mended, kerosene is not in any way 
injurious to the scalp or hair. 

Body Lice (Pediculus Vestimen- 
torum). — This parasite belongs to 
the same family as head lice but is 
somewhat larger. It is found com- 
monly on the body, where it goes 
only for the purpose of feeding. In 
the adult form it can be difi"eren- 
tiated from the head louse by dark 
transverse bands across the back. 
The parasite lives and reproduction 
occurs chiefly in the various folds 
and seams of the clothing, and espe- 
cially where the skin is most con- 
veniently reached. Hence the. vari- 
ous lesions are to be found most 
often around the neck, across the 
shoulders, the upper part of the back, 
around the waist and the outside of 
the thighs. 

Treatment should be directed to 
the infested clothing where the para- 
site and nits are to be found. In or- 
der to destroy these, all garments 
should be thoroughly baked, boiled 
or lightly sprinkled and gone over 
with a very hot iron. 

However, it has been observed that 
some of the ova or nits are attached 
to the fine hairs (lanugo) of the 
body surface. Hence a general tub 
bath disinfected with corrosive sub- 
limate is advisable. Eight tablets of 
bichloride of mercury to a tub of 
water makes a strong enough solu- 
tion. After the bath, flush the tub 
thoroughly to avoid injury to the 
plumbing and fixtures. 

Or clothing, beds and bedding, and 
the like may be rid of these insects 
and parasites of all other kinds, by 
fumigation with sulphur. 

Crab Lice (Phthirius Ingulnalis). 
— These are a smaller species of the 
same family as head or body lice but 
are quite distinct on account of their 
shape. They are nearly as wide as 
long. Their strong legs, spread out 
laterally, give them tlie appearance 
of crabs. They are of whitish color, 
somewhat shaded on the shoulders. 



and the legs have a slightly red tinge. 
Each is about one-tenth of an inch 
in length. They are to be found on 
the various hairy regions of the body 
other than the scalp. They do not 
thrive among the fine hairs of the 
head, though they have often been 
observed in the eyebrows. 

Treatment. — Repeated washings 
with vinegar or diluted acetic acid 
will free the hairs of ova. This 
should be followed by a careful daily 
shampoo of all the regions involved. 
After the shampoo, apply freely a 
solution of corrosive sublimate con- 
taining one tablet to a pint of water. 
If not desirable to use the mercury 
wash, apply a lotion consisting of 
tincture of larkspur, 4 ounce; com- 
mercial ether, 8 ounces. Or use. a 
stronger solution, consisting of equal 
parts of the two ingredients. After- 
wards cover the parts with a closely 
applied dressing. 

Cautions. — Corrosive sublimate 
(bichloride of mercury) is a power- 
ful poison. Ether is highly inflam- 

The Itcli Mite. — This is a minute 
bug which gives rise to the condition 
commonly known as "Itch," "Seven- 
Year Itch," "Army Itch," "Jackson 
Itch" *^ and many other synonymous 
names. The female burrows into the 
superficial skin forming a tortuous 
or, at times, a straight, dotted, 
slightly elevated line. This varies in 
length from one-eighth to one-half 
inch. The burrow is dark gray or 
blackish in color, thread-like, and 
may be slightly more elevated at one 

This mite is transmitted from one 
individual to another by occupancy, 
either of the same bed, or of one 
on which the sheets have not been 
changed. It may also be transmitted 
by the use of a common towel and by 
shaking hands. It is commonly found 
in the moist surfaces of the body, such 
as between the fingers, on the hands 
or folds of the wrist, in the folds 
under the shoulder, the lower por- 
tion of the abdomen and about the 
neck. Its entire existence is spent 

on its human host. It is believed not 
to have any power to transmit dis- 
ease, but may be inimical to the 
health of the individual from secon- 
dary infection of the burrows or of 
the excoriations produced by scratch- 
ing. There may be also varying de- 
grees of papular or pustular lesions 
over the infected regions. 

These mites usually thrive best in 
unsanitary conditions. To destroy 
them, thoroughly boil or bake aU bed 
linen and clothing used by the in- 
fected individual. If woolens are in 
use, bake them or sprinkle lightly and 
thoroughly iron them with a very hot 
iron. Take a hot bath, and rub 
down with a coarse washcloth or 
brush. This opens up the burrows 
and exposes the eggs for destruction. 
After the bath, rub in an ointment 
made up as follows: Sublimed sul- 
phur, 1 dram (1 teaspoonful) ; bal- 
sam of Peru, 1 dram (1 teaspoon- 
ful) ; vaseline, 1 ounce (3 table- 
spoonfuls). Repeat morning and 
evening from two to four days. In 
particularly serious cases, repeat this 
entire treatment at the end of one 

Or use either of the following 
preparations : 

(1) Mix equal parts of balsam of 
Peru and lard. Rub these together 
thoroughly in a shallow plate with a 
steel table knife to form an oint- 
ment. Or use vaseline in place of 
lard, or still better, lanolin. 

(2) Or mix flowers of sulphur, 1 
tablespoonful; balsam of Peru, two 
tablespoonf uls ; lard or vaseline, 8 
tablespoonfuls. Make into an oint- 

Take a hot bath and give the whole 
body a thorough scrubbing with soap 
and hot water. Dry the body well. 
Now with the palm of the hand, rub 
one of these ointments thoroughly 
into every part of the body from the 
neck downward, or, at least, anoint 
all parts of the body which are af- 
fected. Sometimes the only parts 
afi^ected at first are the hands and 
the arms to the elbows. To make 
sure work, particularly in bad cases, 



make two or three applications with- 
in twenty-four or thirty-six hours. 
Take another hot bath twelve hours 
or so after the last application. 
Thorough scrubbing and cleanliness 
go a long way toward effecting a 

To avoid reinfection put on clean 
clothes, particularly underclothing, 
and change sheets and blankets, 
particularly after the last soap 
and water bath. Deposit all infected 
clothing and bed linen in a standard 
disinfectant solution of carbolic acid 
(5 per cent), or formaldehyde (3 
per cent), or boil in soap and water 
at least one hour. 

Balsam of Peru is sometimes 
painted on pure, or mixed with an 

equal amount of glycerine. To make 
this mixture fill a bottle half full, 
heat by putting the bottle in moder- 
ately hot water and shake vigorously. 
Contagious Impetigo. — -This erup- 
tion first appears on the exposed sur- 
faces of the body, particularly on 
the face, hands or wrists. It takes 
the form of a simple-looking pimple 
or pustule. This enlarges in size and 
the patch becomes covered by a 
brownish or yellowish crust. Other 
patches then appear caused by con- 
veyance of the infection by the fin- 
gers or otherwise. Medical advice 
should be promptly taken. Conta- 
gious impetigo sometimes spreads 
rapidly in schools, but it can be 
readily cured by medical treatment. 





A poorly fed oi- sickly mother 
cannot give birth to a vigorous, 
healthy infant and successfully nurse 
it. Such a mother rarely carries her 
baby for the full nine months. A 
woman who has had repeated mis- 
carriages or whose previous labors 
have come on before time should, 
early in pregnancy, consult her physi- 
cian in order that the underlying 
cause may be cured or alleviated. 
During pregnancy and especially in 
the letter months, the expectant 
mother must have abundant rest and 
spare herself as much as possible. 
An extra amount of sleep is required 
and daytime rest for an hour or two 
is desirable. Select and consult your 
physician early in pregnancy. Keep 
yourself in good health. Hard house- 
hold labor or factory work during 
the latter months tend to bring about 
miscarriages or the birth of puny and 
undersized children. 

Exercise. — Exercise in the open air 
in the form of walks should be taken 
throughout the entire course of preg- 
nancy. Violent exercise in any form 
should be prohibited. Unnecessary 
stair climbing must be avoided in 
the latter months. The sewing ma- 
chine must not be used towards the 
end. Should labor be threatened 
before the proper time, go to bed at 
once and remain perfectly quiet until 
the danger is well passed. 

Care of the Breasts. — Small, flat- 
tened or depressed nipples should be 
drawn out with the forefinger and 
fhumb and held for five minutes 
"night and morning during the two 
months before the baby is born. The 
nipples should also be carefully 
anointed each night with white vase- 
line. This will soften and remove 
the milky substance which is secreted 
at this time, and which may other- 
wise form hard crusts, and ulcerate 
the soft tissues beneath. Wash the 
nipples every day with castile soap 
and water and put boracic acid solu- 
tion on them, a heaping tablespoon- 
ful to the pint of water. Or better, 
use warm water, two-thirds, and al- 
cohol, one-third. Proper attention 
to the care of the nipples will inake 
nursing a pleasure and satisfaction, 
instead of a pain and discomfort. 

After the baby comes, always wash 
the nipples carefully both before and 
after nursing, in pure, cold water 
containing a teaspoonful of baking- 
soda to each pint of water. This 
will prevent them from becoming 

Food for the Baby. — No food is as 
good for a baby as its mother's milk. 
This is why so many more bottle ba- 
bies are sick and die than breast 
babies. One or two feedings a day 
from the breast are a great deal bet- 
ter than none at all. Hence keep 
the body well nourished before the 
birth of the baby in order to seci^re 




a good supply of milk. Exercise, 
freedom from excessive worry and 
massage of the breast and nipples be- 
fore tlie child is born will, in nearly 
every instance, insure the child being 
nursed. Every mother should expect 
and plan to nurse her child. 

Diet. — The diet should be care- 
fully regulated, but abundant. A 
full, wholesome and liberal diet is 
essential. What to eat, however, will 
depend largely on individual tastes 
and habits, as food which agrees with 
one will not agree with another. 
Highly seasoned or very rich food 
should be avoided as well as fatty 
foods and coarse vegetables. 

The following dietary is recom- 
mended during pregnancy and nurs- 

Soup — Any kind. 

Fish — Fresh fish, of any kind, 
boiled or broiled. Raw oysters and 
raw clams. 

Meats — Chicken, beef, ham or ba- 
con, veal, lamb, tender lean mutton. 
Red meat in moderation but only 
once a day. 

Cereals — Hominy, oatmeal, farina, 
cream of wheat, rice mush, shredded 
wheat biscuits, etc. 

Breads — Stale bread, corn bread, 
Graham bread, rye bread, brown 
bread, toast, crackers. 

Vegetables — Potatoes, onions, spin- 
ach, cauliflower, asparagus, green 
corn, green peas, beans, lettuce or 
other salads, with oil. 

Desserts — Plain puddings, custard, 
junket, ripe raw fruits, stewed fruits, 
ice cream. No pastry. 

Drinks — Tea and cofl'ee very spar- 
ingly, never more than one cup a 
day. No alcoholic beverages, beer, 
or liquors. At least two quarts of 
water a day. Milk, buttermilk, co- 
coa, malted milk. 

At least one satisfactory move- 
ment of the bowels should take place 
daily; if there is any difficulty about 
this, consult the doctor. But observe 
that strong medicines must not be 
used to open the bowels. Costiveness 
can be avoided by sufficient exercise 
and suitable food as brown lircpd. 

stewed vegetables, fruit and abun- 
dance of water. 

Work. — The expectant mother may 
do her usual work, but should not 
work hard enough to get very tired. 
Work in stores and mills is not good. 
It should be stopped as soon as pos- 
sible, at least four weeks before the 
expected birth of the child. She 
should go out of doors every day, 
but must not run for cars, or jump, 
or over-exert herself in any way. 

Once in four weeks, at the times 
when the woman would have been 
unwell, if she were not to have a 
baby, she should be even more care- 
ful than usual about over-exertion, 
because at these times there is more 
danger of miscarriage. 

Clothing-. — All clothing should be 
loose. As soon as she begins to show 
her condition, the mother should 
leave off' her corsets, and have noth- 
ing about the waist that is at all 
tight. A loose corset waist should 
be worn. To this attach side gar- 
ters instead of wearing circular ones 
about the legs. 

Baths. — It is important to keep 
the skin in a healthy condition, and 
this is best done by frequent bath- 
ing. Sea-bathing is not good, how- 
ever, because it is too violent. 

When the Baby Comes. — Send for 
the doctor when the labor pains be- 
gin. He prefers being called too 
early than too late. A sudden gush 
of water signifies that the membranes 
have rujDtured and the mother should 
go to bed at once. 

The bed should be prepared as fol- 
lows: Place a rubber sheet or sev- 
eral thicknesses of newspapers next 
to the mattress and over this a clean 
sheet. Next place three thicknesses 
of newspapers over the middle and 
edge of the side of the bed and cover 
with a folded sheet and then cover 
with a clean sheet. This top layer of 
papers and sheets can be easily re- 
moved after the labor and the mother 
will lie on a clean, dry sheet. 

Everything should be in readiness 
for the reception and care of the 
Have at hand a warmed flan- 


nel blanket in which to place the 
baby after birth, and hot water bot- 
tles with which to surround it if the 
room is cold. Expose the baby as 
little as possible during the bath. The 
clothes and diapers should be 
warmed. Everji:hing that comes in 
contact with the baby, should be 
scrupulously clean. 

The mother should insist that a 
drop of silver solution be placed in 
the baby's eyes. This will prevent 
blindness. If the baby weighs less 
than four pounds it can best be 
taken care of in incubators which are 
to be found in any well-equipped hos- 
pital. Your physician is required to 
make a prompt report of the birth 
to the registrar or local board of 
health. This is a matter of great 
importance. Don't let him forget it. 
The mother should remain in bed 
for at least two weeks after con- 
finement. The womb does not re- 
turn to its normal state for five or 
six*weeks and no hard work or ac- 
tive exercise should be taken during 
this period. 


If a new born infant is to live its 
first requirement is air, its second 
warmth. It is extremely sensitive to 
cold and may be seriously or fatally 
inj ured by slight exposure to cool air. 
Wrap up the child quickly and care- 
fully and do not expose it, except 
momentarily, to a temperature be- 
low blood heat. Do not handle the 
baby during the first few days more 
than is required to insure local clean- 

The death rate among infants is at 
its highest point the first week. The 
second week it drops enormously. 
Many babies die thus early because 
the care M'hich they receive within 
the first few hours or days is not in- 
telligent. The first bath coming too 
early kills many. A full bath should 
not be given before the child is ten 
or twelve days old. The first cleans- 
ing of the skin can be done much 
better with olive oil or even lard. 

Apply this to only a small portion 
of the body at a time, then wipe it 
off with pieces of old, soft cotton or 

Next to air and warmth among the 
life needs of the new born child is 
sleep. After it has had its initial 
cry, see that the breathing is well 
established and the child is made 
comfortable. Then let the infant 
sleep undisturbed during the first two 
or three days, eighteen or twenty 
hours out of the twenty-four. 

Immediately after birth of a child 
two drops of a 1 per cent fresh solu- 
tion of nitrate of silver should be 
placed in each eye by the nurse or 
attending physician. This prepara- 
tion costs about two cents and will 
prevent blindness. The eyes should 
be carefully shielded from the light 
-until they gradually become accus- 
tomed to it. The need of food is not 
immediate. Nature does not usually 
provide a supply of food for the 
first two or three days and some- 
times not for the first five or six 
days. Hence it is safe to infer that 
a preliminary fast is the best and 
safest for the baby. Observation 
shows that feeding within this time 
is most often injurious. 

When, a baby is well it wiU sleep 
twelve hours or more in every twen- 
ty-four, without being rocked. It 
will nurse every three or four hours 
during the daytime, and after the 
sixth month will be satisfied without 
nursing in the night. It will gain 
about six ounces in weight every 
week. It will have a movement of 
the bowels every day, soft and yel- 
low in color, without the aid of medi- 
cine or other help. It will be happy 
and contented. It will cut its first 
tooth at about the sixth month; sit 
lip without aid at the seventh or 
eighth month; creep at the ninth or 
tenth month; walk at from the 
twelfth to the fourteenth month, and 
talk at about the fifteenth month of 

To keep a baby well you must 
satisfy its needs in respect of the 
following essentials, namely: food. 



clothing, fresh air, bathing (with 
sanitary cleanliness of both the baby's 
body and clothing), sleep at night 
and naps in the daytime with all the 
rest and quiet possible. The follow- 
ing simple rules sum up a world of 
practical wisdom on this subject: 

Give the baby pure outdoor air 
both night and clay. Give it no food 
but mother's milk or milk or food 
from a clean bottle as directed by 
the physician. Let the baby alone 
when not feeding or bathing it. 
Whenever it cries or is fretful, don't 
offer it food, but give it water. Be 
sure that it gets sleep and at least 
two naps during the day. Don't 
wake the baby to feed it. Don't put 
too much clothing on it. Bathe it 
in a tub every day. 

"Why Babies Cry. — Because they 
are tired of lying on one side and 
are unable to turn over. Turn a 
baby once in a while. Because their 
diapers are wet or soiled and there- 
fore uncomfortable. Because their 
hands or feet are cold. Because they 
are thirsty. Babies must have water 
(boiled and cooled, but not iced) to 
drink. Because they are too warm 
(sweating) and possibly irritated by 
"prickly heat." Because they are 
sleepy and wish to lie down and be 
let alone. Because the air of the 
room is foul and smelly. Babies re- 
quire lots of fresh air. Because their 
clothes are too tight, or perhaps a 
pin is sticking into them. Because 
crying is the only way they have to 
tell you something is wrong with 

Of course babies cry when in pain 
from colic or other cause, but you 
should find out if it is not some of 
the above stated causes before decid- 
ing that it is pain which is causing 
the crying. Above all else, get the 
notion out of your head that every 
time the baby cries it is hungry. If 
you are sure that none of the things 
spoken of above are the cause of the 
crying, then the most probable cause 
is intestinal indigestion and the 
quickest way to relieve it is by an 
enema of salt solution (a level tea- 

spoonful of salt in a pint of warm ^ 


Children often cry when put down 
to sleep. If they are let alone they 
will soon stop crying and go to sleep. 
Don't get nervous about it. Don't 
fear that the crying child will rup- 
ture itself. Crying is one way in 
which children learn to develop their 
lungs. If children were let alone 
and allowed to have their cry out, 
instead of being tossed and petted 
and hushed, they would be far better 
for it. 

Many babies suffer because they 
are used to amuse older people and 
are tossed about and excited when 
they should be resting or sleeping. 
Try to have people leave the baby 
alone. Think how tired and irritable 
you get yourself on a hot clay and 
shield the baby as much as possible 
from excitement and "attention." 

Kissing'. — There are many serious 
objections to babies being kissed by 
other children and by older people. 
Tuberculosis, diphtheria, and other 
dangerous diseases may be communi- 
cated in this way. 


Clothing'. — The clothing of infants 
should be simple, warm, light in 
weight and not too tight fitting. For 
the first four or five months provide 
an abdominal band of thin, soft 
wool or flannel about six inches wide 
and twenty inches long. This will 
prevent serious effects from sudden 
changes of temperature. It should 
be only wide enough to cover the 
belly and should be wound two or 
three times around the body, accord- 
ing to the season of the year. This 
bellyband, or pinning blanket, should 
be wound smooth and free from 
creases or folds, and fastened with 
safety pins, or preferably with a few 
stitches of soft darning cotton. It 
must not be pinned so tightly as to 
interfere with the movements of the 
child's bowels or it will tend to cause 
diarrhoea. Nor should it be wide 
enough to impede the free movement 



of the legs, else it will prevent 
proper exercise and make the child 
fretful. All the baby's clothing 
should at all times be loose enough 
to allow it to breathe and move its 
limbs easily and to admit of the free 
circulation of blood. Never use 
clothing with tight waistbands. Skirts 
should be supported from the shoul- 
ders by straps. Never, for appear- 
ance sake, put starched, stiff or un- 
comfortable clothing on a baby. 

Infants are very susceptible to 
changes of temperature. The cloth- 
ing should be modified with each 
change in the weather. Either over- 
heating or sudden chill tends to pro- 
duce stomach or intestinal complaints. 
Healthy infants are, however, warm 
blooded and need less covering than 
adults, especially in hot weather. 
Cool outdoor air will not harm them 
even in winter or in cold climates, 
if they are well wrapped up, pro- 
tected from changes of temperature 
and kept out of drafts. 

More babies are made sick by being 
wrapped up too warmly, especially in 
summer or in hot climates, than by 
taking cold. Babies feel the heat 
more than grown folks. Keep them 
cool in summer. They will not take 
cold. '-All through the hot season 
dress the child very lightly and keep 
it cool. Unless the baby is very deli- 
cate, limit its clothing in hot weather 
to a shirt, petticoat, cotton dress, 
narrow bellyband of thin wool, and 
the diaper. During the height of 
summer one thin piece, as a loose 
muslin slip or gauze shirt, is enough 
both day and night, in addition to a 
narrow bellyband of light wool and 
a diaper. On very hot days take oif 
all the clothing but the diaper, un- 
less the baby is under four months 
old, or is delicate or colicky, in which 
case the bellyband should be worn. 

A baby with fever should never be 
wrapped up. It will not take cold. 
Remove nearly all the clothing and 
give a sponge bath every two or 
three hours. If the baby breaks out 
with nettle rash or "prickly heat" 
add to the basin of water a teaspoon- 

ful of baking soda or a tablespoon- 
ful of vinegar. After bathing with 
this mixture leave a slight moisture 
on the skin. Remove all clothing 
except the diaper and lay the baby 
in a cool place, but not in a draft. 
Keep the feet warm, the head cool. 
It is a mistake to suppose that ba- 
bies must be kept wrapped up in 
flannel at all seasons of the year. 

The Diapers. — Use great care in 
the selection of the baby's diapers at 
all times, and especially during the 
summer months when it is so easy 
to overheat and irritate the bladder 
and the bowels. Make the diapers of 
the softest cotton cloth. Change 
them promptly when wet or soiled 
and keep them in a bucket or other 
receptacle containing water in which 
baking soda has been dissolved in 
- the proportion of about one teaspoon- 
ful to the pint. Cover tightly to 
prevent odors and to exclude flies. 
A big lard pail or tin cracker box 
is suitable. Remember that summer 
diarrhoea and cholera infantum are 
infectious diseases and contagion 
may be carried to other children or 
grown persons by flies. Wash soiled 
diapers as soon as possible with pure 
refined soap or, preferably, in hot 
soda water. Rinse, air and dry 
thoroughly before using again. Never 
dry and use a diaper a second time 
before washing it. Boil all diapers 
at least once a week. Diapers fresh- 
ly washed should never be put on a 
child suffering from diarrhoea. If 
there are no more at hand which have 
been washed several days previous, 
go through the house and gather all 
the clean soft pieces of old linen and 
muslin you can find. Cut these into 
proper shape for temporary use. If 
the supply is still insufficient, borrow 
from someone else. In summer, 
diarrhoea diapers must never be used 
until they have been exposed several 
days to sunlight and fresh air to kill 
the germs which they contain. 

After every movement of the 
bowels change the diaper promptly. 
Babies often get sick from being left 
with soiled diapers on. Wash the 



baby well and pay especial attention 
to the creases in the flesh. The baby 
may become sore and chafed because 
it is not well washed, or because 
baby powder is put on when it is 
still dirty, or because the diapers are 
not washed out but only dried and 
used again. If the baby is chafed 
apply to the irritated surfaces a little 
zinc oxide ointment, sweet oil or olive 
oil instead of powder. 

Clothing worn during the day 
which is to be worn again should be 
hung up to air, preferably out of 
doors, weather permitting. Garments 
worn at night should be hung up to 
air during the day. Both the baby 
and its clothing should be kept at 
all times clean, sweet and free from 

Bathing. — Give the baby a tub 
bath every morning, preferably at a 
certain regular hour. A clean baby 
is happier and healthier tlian a dirty 
baby. A daily bath helps the baby 
to stand heat and, in liot weather, 
it may be well to bathe the baby 
twice or three times a day. Never 
bathe within an hour after feeding. 
A good plan is to give the baby its 
bath, then its bottle and then a nap. 
The first full bath should not be 
given for a week or ten days after 
birth. The water should not be be- 
low blood heat, which is between 
98° and 99°. Or, better, make the 
water one or two degrees warmer 
than your own or the baby's tem- 
perature. If the infant is vigorous, 
the temperature may gradually be 
reduced to 95° at six months, to 90° 
at one year of age, and to 80° at 
the age of two and a half years. 

Every mother should have a clini- 
cal thermometer. This can be ob- 
tained at any drug store. If you 
have one, use it when preparing the 
baby's bath. If not, test the water 
by putting your face in it. Never 
test it by the arm or hand. Until 
the infant is able to sit up unsup- 
ported, it should have only a sponge 
bath, but do not use a sponge. They 
cannot be kept clean. Use instead 
pieces of soft old toweling, or cheese 

cloth which can be balled up in the 
hand. As soon as the baby can sit 
up, obtain a small bath tub or use 
a wash tub. If the water is neither 
too cold nor too warm, the child 
will always enjoy its bath. The rea- 
son that some children do not like 

Bathing the hahy. 

the bath is because they have been 
put into water that is too hot or 
too cold. Remember that an infant 
does not react quicldy from a cold 
bath and is depressed or injured by 
water that seems only slightly cool 
to an adult. Children's skin is very 
sensitive and the baby must not be 
permitted to take cold. It should 
be bathed in a room warmed to a 
temperature of at least 75° and care- 
fully guarded against drafts. 

A cold bath indoors or outdoor 
fresh water or surf bathing, should 
not be permitted under three years. 
A child of two years may be allowed 
to run about on the sand with its 
bare feet and occasionally step in 
the water, but much harm has been 
done by immersing young babies in 
cold water. It is a good plan to 
sponge the neck and feet of a baby 
over twelve months old with cold 
water at night and follow with brisk 
rubbing. This in many cases will 
prevent its taking cold. 

Take good care of the baby's skin. 
If it is irritated the baby will be un- 



comfortable, and will tend to become 
fretful and unhealthy. Buy only the 
purest kind of soap for the baby's 
bath and use it sparingly. The green 
castile Zanti soap is the best and 
can be procured through your drug- 
gist. If this is not available, white 
castile soap is the next choice. Do 
not use soap if the skin is irritated 
or raw. Place a cheese cloth bag 
containing a teacup ful of bran 
in the baby's bath and squeeze it 
until the water becomes slightly 

On very warm days, sponge the 
baby two to four times with luke- 
warm water in which dissolve a little 
salt in the proportion of a teaspoon 
to each pint, or use a like amount of 
alcohol (not wood alcohol) instead 
of salt. For nettle rash or "prickly 
heat" bathe the a:ffected skin with 
water containing a teaspoonful of 
baking soda or a tablespoonful of 
vinegar, but remember that rough- 
ened or inflamed skin may be the 
sign of infectious disease. If it 
does not yield to this treatment con- 
sult your physician. 

If the baby has fever, sponge it 
in cool vinegar water every two or 
three hours and place cool wet cloths 
on its 'head. Sponge the baby when- 
ever the diapers are changed. Take 
especial care to cleanse the creases 
of the body, particularly after move- 
ments of the bowels. Dry the skin 
thoroughly after sponging and if 
talcum powder is used, buy only the 

Don't let the baby crawl on a dirty 
floor where it may pick up the germs 
of tuberculosis or other disease and 
transmit them to its mouth. Keep 
the floor clean and wash the baby's 
hands after crawling. 

Care of the Mouth. — Wash out 
the mouth at least twice a day with 
a soft clean cloth wet in water con- 
taining a teaspoonful of borax or 
baking soda to the pint, but never 
put your fingers in the baby's mouth 
without first wasliing them. Don't 
let the baby put dogs or cats close to 
its mouth. 

Fresh Air. — Fresh air is as im- 
portant to the baby's health as fresh 
food. Children, like growing plants, 
thrive best in the open air. Keep 
the baby in the largest, coolest, best 
ventilated room you have. Screen 
the windows and doors against flies 

Keep the hahy cool. 

and destroy those that get in. Also 
protect the baby from flies, mos- 
quitoes and other insects by screens 
and mosquito netting. Insects often 
carry the germs of malaria, typhoid 
and other contagious diseases. Keep 
the room clean and free from gar- 
bage, soiled clothes and rubbish. Even 
in winter and in cold climates, the 
airing of the baby's room may be 
begun when he is not more than a 
month old. Thereafter the windows 
may be kept open for a gradually 
lengthened period of time from a 
few minutes to an hour or several 
hours at a time depending on the 
weather. Protect the baby when 
thus exposed to the fresh air by put- 
ting on his bonnet and coat the same 
as for an airing out of doors. If 
thus habituated to fresh air the baby 
is much less liable to colds than if 
reared in foul or stagnant air. 

In summer keep as little fire as 
possible. In very hot weather keep 
the doors and windows wide open 
night and day. Always keep one or 
more windows open in the baby's 
sleeping room winter and summer, 
night and day, and whether the baby 
is sick or well, as soon as it has 
been projoerly accustomed to fresh 
air. Some ignorant persons have a 



superstition that night air is injuri- 
ous to health. Night air is the only 
kind of air there is at night and 
fresh outdoor air is far more whole- 
some than that which has been shut 
up in the house and breathed over 
and over again. In summer sleep 
out of doors with the baby if you 

Keep the baby out of the kitchen 
or other overheated rooms, especially 

Keep the hahy outdoors in summer. 

if you are cooking or washing. Take 
it out of doors in the early morning 
when the air is free from dust, and 
if the weather is good keep it out of 
doors, if you can, all day. Avoid 
the sun on hot days. Keep on the 
shady side of the street, under the 
trees, or in some shady place. Walk 
and move around slowly. Have a 
basket for the baby to sleep in, which 
you can hang up outdoors in some 
shady place away from dust and 
sudden winds. But when you place 
the baby in the shade be very care- 
ful to alter its position as the sun 
moves around. Be careful not to 
let the sun shine on the baby's eyes. 
Its sight may be injured if it is 
left staring up into the hot sun. 
During the fly season see that the 
baby is covered with a suitable net. 
Keep it away from crowds and 
crowded places. Babies are very sus- 
ceptible to the germs of contagious 

A trip to the country for city ba- 
bies, or any change to a higher alti- 
tude or cooler climate, may save the 

baby's life if summer complaint or 
diarrhoea should set in during the 
heat of midsummer. Choose pre- 
ferably some place near a large body 
of water. An ideal spot is a heavy 
wooded region on the banks of a 
lake or bay. Too much sunshine is 
harmful — natural shade is necessary 
to health and comfort. Even a few 
hours in the park every day or two 
may save the life of a baby living 
in a crowded city. When traveling 
with a sick baby, carry sufficient food 
— cow's milk, condensed milk or other 
manufactured foods — to last the 
baby during the trip. Also carry a 
supply of pure or boiled water for 
the baby to drink and for use in 
mixing its food. There is a travel- 
ing basket on the market lined with 
metal and felt, or mineral wool, 
which contains chambers for ice and 
milk bottles. In this, milk can be 
kept the same as in a refrigerator. 
This basket will also carry an alco- 
hol stove and supply of alcohol, ex- 

Traveling haslcet for iahy's food. 

tra nipples, brushes and other acces- 
sories to the nursing bottle. 

Sleep and Rest. — Under no circum- 
stances should a baby sleep with its 
mother, nurse or any other person. 
Very young babies have often been 
smothered by their mothers over- 
lying them in sleep. There is also a 
temptation to frequent nursing at 
night which is harmful to both the 



baby and mother. If there is no 
crib, a bed for the baby may be 
made up on a couple of chairs at 
the mother's bedside. The baby will 
be much more comfortable in such 
a bed and will neither disturb others 
nor be disturbed. The backs of the 
chairs will keep the baby from fall- 
ing. A Morris chair makes a good 
substitute for an infant's crib and 
can be utilized during the daytime. 
Lay the back down flat with some- 
thing under it for a support and use 
the cushions as a mattress. 

The Baby's Bed. — ^The best kind 
of a bed for a baby is a mattress 
made of excelsior covered with 
cheese cloth. A good quality of ex- 
celsior may be obtained at any fur- 
niture store or factory for a few 
cents, and cheese cloth may be found 
in any dry goods store at three or 
four cents a yard. Such a bed is al- 
ways cool, clean and comfortable. It 
helps the child to keep strong and 
well and free from colds and coughs. 
Should it become soiled, the excel- 
sior can be removed, the cover 
washed and another cover stuffed 
with excelsior substituted. This bed 
is highly recommended for sick chil- 
dren, especially in summer months. 
If an ordinary mattress is used it 
should be firm and hard. 

Never put a baby to sleep on a 
feather pillow or lay it on a rubber 
cloth or oil cloth upon a bed. Such 
beds overheat the baby's back and 
head, so that when taken up it is 
wet with sweat, and very apt to take 
cold. Never use feather pillows. 
Provide a crib for the baby and let 
it sleep alone at night. Keep the 
bed and bed clothes scrupulously 
clean. Change them promptly if they 
become soiled. Cover the bed or crib 
with mosquito netting. Flies not 
only make the baby restless, but may 
communicate the germs of malaria, 
typhoid, or other contagious dis- 

Sleep and Naps.— Let the baby 
sleep all it will. Authorities differ 
as to whether or not a well child 
should be awakened from its nap to 

be fed at its regular feeding time. 
The prevailing opinion seems to be 
that the child should be allowed to 
awaken naturally, but that, if put 
down for its naps at regular hours 
and not handled or disturbed, it will 
sleep about the same length of time 
each day and can thus be trained in 
regular habits of sleep which will not 
interfere with the regularity of its 
feedings or turn night into day. Ba- 
bies under three years of age should 
have regular two-hour naps morning 
and afternoon. Up to six months old 
they should have eighteen hours' sleep 
and thereafter at least twelve hours' 
sleep at night, besides the daily naps. 
Older children should have at least 
one nap during the day. The want 
of sufficient sleep is a very serious 
hindrance to the child's growth and 
development. Get the baby into the 
habit of going to sleep without being 
held or rocked. This is much better 
for the baby and saves time for the 
mother or other members of the fam- 
ily. Lay the baby down in a suitable 
place and let it alone. Children 
often cry when put down to sleep. 
If they are let alone and not handled 
or talked to they stop crying 
and go to sleep. Don't fear that 
the baby will rupture itself by 
crying. Don't keep a child at the 
breast or bottle while putting it to 

Handling. — When the baby is 
awake don't get it into the habit of 
being held by its mother or other 
children. Most babies suffer because 
they are used to amuse older people 
and are forced to laugl- or are tossed 
about and excited when they need to 
rest or be quiet. Constant holding 
and passing from one arm to the 
other tend to make the baby fret- 
ful, cross and sick. No man or 
woman would like to be held, tossed 
or tumbled around for several hours 
daily by a much larger person. This 
is just what frequently happens to 
the child. He likes to play by him- 
self. Therefore, let him alone with 
some one to watch him, and don't 
handle him, 



Quieting- the Baby. — Never give a 
child soothing sirup to make him 
sleep. Such preparations contain 
some form of opium or other poison- 
ous, habit-forming drugs. Don't let 
it suck a nipple, "comforter" or 
"pacifier." All artificial devices for 
quieting babies are harmful. Paci- 
fiers often cause thrush or other in- 
fections of the mouth. Their use 
causes a constant flow of saliva 
which interferes with digestion. They 
sometimes cause deformities of the 
mouth and teeth, and may lead to 
the habit of sucking the fingers. 
They are wholly unnecessary and 
their use should be discontinued. 

Standing and Walking. — The free 
use of the muscles is essential to 
health even in early infancy. Do not 
swathe the baby's limbs so closely as 
to prevent their movements. Even in 
the early months it is a good plan, 
under proper conditions of warmth, 
to take off babies' outer wraps and let 
them kick. It is good for them. Do 
not encourage the baby to stand or 
try to teach it to walk. It will walk 
when it gets ready. The bones of an 
infant are plastic and if its weight 
is thrown upon them too soon there 
will be danger of bow-legs or other 
deformities. It is a mistake to en- 
courage a child to stand or walk too 
early. Few babies can walk at twelve 
months and none should be allowed to 
do so. 


If you love your baby nurse it. Its 
chance for life will be nearly ten 
times greater than the chance of the 
bottle-fed baby. Nursing will also 
lay the foundations of a good con- 
stitution with which to resist the at- 
tacks of summer complaint, consump- 
tion, convulsions and rickets (bow- 
legs), and the contagious diseases of 
infancy. Children never fully re- 
cover from the efi'ects of a lack of 
proper nourishment during the first 
few months of life. Tlie chief ad- 
vantage of breast feeding over bottle 
feeding is that breast milli is the 

cleanest milk obtainable. Taken di- 
rectly from the maternal breast to 
the stomach of the infant the natural 
food of infancy is not exposed to 
anything that might contaminate or 
pollute it. Careful observation shows 
that it is not the hot weather itself 
that causes the high mortality among 
infants in summer, for breast-fed 
babies do not die excessively in hot 
weather. The difference is due to the 
freedom of breast milk from the 
micro-organisms, or germs in dirty 
cow's milk, which cause intestinal dis- 
ease. Even the difference in the 
composition of breast mUk and bot- 

The lahy's iirtJiright. 

tie milk seems to play a very minor 
role in the high summer death rate, 
because in the winter there is very 
little difference in the death rate as 
between breast-fed and bottle-fed ba- 

There is no perfect substitute for 
mother's milk. The milk of the cow, 
goat, and other animals, condensed, 
milk, and the artificial manufactured 
foods so widely advertised, are un- 
natural and unsatisfactory make- 
shifts. Even the milk of the wet 
nurse will not agree with the infant 
as well as that of its mother. All of 
these substitutes have been often an- 
alyzed and tlie difference between 
them and the natural food of infancy 
is clearly understood. The milk of 
the she ass and the mare most closely 
resemble that of women through their 



percentage of casein. Cow's milk 
comes next. Goat's milk holds only 
the fourth place. It has no advan- 
tage over cow's milk. Condensed 
milk contains too much sugar, and 
not enough fat. None of the manu- 
factured foods most commonly used 
contain suiiicient fat; some contain 
too much starch, others too much 
sugar. At times some of these sub- 
stitutes may be used to advantage, 
but none of them can take the place 
of mother's milk, nor be safely used 

Almost every mother can nurse her 
baby if she will. Even though there 
is but little milk at first, don't be- 
come discouraged; be patient and try, 
try again. There are very few moth- 
ers whose breasts will not give suf- 
ficient milk if they will encourage the 
baby to suck. This keeps the milk 
flowing and increases the flow. Even 
though you feel weak, you can nurse 
the baby without danger to yourself. 
Only a few serious diseases forbid 
nursing. If you are in doubt, con- 
sult your doctor. His advice is bet- 
ter than that of your neighbors or 

Even though the breast milk is 
scanty, you should cherish it as you 
value yoiy baby's life and health. A 
single swallow of such food is better 
than nothing. In such a case do not 
alternate the breast with the bottle 
feeding. This will tend to let the 
breasts dry up. Nurse regularly to 
the extent of the supply, and if re- 
quired, immediately make up the 
shortage at each feeding from the 

Care of the Nursing Mother. — A 
nursing mother must keep herself 
well in order to keep her baby well. 
Breast-fed babies often vomit or 
have diarrhcea because the mother is 
sick or tired out, or because the milk 
is poor. Causes which weaken the 
mother and injure her milk are im- 
proper food, irregular meals, exhaus- 
tion from over-work or lack of sleep, 
and too frequent or prolonged nurs- . 
ing. Mothers must not overwork, 
worry, or get over-heated. They 

should sleep as much as possible, and 
preferably outdoors, or in rooms with 
windows wide open. The above 
causes may render the milk less nu- 
tritious or even dangerous. They act 
especially in hot weather. If you 
feel that you cannot nurse your baby 
or think that you ought not to do so, 
consult your doctor before using any 
kind of artificial food. There are 
cases in which it is better to remove 
the baby from the breast, but the 
dangers are such that the mother 
should not assume this responsibility 
but should be guided by the doctor's 

Nursing mothers should therefore 
keep themselves well and their milk 
in good condition, by eating at regu- 
lar hours three plain, well-cooked 
meals a day, consisting of milk, meat, 
v^etables and cereals. They should 
drink freely between meals of pure 
cold water. The notion that large 
quantities of tea, coff^ee and beer im- 
prove the quality of the mother's 
milk is mistaken. Beer and tea are 
always harmful and large quantities 
are positively dangerous. Mothers 
should keep their bowels regular. 
Constipation in a nursing mother 
often causes colic in her child. If the 
mother is ill or run down, or the 
baby has diarrhoea and vomiting, she 
should consult a doctor at once, and 
before giving the baby other foods or 
bottle feeding. 

Diet of the Nursing Mother. — 
Both the quantity and the quality of 
the mother's milk may be improved 
by improving her health and by modi- 
fication of her diet. 

The first rule of a good diet for 
the nursing mother is that it must 
agree with her and keep her in a 
good state of health. Hence a diet 
adopted to increase the quantity or 
quality of the milk must not be ad- 
hered to unless it proves wholesome 
to the mother. Some foods, as toma- 
toes, strawberries and lettuce, which 
may be eaten by some nursing moth- 
ers without aff'ecting their babies, 
cannot be eaten by others. For most 
mothers these fresh foods are of 



great value and may be eaten freely. 
The mother must be in good health 
to produce good milk. 

The quantity of the milk may be 
increased by the use of liquid foods. 
Drink plenty of pure water and good 
rich milk. A quart or more of milk 
a day may often be taken to advan- 
tage. The diet may be varied by the 
use of tea, coffee (taken sparingly), 
cocoa and soup, in addition to milk. 
Take care not to brew tea and coffee 
long enough to extract from them the 
tannin, caffein and other harmful 
substances they contain. Never boil 
tea or put the teapot over the fire. 
Simply put in the tea and pour boil- 
ing water over it. Pour as soon as 
it is strong enough, which will be in 
about three minutes. Do not allow 
coffee to boil. Use preferably a cof- 
fee percolator and remove from the 
fire as soon as it begins to boil. 
Drink freely of pure water, but avoid 
all sour, salt or highly spiced foods 
and alcoholic drinks of all kinds. 
Also avoid saline purgatives (salts) — 
they are highly injurious. 

Quality of Mother's Milk.— If the 
breast milk is plentiful and of good 
quality, yet fails to nourish the in- 
fant, a change of the mother's diet 
and habits will be found to give ex- 
cellent results. The richness of the 
milk may be increased by eating 
plenty of meat, eggs, animal broths, 
and other animal foods; or decreased 
by omitting or decreasing these foods 
and by eating freely of fruits and 
cereals. If the infant does not in- 
crease in weight, the use of fats and 
oils by the mother will soon cause 

Roth's Rules for Influencing 
Breast Milk. — To increase the total 
quantity, increase proportionately the 
liquids in the mother's diet and en- 
courage her to believe that she will 
be enabled to nurse her infant; or to 
decrease the quantity, decrease the 
liquids proportionately. 

To increase the total solids, shorten 
the nursing intervals and decrease the 
exercise and the proportion of liquids 
in the mother's diet. To decrease the 

total solids, prolong the nursing in- 
tervals and increase the exercise and 
the proportion of liquid diet. To in- 
crease the fats, increase the propor- 
tion of meat in the diet and of the 
fats which are in a readily digestible 
form. To decrease the fats, decrease 
the proportion of meat and fat in the 
diet. To increase the proteids, de- 
crease the exercise; or to decrease 
the proteids, increase the exercise up 
to the limit of fatigue for the indi- 

When to Nurse. — The mother's 
milk does not always come immedi- 
ately after the birth of the child. 
Sometimes it is unusually late in 
coming. In these cases, the rule 
should be to wait and be sure before 
resorting to bottle feeding. Take the 
advice of the family doctor. This is 
too serious a matter to be settled off- 
hand and without the best advice. 
Sometimes a good flow of milk is not 
established until the fourth, fifth or 
sixth day. Some young mothers 
make the serious mistake of giving 
other food to their babies during this 
time. It may be taken for granted 
that nature's method cannot be im- 
proved upon. The baby will not 
starve. If it is given anything ex- 
cept the mother's milk, it may be seri- 
ously injured. Put the child to the 
breast every six hours the first day, 
and every four hours the second day 
after birth, or oftener if it fails to 
nurse or obtain nourishment. But 
do not awaken it to nurse. Undis- 
turbed rest is what it needs. In the 
interval between nursings give it a 
clean linen rag moistened with pure, 
boiled water to suck. After the milk 
comes, usually from the third day 
on, the frequency of nursing during 
the first year is shown in the follow- 
ing table from Holt: 

■ "^^9^^^ Interval nursings 
'^^ by day. (10 p. m. 




1st and 2d day.. 4 6 hrs. 

3 days to 6 wks.. .10 2 

6 wks. to 3 mos... 8 2^ 

3 to 5 months .... 7 3 

5 to 12 months ... 6 3 



After the third day and for the 
next six weeks, nurse tlie baby every 
two hours during the day time, and 
not more than twice at night, or a 
total of not more than ten nursings 
in the twenty-four hours. The 
healthy child will take one or more 
naps each day. It should not be 
awakened for feeding, but aside from 
this should be fed regularly every 
two hours. 

The interval between nursings may 
be increased from the sixth week to 
the third month to two and one-half 
hours with one nursing at night, or a 
total of eight nursings in twenty- 
four hours. The interval may be fur- 
ther increased to three hours during 
the day time with one nursing at night 
from the third to the fifth month. 
From the fifth to the twelfth month 
the times of feeding remain the same, 
but the night feeding should be dis- 
continued. If the child wakes up in 
the night, give it a drink of cooled 
boiled water, or thin barley water 
without milk. It needs nothing more. 
After a short time, if it is well, it will 
sleep through the night. 

It is easy to get the baby into good 
habits, and hard to get it out of bad 
habits. By adopting regular habits 
of nursiij.g, the mother is given more 
freedom and more rest and is in bet- 
ter condition to take good care of her 
child. Form the habit of nursing 
your baby by the clock. It will soon 
learn to expect its nursing at the 
proper time, and not at any other 
time. It is a good plan to write on 
a slip of paper a memorandum of 
the hours for nursing with the date 
on which the hours are to be changed 
to longer intervals, and also which 
breast is to be used at each nursing. 
It is much better to use but one 
breast at each feeding alternating, 
than to let the baby nurse at both 
breasts at each feeding. Such a 
memorandum during the first six 
weeks would read: 

Right, 5 A. M.; Left, 7 A. M.; 
Right, 9 A. M.; Left, 11 A. M.^ 
Right, 1 P. M. ; Left, 3 P. M. ; Right, 
5 P. M.; Left, 7 P. M-; Right, 9 

P. M. ; Change to 21 hours between 
nursings on (date). 

Do not nurse except at the regular 
intervals. It is a great, but very 
common mistake to put the baby to 
the breast every time it cries. It is 
more likely to be thirsty or suff^ering 
from over-feeding than to be hungry. 
Give it a drink of water, but do not 
nurse it until the regular time. If 
you nurse oftener, your milk will be- 
come unfit. Babies when nursed too 
often or whenever they cry get in- 
digestion and then cry harder from 
pain. If a baby is not sick or un- 
comfortable from heat or from the 
pricking of a pin, it will get no 
harm from crying. Indeed, every 
baby shoidd cry during the day. It 
helps to develop its lungs. Crying, 
especially during the first few days 
of life is perfectly natural, and often 
beneficial. It does not necessarily in- 
dicate illness or hunger at any time, 
and food or medicine should not be 
given merely because the child cries. 

The nursing should not last more 
than twenty minutes. Never let the 
baby go to sleep with the nipple in 
its mouth. Never nurse the baby 
when you are very tired or very much 
wrought up with grief, anger, or 
other very strong emotion. Your , 
milk under such conditions will often 
be unfit for food. It may give the 
baby convulsions. In such cases it 
is often better to draw off the milk 
and give the infant some other food 
until you regain self control. Do 
not take drugs while nursing your 
baby, except by the direction of your 
physician. Opium, senna, rhubarb, 
and some other drugs may affect the 
milk so as to poison the child. 

Care of Nursing Bottles. — If the 
baby must be fed from a bottle abso- 
lute sanitary cleanliness is the price 
of safety. A baby cannot get clean 
milk out of a dirtj'' bottle or through 
a dirty nipple. Sore mouth, colic 
and summer complaint often come 
from improper care of bottles and 
nipples. It is true that some babies 
have lived in filthy surroundings and 
survived dirty food, but it is equally 



true that others have been killed by 
them. The only safe course is to take 
no chances. It is better to be safe 
than to be sorry. 

Clean the nursing bottle immedi- 
ately after each feeding. First rinse 
with clear cold water. Hot water 
changes the casein of milk into an in- 
soluble glue which is very hard to 
wash off. Stale milk curds sticking 
to the inside of the bottle become 
jioisonous after a few hours and may 
contaminate fresh food. After rins- 
ing, put the bottle to soak in soda 
or borax water or soap suds. Finally, 
scrub the inside with a clean wire or 
other bottle brush ; rinse with hot wa- 
ter and boil for twenty minutes. Turn 
the bottle upside down in a clean dish 
without wiping, and place in a clean 
place to dry and cool. Or, prefer- 
ably fill the bottle with clean boiled 

There's death in the dirty bottle. 

water and a little piece of cooking 
soda the size of a pea and let the 
water stand in the bottle until the 
next feeding. Never let the bottle 
stand with milk in it. Never try to 
save what is left from one feeding 
until the next. 

Nursing Bottles. — Never use 
square or paneled bottles. Sour milk 
and dirt cannot be removed from the 

corners. This lilth remaining will 
afterwards contaminate the fresh 
food. Also avoid nursing bottles 
with tubes of either glass or rub- 
ber. They may be handy for you, 
but they are death to your baby. In- 
digestion and bowel comialaint are the 

(a) Avoid corners or a tube; {b) use a 
bottle like this. 

result. Their use cannot be too 
strongly condemned. They cannot be 
jjroperly cleaned and milk taken 
through them, especially in hot 
weather, soon becomes filthy and ab- 
solutely poisonous to the infant. 
Square bottles and nursing tubes are 
baby killers and their sale has been 
forbidden in many states by law. Se- 
lect bottles with round corners and 
with the kind of nipple that fits over 
the neck and can be turned and 
washed both inside and out. Nip- 
ples of black rubber are better than 
those of white or red. 

No person ailing or sick with a 
contagious disease, or who is known 
or suspected of having been exposed 
to such diseases, should be allowed to 
touch or come near the baby's milk 
or other food, or any of the utensiis 
in which it is prepared or served. A 
small cluster of bactei'ia from a con- 
taminated finger may develop to a 
colony of several billions in a bottle 
of warm milk within a short time. 

Care of Hubber Nipples. — Use the 
kind of nipple which is slipped over 
the neck of the bottle. Have at least 
two nipples, or preferably buy a 
half dozen at a time and keep some 
on hand to replace those that are lost 
or injured. After each feeding, turn 
the nipple inside out, rinse with cold 



water, and scrub with a brush kept 
for that purpose. Wash thoroughly 
with hot water inside and out, and 
drop into a cup containing about a 
teaspoonful of soda or borax to tlie 
pint of water, until needed for use. 
Boil the nipple at least once daily for 
twenty minutes while the milk bot- 
tles are being boiled. Rinse the nip- 

(a) Brush for cleaning hottle; (b) use 
a bottle and nipple like this; (c) 
don't use a "baby killer" like this. 

pie in boiling water before using it. 
Don't py.t it into your mouth to find 
out whether the milk is warm enough, 
nor let the nurse do so. To test its 
temperature, let a few drops of milk 
fall on your wrist. 

Weaning. — Ask your doctor how 
long you ought to nurse your baby. 
It will depend partly upon your state 
of health, and partly upon the season 
of the year. Some mothers ought to 
wean their infants at six months, 
others may nurse them a full year. 
The average is about nine or ten 
months. Nursing the child too long 
is an unnecessary drain upon the 
mother. There is also great danger 
of injury to the child. Don't wean 
your baby as long as he is gaining in 
weight, and never do so except by 
the advice of your physician. His 
advice is better than that of your 
neighbors. If the baby remains well 
but stops gaining weight, don't con- 

clude that your milk does not agree 
with it. Consult your physician 
about the use of some artificial food 
to help you out. Wean gradually by 
giving one breast meal less each 
week and teach the baby to drink 
from a cup or bottle. This is better 
for the baby. Sudden weaning is 
apt to cause serious illness. 

With the advice and consent of 
your physician, you may begin dur- 
ing the fifth or sixth month to teach 
the baby to take food and water from 
a bottle. Thus the baby will be fed 
for some time with both breast milk 
and artificial food, and there will be 
time for his stomach to adjust itself 
to the change. This plan will ma- 
terially decrease both the difficulties 
and dangers of weaning. It also 
helps you to extend the period of 
nursing. Every drop of breast milk 
the baby gets adds to his health and 
strength as no other food ever can. 

In changing from breast milk to 
cow's milk, the milk used first should 
be very much diluted and modified 
unless the baby has been given a bot- 
tle in addition to the mother's milk. 
In weaning a six months old baby 
give the milk usually given to an in- 
fant one month old. If the baby is 
ten months old, give the milk usually 
given to a three months old baby. 

Wet Nurses. — A true foster moth- 
er in good health and spirits and 
equally as devoted to the welfare of 
the child as though it were her own, 
would be the ideal substitute for an 
infant deprived of its mother's milk. 
In practice, there are so many objec- 
tions to the employment of the wet 
nurse that this plan is by no means 
as popular as in years past. The 
cost for board and wages is consid- 
erable and the difficulty of finding a 
suitable person is very great. The 
mother who yields her natural func- 
tion to another must remember that 
if the nurse is not perfectly healthy 
she may infect the child with disease; 
if careless and ignorant, she may 
cause the death of the child through 
neglect; and if her own baby should 
chance to suffer through her emi^loy- 



ment, she may grieve or become so 
nervously excited as to make her milk 
unwholesome. She may also leave 
at any moment without warning. 
Hence, a wet nurse should never be 
hired unless she is known to be re- 
liable and of good moral character 
and is pronounced by a competent 
physician to be free from disease. 
Inquiries should be made as to the 
circumstances surrounding her own 
child. Reasonable assurance should 
be had that she is likely to be free 
from anxiety or worry. 

The same care should be devoted to 
the nurse's habits of life and diet as 
the nursing mother should exercise in 
her own behalf. As a rule it is nec- 
essary that the nurse should have the 
sort of food and the amount of exer- 
cise to which she has previously been 
accustomed, rather than that she be 
fed upon rich foods and suffered to 
lead a life of idleness. 


All doctors of experience agree 
that the problem of the artificial 
feeding of infants is one of the most 
serious which they are called upon to 
face. Some babies have to be put on 
the bottle at birth or during the first 
few weeks or months of life. All 
must be weaned sooner or later. 
Hence, this is a problem which must 
be worked out for every single child. 
There are certain facts and princi- 
ples which every mother should know, 
because they are of equal importance 
in all cases. But every mother should 
clearly understand that no set of 
rules can be laid down which will be 
adapted in all respects to any child. 
Each baby needs a combination suited 
to his digestion. The mixture upon 
which some other baby is thriving 
may be too strong or too weak for 
your baby. The only way to learn 
what food will agree with your baby 
is by experience. The facts and 
principles herein stated are condensed 
from the official publications of 
boards of health throughout the 
United States. They may be relied 

upon as the consensus of the best 
medical opinion. But if your baby 
does not thrive upon artificial food 
prepared as here suggested, you 
should consult your family physician 
and be guided by his advice. 

It is much better for her own 
health as well as that of the child 
for the mother to nurse her own 
baby. It is also much easier and 
cheaper. Milk and other artificial 
food is expensive and so is the ice 
to keep it properly. And much time 
and trouble is required for preparing 
the food. Hence it is almost a crim- 
inal folly for a mother to refuse to 
nurse her baby, unless the physician 
advises her that it is unsafe for her 
to do so. Good artificial food is, 
however, better than bad breast feed- 
ing. Sometimes the mother or the 
infant may be actually imable to 
nurse. The milk may continue to 
disagree with the infant; it may be 
insufficient in quantity or deficient in 
quality properly to nourish the child; 
or the health of the infant's mother 
may require weaning. 

If the milk is good in quality, but 
insufficient in quantity, it is far bet- 
ter to continue the breast feeding 
and to give the baby some artificial 
food in addition, to help the mother 
out. Mother's milk is not only the 
most easily digested and the most nu- 
tritious of all baby foods. It con- 
tains a ferment such that a very 
small quantity helps to digest a 
larger quantity of cow's milk. It also 
contains certain antitoxin substances 
which afford a large degree of pro- 
tection against diarrhceal diseases, the 
ordinary infectious diseases, and some 
others. Hence, even if the supply of 
breast milk is not sufficient for the 
total nourishment of the child, this 
partial supply is of such great value 
that it should be kept up as long as 

Even when the mother's milk has 
nearly disappeared it may sometimes 
be brought back. If the inclination 
of the child has not been spoiled by 
feeding from a cup or spoon it will, 
by regular application to the breast. 



help to stimulate the secretion of 
milk. The flow can also be encour- 
aged by proper attention to the diet. 
But if the mother is suffering from 
disease which impairs the healthful- 
ness of the milk, breast feeding 
must be wholly discontinued and ar- 
tificial food adopted. 

When Not to Nurse. — When the 
mother is consumptive or sufi^ers 
from any other chronic disease or is 
very delicate, nursing may be too se- 
vere a drain upon her and may be 
unwholesome for the child. Nursing 
a consumptive mother is not only 
dangerous to the child; it may hasten 
the progress of the mother's disease 
and make fatal its termination. 
Breast feeding is also out of the 
question when serious complications 
follow the child's birth, such as se- 
vere hemorrhage, childbed fever, 
blood poisoning, kidney disease, or 
when the mother suff"ers from epi- 
lepsy or St. Vitus Dance, or other 
chronic nervous affliction. 

Contrary to common opinion the 
nursing mother may become preg- 
nant, in which case her baby should 
be promptly weaned. The milk is 
then deficient in quality and to con- 
tinue nursing may work irreparable 
injury to- both mother and child. The 
importance of this fact cannot be 
over-estimated, as some mothers from 
a mistaken opinion to the contrary 
nurse their children for several 
months after they should be weaned 
and suffer the most unfortunate con- 

The menstruation of the mother 
does not affect the milk as much as 
usually believed. It may cause slight 
indigestion, but is not sufficient rea- 
son to stop nursing. Extreme sensi- 
tiveness of the breasts to the point of 
intense pain in nursing is not a good 
reason for discontinuing. Persistence 
for a few days will allow nature time 
to effect a cure. 


Cow's milk undiluted and unmodi- 
fied is entirely unfit for infants un- 

der one year old, but when properly 
diluted and mixed it is the best sub- 
stitute for mother's milk. Cow's 
milk must be diluted on account of 
its richness in curds. The cheesy 
matter it contains forms large curds 
in the child's stomach which are 
harder to digest than the smaller 
curds in mother's milk. Hence it is 
necessary to dilute the cow's milk, 
both to lessen the amount of cheesy 
matter and to break up the curds 
into small particles so that the child 
can digest the milk more easily. 
When diluted, however, it contains 
too little fats and sugar. Hence 
after dilution, it is necessary to add 
cream and sugar to the milk. This 
process imitates the milk of the 
mother as nearly as can be done. It 
is commonly known as milk modifica- 
tion. Milk so treated is called modi- 
fied milk. This is now accepted by 
all authorities as the best food for 
the infant deprived of breast milk. 
Cow's milk can be diluted either by 
water, by decoctions of cereals such 
as barley or oatmeal, or, toward the 
end of the first year, by beef or mut- 
ton broth. Both oatmeal and beef 
broth have a tendency to loosen the 
bowels. Changes have to be made 
from time to time to suit the infant's 
digestion. Your physician will ad- 
vise you as to how this can be done. 
Good cow's milk contains about 
four per cent of butter fat and may 
be called 4% milk. After- standing 

(a) Upper third 10% milk; (&) upper 
Jialf 7%; (c) ifJwle milk i%. Courtesy 
State Board of Health of Illinois. 

until the cream rises to the top, th? 
upper third of a bottle of good milk 



contains ten per cent of butter fat. 
This is called 10% milk, or cream. 
The upper half contains seven per 
cent of butter fat and is known 
as 7% milk. Always buy whole 
milk, i. e., 4% milk, never skimmed 

Materials Required for Milk Mix- 
ing". — It is good economy to equip 
yourself at the outset with a full set 
of proper utensils for mixing the 
baby's milk. The best are none too 
good. The whole cost will hardly 
equal the doctor's fees which may re- 
sult from a single illness due to im- 
proper feeding. You will require an 
eight-ounce glass graduate, a glass 
funnel, a cream dipper, a dozen nurs- 
ing bottles, a half dozen black rubber 
nipjiles, and three bottle brushes for 
washing out the bottles. If you buy 
milk in bottles and measure it in a 
glass graduate you will not need to 
use pitchers, cups, or other measures. 
But whatever utensils you do use for 
mixing the baby's food should be 
kept by themselves, washed separate- 
ly, boiled and drained without wip- 
ing, and not jjut into the dish water 
or wiped with a dish towel in the 
ordinary way. 

The Materna Measure. — This is a 
sixteen-ounce measure with six panel 
sides. It affords a simple means of 
milk mixing in the home. On each 
side is marked the exact amount of 
sugar, lime water, water, milk and 
cream to be used in feeding. The 
six panels are labeled to measure the 
food suitable to as many ages of in- 
fancy. If your druggist does not 
carry this measure in stock ask hiin 
to order one for you. It will help 
you to avoid making mistakes. 

All utensils used in preparing 
baby food should be of glass, china, 
porcelain or granite-ironware. These 
will not rust nor present crevices for 
the accumulation of dirt. Never use 
vessels or utensils which are cracked 
or have rough edges or surfaces. Se- 
lect nursing bottles with round bot- 
toms and free from angles. The best 
l)ottles are marked with a scale of 
ounces so that the exact ajnount 

given may be measured at each feed- 
ing. It is advisable to purchase a 
dozen bottles because it is much more 
convenient to mix in the morning 
the food for the entire day. Put 
enough for each feeding in a sepa- 

(a) Bent stijle of nursing bottle; (6) 
materna measure. 

rate bottle and then place the bottles 
on ice. Ten feedings will be re- 
quired for small infants and it is 
well to have extra bottles on hand in 
case of breakage. Fewer bottles may 
be used, but no mother should at- 
temjjt to get along with less than 
two. It is better to have plenty of 
bottles so that the same bottles will 
not have to be used too frequently. 


Water. — The purity of water with 
which infants' food is diluted is 
equally as important as the purity 
of the milk. The benefits of clean 
milk are entirely lost if it is diluted 
with dirty -water. Pure spring water, 
which can be purchased in bottles in 
many localities, is to be preferred for 
diluting infants' food, but if it is 
necessary to use water from cisterns, 
wells, or streams of doubtful purity. 



boil the water for half an hour and 
store it in clean glass bottles stop- 
pered with cotton wool or antiseptic 
gauze. Do not allow it to stand over 
six hours. 

Lime Water. — Lime water is used 
to overcome the acidity of cow's milk 
and to lessen the consistency of the 
curd. There are some infants with 
whom it does not agree, and if used 
too freely it may cause constipation. 
Vichy water is a good substitute for 
lime water and should be used if the 
latter does not agree. Either can be 
obtained from a druggist. But in 
buying material of any kind for in- 
fant feeding, patronize only drug- 
gists in whom you can have con- 
fidence. Some unscrupulous drug- 
gists sell ordinary unfiltered tap 
water for lime water. 

Sugar. — Sugar is not added to 
cow's milk to sweeten it and make it 
more palatable, but to make it con- 
form as nearly as possible to moth- 
er's milk. Milk sugar is best if you 
can get a pure article from a reliable 
druggist. But milk sugar often con- 
tains impurities. Hence, unless you 
are very sure of the reliability of 
your dealer, use cane sugar; this is 
rarely adulterated or impure. Loaf 
sugar i^ the purest form of sugar 
and among the purest of all foods. 
Use only half the quantity of 
cane sugar that you would of milk 

Barley Water. — This is often used 
in diluting milk for infant feeding 
to make the curds of milk more eas- 
ily digestible. Barley flour * is pref- 
erable to pearl barley. To make 
barley water use two tablespoonfuls 
of barley flour or meal, and a small 
pinch of salt, to a quart of cold 
water. First stir the barley flour 
with a little of the water into a thin 
paste. Then add the remainder of 
the water, stir and boil fifteen to 
twenty minutes. If pearl barley is 
usecj it must be thoroughly cooked. 

* Robinson's patent barley or the prepared 
barley of the Health Food Company are stand- 
ard preparations of barley flour and can be ob- 
tained at almost any drug store. 

Place two tablespoonfuls in one quart 
of water and boil from two to three 
hours. Add more water from time to 
time so that the quantity in the end 
will be one quart. Strain through a 
clean piece of cheese cloth sterilized 
by baking in a hot oven. Barley 
water should not be kept from day 
to day, but should be made fresh 
every morning. 

A prominent physician of northern 
Illinois, who has been practicing for 
thirty-two years, says: "My food for 
babies is invariably one heaping ta- 
blespoonful -of pearl (store) barley, 
ground in a coff^ee-mill, and boiled 
in one quart of water, down to a 
pint. Strain, add the same quantity 
of milk, and let the baby have it. 
Hundreds of mothers have used this 
preparation on my direction, and the 
result has been healthy, growing, fat 
babies. I think that Professor Ja- 
cobi recommended this many years 
ago. At any rate I always use it, 
and with constant success." 

Oatmeal Water. — This is used in 
the same way as barley water, espe- 
cially if a laxative efl^'ect is desired. 
To make it, stir two tablespoonfuls 
of oatmeal with a pinch of salt in a 
quart of boiling water. Cover and 
let simmer for two or three hours. 
Replace the water as it evaporates 
so that there will be a quart when 
done. Strain the same as for barley 
water and make fresh every day. 

Or, for oatmeal or rice water, put 
three tablespoonfuls of oatmeal 
(H-0) or rice into a quart of water. 
Soak three hours or overnight. Then 
boil steadily for two hours keeping 
the quantity up to a quart with more 
water as needed. Add a pinch of 
salt and strain as for barley water. 
Keep in an ice box or other cool 
place and make fresh daily. 


The best plan is to prepare each 
morning enough food to last for 
twenty-four hours and place the re- 
quired quantity for each nursing in a 
separate nursing bottle. Plug the 



bottles with baked absorbent cotton, 
cotton wool or antiseptic gauze. 

Or, if you do not have enough 
nursing bottles, prepare enough food 
for twenty- four hours and place it in 
a clean, freshly boiled fruit jar with 
a glass clamp top. Do not use the 
screw-top jars. They are not so 
easy to keep clean. Do not use the 
rubber ring, it is hard to keep clean 
and is not necessary. 

Get together all the necessary uten- 
sils, and put them in a saucepan, 
preferably of agate ware. Cover 
them with cold or luke-warm water, 
and bring them slowly to a boil. 
Clear off a table top to work on and 
cover it with a freshly laundered 
towel or other clean cloth. See that 
everything that comes in contact with 
the milk is absolutely clean. Wash 
your hands with soap and water and 
scrub them with a stiff brush with 
especial attention to the finger nails. 
Put the water to be used in mixing 
the food on the fire in a covered 
saucepan. Bring it to a boil and 
keep it, until ready for use, in the 
same vessel in which it was boiled. 
Now mix the food exactly as the doc- 
tor directs, or in accordance with the 
formula you have adopted. Always 
mix it exactly the same way. As 
soon as the food has been placed in 
nursing bottles or fruit jar, and stop- 
pered properly, put these on ice or 
in the coolest place you can find. 
Work quickly and do not let the milk 
or prepared food stand in a warm 
room any longer than is necessary. 

Or, if the milk is not perfectly 
fresh, or has not been freshly pas- 
teurized, it may be pasteurized after 
it has been prepared and placed in 
the nursing bottles. This is perhaps 
the safest course, as it avoids all pos- 
sibility of contamination from the 
time the food is prepared until it is 
fed. After the nursing bottles are 
filled stand them up on a plate in 
the bottom of a saucepan filled with 
luke-warm water up to within two or 
three inches of the tops of the bot- 
tles. Bring the water slowly to a 
boil. Then remove the saucepan from 

the fire and let the bottles stand in 
the hot water for fifteen or twenty 
minutes. Now cool the water sur- 
rounding the bottles by pouring in 
cold water. But take care not to cool 
the bottles so quickly as to crack 
them. As soon as they are cold 
enough to handle, plug with cotton 
stoppers and put them on the ice. 

Or, if you have no ice, springhouse 
or other means of keeping milk cool, 
especially in summer weather, it is 
better to sterilize the milk absolutely 
by leaving the saucepan on the fire 
and keeping the water just at the 
boiling point for 20 minutes. Then 
chill thoroughly with cold water. 
Plug with cotton and keep as cool as 
you can. Such milk is not as whole- 
some as pasteurized or fresh milk 
would be if kept on ice, but it con- 
tains no living germs and is therefore 
safer than unsterilized milk which 
cannot be kept cool at 40 degrees F. 
or under. 

Feeding' the Baby. — Keep the food 
on ice until ready for use and heat 
it when the baby needs it. Never 
let the bottle stand in a warm room 
with milk in it. Be sure not to heat 
a bottle when you go to bed and 
keep it in bed until nursing time, 
because you do not want to go to the 
ice box for it. This is certain to 
make the baby sick. Do not attempt 
to keep milk at a luke-warm tem- 
perature at night or any other time 
in a thermos bottle or by any other 
arrangement. Such a device simjily 
acts as an incubator for germs which, 
at this temperature, quickly grow to 
enormous numbers and render the 
milk dangerous. 

Place the nursing bottle in hot 
water when needed and warm the 
food to about body heat. Do not 
give the baby cold milk. Do not give 
the baby hot milk. Make the tem- 
perature just right. Wash your 
hands in soap and water before ad- 
justing the nipple. Never put the 
nipple in your own mouth to find out 
whether the milk is warm enough. 
Try it on your wrist. Taste a little 
from a spoon. If the milk is not 


sweet do not give it to the baby. 
Shake the bottle before using it. 

Don't feed a baby undersix months 
of age from a cup or spoon. Suck- 
ing is the natural way by which a 
baby takes its food. It 'leeds the 
sucking action of the lips, mouth and 
tongue to mix its food with the 
fluids of the mouth, and for the 

proper development of the mouth and 

How and When to Teed. — In feed- 
ing your baby from the bottle follow 
as nearly as you can the same rule 
as feeding from the breast. Write 
down on a slip of i:)aper the hours 
for feeding and feed by the clock at 
regular intervals. Break away from 




of feed- 
ings be- 
10 p. M. 

7 A. M. 

of feed- 
ings in 

24 hours 

to eacli 


24 hours 

3rd to 7th day 











15 30 

95 35 

25 40 

28 42 

5th to 9th month 

30 45 

9th to 12th month 



Weight in 
Pounds for 
Age in Mos. 

Total Amts. for 
24 hours 

At each feeding 

How Often 

In 24 


A. M. 

6 p. M. 


6 p. M. 


6 A. M. 






d S 



6, 7 and 8 
up to 2 Mos. 


16 oz. 


1 oz. 



1 bottle every 
2 hours 

8 bottles 

6 bottles 

2 bottles 

9 and 10, 
2-3 Mos. 

12 oz. 

20 oz. 


1] oz. 

2J oz. 


1 bottle every 
2 hours 

8 bottles 

6 bottles 

2 bottles 

11, 12, 13 and 14 
3-6 Mos. 

18 oz. 

18 oz. 


2| oz. 

2i oz. 


1 bottle every 
2 J hours 

7 bottles 

5 bottles 

2 bottles 

15 and 16, 
6-8 Mos. 

24 oz. 

18 oz. 


35- oz. 

2| oz. 


1 bottle every 
2§ hours 

7 bottles 

5 bottles 

2 bottles 

17 and 18, 
8-10 Mos. 

30 oz. 

12 oz. 


5 oz. 



1 bottle everj' 
3 hours 

6 bottles 

5 bottles 

1 bottle 

19 and 20, 
10-12 Mos. 

48 oz. 



1 bottle every 
3 hours 

6 bottles 

5 bottles 

1 bottle 

Two tablespoonfuls make one ounce. 



night feedings as soon as possible. 
Hold the balby in the same position 
as for nursing at the breast and take 
tare to tip the bottle so that the 
neck is always full. The baby should 
not take its food in less than ten 
minutes. If it sucks too rapidly, 
withdraw the bottle occasionally for 
a minute or two, or use a nipple witli 
a smaller hole. But do not jjrolong 
the feeding over fifteen or twenty 
minutes. Never let the child suck the 
emiJty bottle. Do not let it go to 
sleep with the nijjple in its mouth. If 
you start right and get the, baby into 
the habit of nursing at regular inter- 
vals, it will not cry for food at other 
times. If the baby cries, look at the 
clock, if not feeding time the trou- 
ble is something else. Infants and 
children are frequently fretful from 

How Much to Teed. — Measure tlie 
food and give regular amounts at 
each feeding. Never coax the baby 
to take more food than it wants. 
Too much food and too frequent 
feeding does greater harm than too 
little. It over-taxes the digestion and 
leads to stomach and intestinal dis- 
turbances. Regurgitation, or the 
"raising" of the milk after feeding 
indicates over-feeding. Cut down 
the amount and avoid digestive trou- 
bles and diarrhoea. If the baby does 
not take the whole feeding throw it 
away. Do not attempt to save it for 
the next time. 

During days of extreme heat give 
not more than half the usual food 
at each feeding, but give the baby all 
the cold boiled water — not ice water 
— that it craves. At all seasons take 
care to give the baby water at fre- 
quent intervals in sufficient quanti- 
ties to quench its thirst. 

Feeding Problems. — If a bottle- 
fed baby does not thrive the difficulty 
may be that the food is too rich, or 
not rich enough; that the amount fed 
is too much, or too little; or that 
the food spoils before it is fed from 
not being kept clean and cold. The 
food must be kept clean and cold to 
be wholesome at any age. But the 

quality of the food, the amount to 
be given at each feeding, and the fre- 
quency of the feedings must be modi- 
fied and adapted to the needs of the 
growing child. It is usual to give 
rules for feeding according to the 
age of the child, but regard must also 
be had to its weight in pounds. 
Tliere is a relation between the 
weight of the baby and size of the 
stomach. Large babies require more 
food than small babies. Most author- 
ities agree that a child should not be 
fed oftener than once in two hours, 
nor more than ten times in each 
twenty-four hours during the first 
few weeks of life, and that the in- 
tervals between feedings should be 
lengthened and the number of feed- 
ings decreased progressively up to 
the end of the first year. The exact 
time to make these changes must be 
determined in each case by the state 
of the baby's health, but the tables on 
the opposite page may be taken as a 
fair general average and will be 
found helpful and suggestive. 

It is best to begin with a weak 
food, as the first milk mixture in the 
accompanying table, for babies from 
birth to three or four months of age. 
The food should be increased gradu- 
ally both in strength and quality. Do 
not increase the quantity more than 
half an ounce at a time. Never in- 
crease both the quantity and the rich- 
ness of the food at the same time. 
Never feed oftener than suggested by 
this table. The child's stomach needs 
some rest. Too rich food or too much 
food at the beginning makes later 
feeding difficult. Over-feeding at 
any time will upset the baby's diges- 
tion and may lead to serious illness. 

Weight and Height. — The age of 
a child alone is not a trustworthy 
guide as to the amount or strength 
of the food which it should have. 
The weight is a much more correct 
index. Weigh the baby every week. 
Measure its length (or height) and 
keep a record for future reference. 
Compare this record with the follow- 
ing standard table of the growth and 
development of a normal infant. 



This will show you at once whether 
or not your baby is enjoying a nor- 
mal development. The average 
weight of a child at birth is 7 or 7| 
pounds. During the first week there 
is a loss of a few ounces. There- 
after the normal gain is about six 
ounces a week for the first three 
months, and after that about four 
ounces a week to the end of the first 

All weights during the first year 
should be taken without any clothing. 
Loss of weight is a danger signal 
which must not be ignored. If your 
baby does not gain weight every 
week consult your doctor and be 
guided by his advice. In doubtful 
cases the weighing should be daily or 
every other day. Use suitable baby 
scales and record the weight for con- 
tinuous reference. The weighing of 
children often brings surprises. Loss 
of weight indicates that the milk is 
insufficient in quantity or in nutritive 
value, or there are faults of digestion 
and assimilation. Weighing of a 
breast-fed baby just before and then 
just after nursing will show the 
quantity of breast milk obtained. 

The growth of the child in length 
(or height) is another important aid 
in proper feeding and care of in- 
fants. 'A normal increase of weight 
does not prove a normal develop- 
ment. An unsuitable food, such as 
condensed milk, may increase the 
weight rapidly enough, or even fatten 
the baby too much, yet the develop- 
ment may be faulty and the degree 
of resistance against disease low. 
Hence both weight and height should 
be taken into consideration. 


At birth 

19.5 in... 

7 lbs. 

1 Mo 

.... 20.5 in. . . 

7? lbs. 

2 Mo 

.... 21. in. . . 

9i lbs. 

3 Mo 

.... 22. in . . . 

. 1 1 lbs. 

4 Mo 

.... 23. in... 

. 12| lbs. 

6 Mo 

.... 23.5 in . . . 

. 14 lbs. 

6 Mo 

.... 24. in . . 

. 15 lbs. 

7 Mo 

24.5 in . . . 

. 16 lbs. 

8 Mo 

9 Mo 

.... 25. in... 
2.5.5 in . . . 

. 17 lbs. 
18 lbs. 

10 Mo 

.... 26. in . . . 

. 19 lbs. 

H Mo 

26.5 in... 

. 20 lbs. 

12 Mo 

27. in... 

.. 21 lbs. 

The character of the stools is a 
most important guide in infant feed- 
ing. Foul smelling, frothy or green- 
ish passages indicate illness and may 
be the forerunner of fatal sickness. 
When the stools are unnatural in 
character or more frequent than four 
a day, a physician should be promjjt- 
ly called. 

Milk Mixtures. — The following 
method of preparing the milk mix- 
tures given in the accompanying ta- 
bles is recommended by the Illinois 
State Board of Health as the most 
convenient and satisfactory for those 
using bottled milk. 

Set apart a separate quart of milk 
for the baby and do not shake it or 

The Ohapin cream dipper. Courtesy 
State Board of Health of Illinois. 

pour any milk out of it until after 
the baby's food has been prepared. 
Then what is left may be used by 
others. The top part of the milk, 
the upper third, or upper half, as re- 
quired, may be taken off^ with a 
spoon by tilting the bottle gently 
without shaking, and dipping from 
it with care not to lose sight of the 
cream line. But it is much better to 
order through your druggist what is 
known as the Chapin cream dipper. 
This inexpensive little device is 
shown in the illustration. It holds 
just one ounce and is convenient 
both for dipping and measuring. If 
a spoon is used, remember that eight 
teaspoons are equivalent to one 



ounce, or four dessertspoons, or two 

The 10% milk required by the table 
for milk mixtures from birth to three 
or four months of age, may be se- 
cured from the upper third of a bot- 
tle of good 4% milk, or by mixing 
two parts of good whole millc with 
one part of cream. The 7% milk re- 
quired by the table from the third or 
fourth month to the end of the ninth 
or tenth month may be secured from 
the upper half of a bottle of whole 
milk, or by mixing three parts of 
whole milk with one part of cream. 
A pinch of salt may be added to the 
food if desired. 

The milk sugar required should al- 
ways be dissolved in hot water. It 
sours quickly when dissolved, so do 
not prepare more than one day's sup- 
ply at a time. Or, use one-half 
the quantity of pure granulated 
or, preferably, lump sugar. Dis- 
solve in hot water and thoroughly 

The quantity given in the first ta- 
ble is twenty ounces. This is tlie 
amount that will be used by an aver- 
age baby during the first four weeks 
of life if fed every two hours at the 
rate of about two ounces eacli feed- 
ing. It is easy to estimate the quan- 
tities required for larger amounts. 
For a twenty-five ounce mixture add 
one-fourtli more of each ingredient. 
For a thirty ounce mixture, add one- 
half more of each ingredient. If the 
baby is fed artificially from birth, 
begin with mixture No. 1 in the first 
table. Substitute the succeeding mix- 
tures gradually until the third or 
fourth month. Observe carefully 
how the baby thrives and especially 
any change in weight. After the 
fourth month the above mixtures are 
not strong enough and those given in 
the second table should be substi- 

When weaning older infants use 
the mixture suited to its age from 
one of the accompanying tables. 



I.Iilk Mixtures. — (From Birth to Three or Four Months of Age.) 

1. Milk-sugar, 1 oz. (3 level tablespoonfuls.) 
Lime water, 1 oz. 

Enough hot * water to make 20 ounces. After the milk-sugar is dissolved add two ounces 
of_,upper third milk (10% fat). 
This is a suitable modified milk for the infant immediately after birth. 

2. Milk sugar, lime water and water same as for No. 1, with the addition of 3 ounces of upper 
third milk. 

3. Milk sugar, lime water and water as in No. 1, with the addition of 4 ounces of upper third 

4. Milk sugar, lime water and water as in No. 1, with the addition of 5 ounces of upper third 

5. Milk sugar, lime water and water as in No. 1, with the addition of 6 ounces of upper third 

6. Milk sugar, lime water and water as in No. 1, with the addition of 7 ounces of upper third 

(From the Third or Fourth Month to the end of the Ninth or Tenth Month.) 

1. Milk sugar, 1 oz. (3 level tablespoonfuls.) 
liime water, 1 oz. 

Enough hot * water to make 20 ounces. After the milk sugar is dissolved add 3 ounces 
of upper half milk. 

2. Milk sugar, lime water and water as in No. 1, with the addition of 4 ounces of upper half milk. 

3. Milk sugar, lime water and water as in No. 1, with the addition of 5 ounces of upper half milk. 

4. Milk sugar, lime water and water as in No. 1, with the addition of 6 ounces of upper half milk. 

5. Milk sugar, lime water and water as in No. 1 , with the addition of 7 ounces of upper half milk. 

6. Milk sugar, lime water and water as in No. 1, with the addition of 8 ounces of upper half milk. 

7. Milk sugar, lime water and water as in No. l,with the addition of 9 ounces of upper half milk. 

8. Milk sugar, lime water and water as in No. 1, with the addition of 10 ounces of upper half 

9. Milk sugar, J oz. 
Lime water, 1 oz. 

Enough water to make 20 ounces. To this add 12 ounces of upper half milk. 

Of the above formulas, it is seldom necessary for the healthy infant to use a mixture of less 
strength than No. 5. Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4 are of value, however, during temporary disturbances of 
digestion when it is desired to relieve the digestive organs of as much work as possible. 

The infant which can take Mixture No. of the above formulas without difficulty is usually able to 
begin o?i No. 6 of the following formulas, in which whole milk (4%) is used. 

* Not boiled. 



Milk Mixtures. — (For the latter part of the First Year.) 

1. Milk sugar, 1 oz. 
Lirue water, 1 oz. 

Enough hot * water to make 20 ounces. After the milk sugar is dissolved add 5 ounces 
of whole milk. 

2. Milk sugar, lime water and water as in No. 1, with the addition of ounces of whole milk. 

3. Milk sugar, lime water and water as in No. 1, with the addition of S ounces of whole milk. 

4. Milk sugar, lime water and water as in No. 1, with the addition of 10 ounces of whole milk. 

5. Milk sugar, j oz. 
Lime water, 1 oz. 

Enough water to make 20 ounces. To this add 12 ounces of whole milk. 

6. Milk sugar, lime water and water as in No. 5, with the addition of 14 ounces of whole milk. 

7. Milk sugar, lime water and water as in No. 5, with the addition of 16 ounces of whole milk. 

* Not boiled. 

Other Mixtures. — For mothers who 
oaiiiiot get milk in bottles and who 
have difficulty in using the mixtures 
given in the above tables, the follow- 
ing are recommended by the Illinois 
State Board of Health. They are 
easily prepared and prove satisfac- 
tory for most health}^ infants. 

For a new-born baby, or one a 
month or two old, take one ounce of 
fresh milk; three ounces of water; 
one ounce of fresh cream, and two 
level teaspoonfuls of milk sugar. 
This makes about five ounces. For 
twenty ounces use four times as much 
of each ingredient. This closely re- 
sembles mother's milk. 

For older babies, take two ounces 
of fresh milk; two ounces of water; 
one oimce of fresh cream; two level 
teaspoonfuls of milk sugar and a 
teaspeonful of lime water. Larger 
quantities may be made by increasing 
the amounts of each ingredient in 
proper proportion. More milk and 
less water will be used as the infant 
increases in age. 

If cream disagrees with the infant 
its use should be stopped tempora- 
rily. The following is a good sub- 
stitute for mother's milk suitable for 
an infant of three months or less: 
Pure milk, cupful; water, two cup- 
fuls; sugar of milk, one heaping ta- 
blespoonful; lime water, one table- 

The following table contains the 
milk mixtures recommended by the 
Providence (R. I.) Health Depart- 

For Babies Under One Month. — 
Milk, 5 ounces; lime water, 1 ounce; 
boiled water, 15 ounces; milk sugar, 
li tablespoons. 

Dissolve the sugar in the boiling 
water and tlien add the milk and 
lime water. Keejj in a cool place. 
Give the baby 2 ounces every i3 hours 
during the day and once at night. In 
all 10 feedings. Add a little more 
milk to the whole mixture every few 
days and give the baby a little more 
in each bottle. 

One Month to Three Months. — 
Milk, 12 ounces; lime water, I5 
ounces; boiled water, 24 ounces; milk 
sugar, V, tablespoons. 

Dissolve the sugar in the boiling 
water and then add the milk and lime 
water. Keep in a cool place. Give 
the baby 3^ ounces every 3 hours 
during the day and once at night. 
Ten feedings. Add a little more 
milk to the whole mixture e^'ery few 
days and give the baby a little more 
in each bottle. 

Three Months to Six Months. — 
Milk, 1 pint; lime water, 3 ounces; 
boiled water, IJ pints; milk sugar, 2 

Dissolve the sugar in the boiled 
water and then add the milk and lime 
water. Keep in a cool place. Give 
the baby 5 ounces every 3J hours 
during the day and once at night. 
Eight feedings. Add a little more 
milk to the whole mixture e\'ery few 
days and give the baby a little more 
in each bottle. 

Six Months to Ten Months. — Milk, 
11 pints; lime water, 2 ounces; 
boiled water, 11 pints; milk sugar, 2 

Dissolve the sugar in the boiled 
water and then add the milk and lime 
water. Keep in a cool place. Give 
the baby 6 or 7 ounces or about 1 
cupful every 3 hours during the day. 


Seven feedings. Every few days put 
1 tablespoon less water and 1 table- 
spoon more milk into this mix- 

Use of Barley Water and Oatmeal 
Water. — Some authorities recommend 
the use of barley water from birth 
in place of the plain Vi^ater used for 
the dilution of infants' food in the 
above mixtures, and in the same pro- 
portions. But others who have made 
a special study of feeding infants, 
think that the use of barley water or 
oatmeal water is not advisable until 
after six months of age. The use of 
barley water has been found, in prac- 
tice, to enable some young infants to 
digest the curds of milk who would 
otherwise have been unable to do so. 
But as a rule it is probable that 
these cereal waters are not required 
until after the sixth or seventh 
month. They should not be fed to 
very young infants except under the 
direction of a physician. 

The late Prof. A. Jacoby of New 
York, an author of international rep- 
utation, stated that if he were re- 
stricted to the use of any one food 
in addition to cow's milk, it would be 
barley meal or oatmeal water, and 
that he preferred barley water to 
oatmeal water for a steady diet be- 
cause the latter tends to relax the 
bowels. Hence after the sixth or sev- 
enth month use barley water to dilute 
the baby's food in place of plain 
water unless you find from experience 
that it does not agree with your child. 
When the infant is constipated, sub- 
stitute oatmeal water for the barley 
water. As the barley water is added 
the amount of sugar should be re- 


Condensed Milk for Infants. — 
Condensed milk is the artificial food 
most commonly used, especially 
among the poor, but is not easily di- 
gestible especially by very young and 
frail infants. Its effects are not 
satisfactory. It contains too much 
sugar and not eRough fat. Babies 

fed on condensed milk alone are 
often fat but seldom strong. A fat 
baby is not always a healthy baby. 
Practically every baby raised on con- 
densed milk alone shows signs of 
rickets or other disease. It may serve 
a good purpose when traveling or at 
other times of emergency when pure, 
fresh milk cannot be secured. Be- 
tween dirty, impure and stale cow's 
milk and condensed milk, choose the 
latter. When traveling or when the 
milk supply fails, condensed milk 
may be used to tide the infant over 
a period of danger, but do not use it 
any longer than is really necessarj'. 
It should never be used without the 
addition of fats — fresh cream if pos- 
sible. Or, if good cream cannot be 
had, give cod liver oil at the rate of 
five to twenty drops at each feeding. 
If you use condensed milk get the 
best that can be had. Borden's Eagle 
Brand is known to be well prepared 
and reliable. 

Manufactured Foods. — Do not be 
misled by the statements of any man- 
ufacturer of condensed milk or other 
artificial food that his product is a 
perfect substitute for mother's milk. 
All such statements are false. There 
is no perfect substitute for mother's 
milk, nor is there any artificial food 
that is equally as good as pure fresh 
cow's milk properly modified. The 
most commonly used foods upon the 
market may be classed as milk foods, 
malted foods and farinaceous foods. 
Horlick's, Borden's (malted) milk, 
and Mellin's are examples of the sec- 
ond class, and Eskay's of the third. 
None of these foods contain sufficient 
fat. Some of them have an excess of 
starch which makes them unsuitable 
for an infant until the latter part of 
the first year. Some contain too 
much sugar. None of these foods 
should be used alone. Some authori- 
ties claim that they are harmful and 
that certain diseases have followed 
their prolonged use. Others consider 
them of considerable value. Many 
advocate combining their use with the 
breast milk to help the mother out 
during the la1;ter part of the nursing 



period, especially after the fifth or 
sixth month. 

Notwithstanding the difference of 
opinion regarding the value of these 
foods, they are recommended by com- 
petent physicians and are used to 
seeming advantage by many infants, 
although they do not agree with 
others. They should be used under 
the advice of a physician, if at all, 
and mixed with diluted cow's milk 
for the purpose of breaking up the 

perhaps be used alone, temporarily; 
but for continued use, milk should 
be added. 

Mellin's Food is said to be a dry 
extract from wheat and malt, and 
free from cane sugar and starch, 

Eskay's Food, according to the 
manufacturers, contains the more 
easily digested cereals combined with 
egg albumen. 

An analysis of Horlick's Malted 
Milk shows that it contains less fat 



' ' , ' - 

C0W3' MlLh 


SRLT5 nOT 5hOv\(/i. 

The manufactured food is shown as mixed loith tenter alone. Mixed' ^vith milk, as 
usually directed, the comparison would show it m.uch more like ireast milk. 
Courtesy State Board of Health of Illinois. 

tough curds and rendering the milk 
more digestible. Barley water and 
oatmeal water are used for the same 
purpose, but do not contain all 
the food elements to be found 
in the best types of prepared 

The manufacturers of Horlick's 
Malted Milk assert that it does not 
require the addition of cow's milk; 
that it is composed of pure, rich 
cow's milk reduced to dryness and 
combined with an extract of malted 
wheat and barley. This food may 

than mother's milk and more sugar, 
and that it is free from starch. Mel- 
lin's Food alone has practically no 
fats or starch and much more sugar 
than mother's milk. It should be 
used with milk. 

Eskay's Food, when properly 
mixed with milk, resembles breast 
milk very closely, except that there 
is some starch present. It is stated, 
however, that this starch is thorough- 
ly broken up and easily digested, and 
that the egg albumen contained is 
more easily digested than similar 

The care of babies 


amounts of the albumen or curds of 

The chart on the preceding page 
shows a comjiarison of breast milk, 
cow's milk, condensed milk and a 
widely advertised manufactured food. 


Keep your baby largely on milk 
until well into the second year. This 
is the chief secret of successful in- 
fant feeding. There is far less neces- 
sity for a mixed diet of ordinary 
foods than is generally supposed. No 
other food than properly modified 
milk should be given until the end 
of the sixth or seventh month, except 
on the order of a physician. The 
appearance of teeth at a moderately 
early age is simply an evidence of 
health. It is not an indication that 
the baby should be taught to eat 
solid food. When the teeth appear 
very early and in rajiid succession, 
nutritive and nervous disturbances 
are apt to occur and the use of solid 
food may then lead to serious ill- 

As a rule no solid food whatever 
should be given during the first year. 
After the seventh month, gruel made 
with barley, arrowroot or oatmeal 
may be given, beginning with very 
small quantities. At first four ounces 
of thick strained oatmeal and one- 
half ounce of orange juice may be 
added to the daily allowance of food. 
The quantity of gruel may be gradu- 
ally increased as the child grows 
older. The addition of a pinch of 
salt will make the food more palat- 

After the ninth month pure whole 
milk may be allowed in some cases 
and the child may have a crust 
of bread, or a small piece of 

After the tenth month beef, mut- 
ton or chicken broth thoroughly 
strained may be substituted for or 
added to a child's regular food. 

Soups and broths for infants 
should be very carefully prepared so 
as to be free from any excess of fat 

or bits of meat. They should be 
very sj^aringly seasoned. Fresh beef 
juice may be given in the latter part 
of the first year and in some cases 
even earlier in quantities of not over 
two teaspoonfuls a day. 

To prepare beef juice cut a half 
pound of fresh lean beef into small 
pieces and put them into a clean dry 
pan. Place the jian over a slow fire 
and turn the jjieces of meat with a 
fork until the outside is gray. Broil 
very lightly. Express the juice with 
a lemon squeezer or meat press into 
a clean cup. About one to one and 
a half ounces should be obtained 
from a half pound of meat. Keep 
on ice, or in a cool place, until ready 
for feeding. Then raise to blood 
heat by placing the cup in warm wa- 
ter. Always use the same day. 

Beef tea made from the extracts 
of beef found on the market may 
be given in small quantities after the 
first year. But remember there is 
no nutrition in beef tea and do not 
give it in place of regular food. 
Many practitioners advise the use of 
beef juice and beef tea much earlier 
than here stated, especially if the 
milk disagrees or fails to nourish the 
infant. They regard it as especially 
valuable when the teeth are slow in 
development or rickets are threat- 

Orange juice in such cases is of 
the greatest value and will agree per- 
fectly with most children. It is a 
safe precaution, especially if pasteur- 
ized or cooked milk, or condensed 
milk or manufactured infants' food 
is given, to feed half an ounce of 
orange juice each day to all children 
over six months of age. 

Meat Broth Plain and Thickened. 
— Chop into small pieces one pound 
of lean beef, chicken or neck of mut- 
ton including some of the bone. Add 
a quart of water and let stand for 
two hours, then add salt and boil 
slowly for two hours down to one 
pint. While boiling add two table- 
sjioonfuls of crushed barley, rice or 
oatmeal. Strain through muslin, 
cool and skim off the grease. 




Egg Water. — This may sometimes 
be used to advantage in case of in- 
testinal disturbances, such that the 
baby cannot digest milk. To pre- 
pare, stir the white of a fresh egg 
into one pint of boiled water. Add 
a pinch of salt, shake thoroughly and 
strain. Keep in the ice box or other 
cool place and use the same day. 

Whey. — Warm one pint of milk to 
blood heat and add one teaspoonful 
of essence of jsepsin or one junket 
tablet. Let stand until it jellies, 
then break up the curds with a fork 
and strain through muslin. Whey is 
sometimes used to advantage when 
the baby cannot digest cow's milk. 

Solid Foods. — The cutting of the 
eighth incisor or front teeth, which 
occurs usually during the twelfth 
month, may be taken as nature's in- 
dication that the child requires othep^ 
food than milk. At this time if the 
infant is well and strong, a little 
stale bread, at least one day old, 
may be given with fresh milk in 
place of one of the regular feedings. 
This may soon be supplemented by 
a small quantity of well cooked hom- 
iny, oatmeal or cornmeal mush. But 
keep in mind constantly the fact that 
milk is the most important article of 
the ''diet, and that these foods are 
merely supplementary. Do not feed 
the baby any of the ready-cooked 
or pre-digested breakfast foods. Buy 
the natural cereals and cook them at 
home. Cereals should be cooked at 
least three hours in a double boiler, 
or preferably over night in a tireless 
cooker. They should be strained 
through cheese cloth or muslin. 

If the above foods are taken with- 
out difficulty and no bad results are 
observed, give stale bread liberally 
buttered. This satisfies the infant's 
desire for solid food and also affords 
an easily digested and nourishing 
form of fat. 

At fifteen months, a soft boiled egg 
may be given as the noon feeding. 
About the middle of the second year, 
or when sixteen teeth have developed, 
other and more solid foods may be 
given. But throughout the entire 

period of infancy, food other than 
milk should be selected and prepared 
with the greatest care and given in 
moderation. During the second year 
children are almost invariably over- 

Diet of Older Children. — Between 
one and a half and two and a half 
years of age a child may have bread 
and butter, orange, potatoes and cer- 
tain other vegetables, certain fruits 
and certain meats. The bread should 
be at least one day old and may in- 
clude toast, zwieback, graham, oat- 
meal and gluten crackers. Porridge 
may be oatmeal, rice (cooked three 
hours), hominy (cooked six hours), 
farina (cooked one hour), cornmeal 
(cooked two hours), barley meal or 
vvheaten grits. All should be thor- 
oughly cooked for the time stated, 
or over night in a fireless cooker. 
Strain through cheese cloth or muslin 
and serve with certified or pasteur- 
ized milk. The meat may be rare 
roast beef, fresh cooked mutton or 
chicken. All should be finely minced. 
The vegetables may be well cooked 
spinach or potato. The latter should 
be fed in small quantities, freshly 
baked and lightly broken up and 
salted. Potato is a starchy food and 
hard for an infant to digest. It is 
much more wholesome baked than 
boiled. The fruit may be ripe apjoles 
(better baked), grapes, freed from 
the stones and skins, stewed prunes 
and orange pulp, freed from the 
fibrous portion. Fruit should be 
given in great moderation, if at all, 
in summer. Other suitable foods are 
baked custards or junket. 

A piece of rare roast beef to suck, 
bread with dish gravjr (not the heavy 
thickened and highly seasoned gravy) 
and soft boiled or poached eggs may 
form additions to the dietary which 
may be extended gradually to meet 
developments as the baby grows into 
childhood. But either for an infant 
or a child, overfeeding is far more 
injurious than underfeeding. 

Improper Foods. — Hundreds of in- 
fants have been killed by the mis- 
takes of parents in giving them other 



and improper foods. Never feed the 
baby at the table from the food pre- 
pared for other members of the fam- 
ily. The table foods may be poison- 
ous to the infant. Never give a 
child under two years of age ham, 
bacon, or pork in any other form; 
cabbage, pickles or other succulent 
vegetables; coffee, tea, beer, wine, 
cider or any other alcoholic liquor 
of any kind; bananas, berries or 
other fruit except orange juice or 
pulp, prune juice and stewed or 
baked apple. Do not give pie or 
pastry, nuts, cake, candy, ice cream, 
or any other kind of sweets. Above 
all never dope your baby with drugs, 
nostrums, or patent foods of any 
kind, relying upon the statements of 
unprincipled manufacturers, drug- 
gists or other venders, or those who 
have "tried and can recommend 
them." Such advice is often as ig- 
norant as it is well intended. The 
kind of medicine or food preparation 
which may agree with your neighbor's 
baby may totally disagree with yours. 
Don't experiment with your baby. If 
you think it needs medicine or a 
change of food consult a competent 
physician to find out what is the mat- 
ter. Then be guided implicitly by 
his advice. 

Home Pasteurization of Milk. — 
Pasteur, the French chemist (whose 
name has become a household word 
from his discovery of a treatment 
which prevents hydrophobia), was 
once employed by the French Gov- 
ernment to study the causes of fer- 
mentation in wines and beer. He 
found that these changes were 
brought about by the action of micro- 
organisms (germs). He further dis- 
covered that these germs could be 
destroj^ed at the comparatively low 
temperature of 140° F, by maintain- 
ing this degree of heat for twenty 
minutes. Hence this process is called 

The germs which cause fermenta- 
tion or souring of milk or other 
food products can be destroj^ed more 
quickly at or near 213°, the tempera- 
ture of boiling water. This process 

is called "sterilization." But this 
destroys much of the flavor and nu- 
tritive value of milk as food. The 
advantage of pasteurization, when 
properly conducted, is that neither 
the flavor nor the food value of the 
milk is affected. 

To pasteurize milk in bottles, 
place a saucer in the bottom of a 
small tin pail and stand the bottle 
of milk on this v/ith the cap on. 
Now fill the pail up to within three 
or four inches of the top of the 
bottle with hot water — but not so 


Home pasteurization of milk. Courtesy 
State Board of Health of Wisconsin. 

hot as to break the bottle— and tlien 
stand the pail and its contents on 
the stove. The instant the water 
begins to boil (not simmer) remove 
it from the pail and cool it as rapidly 
as possible. 

Milk properly pasteurized is not 
injurious to infants, although it is 
not considered quite so good as clean, 
pure unpasteurized milk. Most doc- 
tors think it is entirely wholesome. 
Others suspect that its prolonged 
use may tend to cause scurvy or 
rickets. If such results are feared, 



orange juice, or its equivalent, may 
be given as a preventive. The dan- 
gers from pasteurized milk, if any, 
are slight in comparison with those 
from unpasteurized milk of doubt- 
ful origin, especially in summer 
where milk has to be transported any 
considerable distance before delivery. 
Pasteurization, if the milk is after- 
wards kept clean until used, will cer- 
tainly eliminate all danger of diar- 
rhoeal or other intestinal trouble. But 
observe that this process merely kills 
the living bacteria then present in 
the milk. It does not elim.inate dirt, 
nor any chemical poisons cast off 
by germs which the milk may con- 
tain. Nor does it prevent the milk 
from afterwards becoming contamin- 
ated with other bacteria. Pasteur- 
ization, in other words, is not a pan- 
acea for making dirty milk whole- 
some. Nor is it a substitute for 
painstaking cleanliness in the home. 
It is a makeshift at best, but never- 
theless should be adopted whenever 
the milk delivered at your door is 
known or suspected to be warm, stale 
or dirty. As a rule unless you can 
afford to buy certified milk, it is 
better to pasteurize the milk and be 
on the safe side. But it is a good 
plan, fbef ore doing so, to consult your 

Sterilization of Milk. — Pasteuriza- 
tion is always to be preferred over 
sterilization, provided milk can after- 
wards be kept clean and cold. Ster- 
ilization makes milk harder to digest 
and decreases its food value. The 
prolonged use of svich milk leads to 
stomach and intestinal diseases, rick- 
ets, loss of weight, failure of bones 
to grow properly, and other harmful 
conditions. But between dirty milk 
and cooked milk, sterilization is the 
lesser evil. Those who cannot ob- 
tain ice, and especially those who are 
obliged to live in unsanitary condi- 
tions such that the milk is sure to 
become contaminated, would better 
sterilize rather than pasteurize the 
milk, especially in summer. In win- 
ter the milk can be kept cool by 
means of a window box. This will 

afford the baby some relief from the 
evil effects of sterilization. 

To scald or sterilize milk which 
comes in bottles place the bottle on 
a saucer in the bottom of a tin pail 
as for pasteurization. Leave the 
cap on. Fill up the pail to within 
three or four inches of the top and 
bring to a boil. The instant the wa- 
ter begins to boil (not simmer) re- 
move the boiler from the stove. Take 
care that the milk does not boil. If 
it should boil, throw it away. Boiled 
or over-heated milk, if fed to a baby 
for any considerable length of time, 
will produce a most distressing type 
of scurvy. Remove the boiler from 
the stove and let the bottle of milk 
stand in the water for about twenty 
minutes. Then cool as quickly as 

Or, if milk is bought in bulk, pour 
it into a sterilized glass fruit jar as 
recommended for pasteurization and 
proceed as for bottled milk. 

Observe that sterilized milk is more 
susceptible to contamination from 
germs than raw milk. Hence take 
care that everything that comes in 
contact with scalded milk is scrupu- 
lously clean. Remember that the ice 
box cannot be cleaned too often. 

When to Pasteurize or Sterilize. — 
Certified milk or good fresh milk 
which has been kept clean and cold 
needs no preservative. Do not 
"scald," sterilize or pasteurize such 
milk. But if milk is dirty, or sours 
quickly, or if there is other evidence 
that it has not been kept clean or 
cold, the sooner it is pasteurized or 
sterilized after it comes into the 
house, the better. If the milk is to 
be kept in the original bottle or in 
a glass fruit jar or similar receptacle 
during the day, and the baby's bottle 
is to be filled from this as required, 
the best plan is to pasteurize or ster- 
ilize the milk as soon as it is re- 
ceived and before it is put into the 
ice box. But if milk is to be modi- 
fied, and especially if there are 
enough bottles so that a separate 
bottle can be prepared for each feed- 
ing, the better plan is to pasteurize 



or sterilize the modified milk or pre- 
pared food after it has been mixed 
and placed in the baby's bottles or 
other receptacles in which it is to be 
kejjt for the day. 

Adulteration of Milk. — There are 
still some dairymen and dealers who 
think it is cheaper to kill the bacteria 
in dirty, warm, stale milk by means 
of germicides than to adopt means 
to keep the milk clean, cool and 
sweet. Such adulteration is forbid- 
den by law in many states, and all 
offenders should be vigorously prose- 
cuted. Keep a sharp lookout for 
adulterated milk and occasionally test 
the milk you receive for boric acid, 
borax, formaldehyde or bicarbonate 
of soda by methods elsewhere recom- 
mended. Or request your physician, 
or the health officials of your com- 
munity, if any, to test it for you. 
Never use such preservatives your- 
self, nor buy milk from a dealer who 
uses them. You can never tell how 
much he has used, nor how much 
may have been used by others before 
the milk came to him. Preservatives 
are never harmless and if present in 
large quantities may be very injuri- 
ous or even poisonous. 


If the milk producer and the milk 
dealer have done their duty there is 
daily left at the consumer's door a 
bottle of clean, cold, unadulterated 
milk. By improper treatment in the 
home the milk may become unfit for 
food, especially for babies. This bad 
treatment consists in placing it in 
unclean vessels; in exposing it un- 
necessarily to the air; in failing to 
keep it cool up to the time of using 
it; and in exposing it to flies. 

Milk absorbs impurities — collects 
bacteria — whenever it is exposed to 
the air or placed in unclean vessels. 
If there is a sediment in the bottom 
of the container, after the milk has 
stood an hour or two, it indicates 
filthy habits on the part of the pro- 
ducer. The remedy is, change milk- 
men. This sediment is almost invari- 

ably fecal matter (manure) that has 
fallen into the luilk pail from filthy 
cows. Most farmers who allow this 
matter to get into the milk are care- 
ful to strain it out, but they cannot 
strain out the unmistakable flavor 
which it imparts to milk. Remember 
that clean, pure milk is nearly free 
from taste or odor. If milk tastes 
or smells of the stable it is probably 

To test milk for dirt place a good- 
sized button in the bottom of an or- 
dinary tin funnel and upon this a 
piece of dampened absorbent cotton 
about the size of a twenty-five cent 
piece and about one-sixteenth of an 
inch in thickness. Carefully pour the 
entire contents of the milk bottle 
into tills funnel and let it filter. The 
cotton will catch every particle of 
sediment or dirt which the milk may 
contain. Remove the cotton and 
place it upon a piece of white paper 
near the stove to dry. If much dirt 
is shown, ask your milkman to take 
a look at it. Or, if you live in a 
city mail it, with a complaint, to the 
Board of Health. 

The danger to health from dirty 
methods of keeping and milking cows, 
dirty milkers and dirty milk vessels 
increases with every moment milk is 
allowed to stand in a temperature 
over 40° or 45° F. Injurious spores 
and bacteria remain dormant or in- 
crease very slowly at lower tempera- 
tures, but as the temperature rises 
up to 60° or 70° F., or thereabouts, 
they develop and multiply with aston- 
ishing rajiidity. A bottle of dirty 
milk standing in the sun for an hour 
or two in the early morning may 
breed millions of injurious bacteria 
and become totally unfit for human 

The feeding of cow's milk to in- 
fants, to be at all safe, entails the 
following tedious and never-ending 
operations: Securing fresh milk 
every day; home pasteurization; 
sterilization of all milk containers 
including boiling of feeding bottles, 
nipjiles, etc., for each and every feed- 
ing; refrigeration — storage in scrupu- 



lously clean ice boxes — uiul milk 
modilicatioii, all to be carefully ])er- 
fornied and varied according to age 
or condition of the child. 

Even if the milk is clean, fresh 
and cool when it is delivered at your 
door, or if you then kill the germs 
which it may contain by home jias- 
teurization, it may afterwards be- 
come unfit for food, especially for 
babies, by imjiroper treatment. This 
may occur if you place it in miclean 
vessels, expose it unnecessarily to the 
air, or fail to keep it cool uj) to 
the time of using it. Hence the fol- 
lowing suggestions. 

Buy bottled milk, at least for your 
baby, if you can. Keep milk in the 
original bottle till needed for im- 
mediate consumption. Carefully wipe 
or rinse the bottle, especially the 
mouth, before pouring any milk from 
it, so that dust or dirt which may 
have gathered thereon or on the cap 
will not get into the milk. Do not 
pour back into the bottle milk which 
has been exposed to the air by being 
placed in other vessels. Keep the 
bottle covered with a paper cap as 
long as milk is in it and when not 
actually pouring from it. If the 
paper cap has been punctured, cover 
the bottle with an inverted tumbler. 

Thef- sanitary containers that are 
used but once and then destroyed are 
preferable to those of glass, but the 
consumer seems to object to them 
because, not being transparent, no 
cream line can be seen. When their 
value from a health standpoint is 
understood the sanitary containers 
will be universally adopted as they 
already have been in some cities. 

Dipping milk from large cans and 
pouring it into customers' receptacles 
on the street, expose it to contamin- 
ation from the air and otherwise. 
Drawing milk from the faucet of a 
retailer's can is objectionable for an- 
other reason. The milk is not thor- 
oughly mixed. Hence some consum- 
ers receive less than their due pro- 
portion of cream. But if you must 
buy dipped milk, do uot set out over 
night an uncovered vessel to receive 

it. Cats, dogs or tramps may con- 
taminate the milk by drinking from 
it. At best it will collect thousands 
of bacteria from street dust before 
morning. Have the milk received by 
some member of the family if possi- 
ble, or set out a bowl covered with a 
plate, or better still, provide your- 
self with several glass preserving 
jars kept for this special purpose. 
Use jars with the clamp glass top. 
Avoid the screw tops. Omit the rub- 
ber band. They are difficult to keep 
clean. Do not use a pitcher. It 
cannot be tiglitly covered on account 
of the projecting sjjout. 

Take the milk into the house as 
soon as possible after delivery, par- 
ticularly in hot weather. Sometimes 
milk delivered as earty as 4 a. m. 
remains outdoors until 9 or 10 
o'clock. This is wrong. If you can- 
not receive the milk as soon as de- 
livered i^rovide a small wooden box 
or other shelter to protect it from the 
Sim and insist that the milkman use 

The best way of serving milk on 
the table, from a sanitary standpoint, 
is in the bottle or fruit jar in which 
it is received. At all events, pour 
out only what is needed for immedi- 
ate use and keep the rest in the 
original receptacle. Never pour the 
milk into a bowl or pitcher for stor- 
age, nor pour back into the bottle 
or jar milk which has been exposed 
to the air. In fact, do not mix milk 
— the mixture always descends to 
the qualitj^ of its worst part. Milk 
deteriorates by exposure to the air 
of the nursery, kitchen, pantry or 
refrigerator in two ways: by con- 
tamination from germs and by ab- 
sorption of odors. Cover milk when 
not actually pouring from it by turn- 
ing over the jar or bottle a small 
bowl or tumbler, or use a cork or 
cap of sterilized gauze or cotton 
wool, both of which are germ-proof. 
Never expose uncovered milk in a 
refrigerator containing any kind of 
food, especially strong-smelling foods 
like fish, ca1)l)age or onions. 

Milk cannot be properly kept with- 



out ice. If you have a refrigerator 
put the milk into it promptly. Un- 
less it comes into actual contact with 
the ice, it will keep best in the bot- 
tom of the ice box. The cold air 
descends. If you can get ice but 
have no refrigerator, you can make 
a cheap ice box that can be operated 
for less than three cents a day in 
which to preserve a baby's milk, as 
follows : 

A Cheap Ice Box. — Secure an ordi- 
nary wooden box, 13 by 18 inches, 
with a depth of llj inches, from 
your grocer. In the bottom of the 
box place a substantial layer of saw- 
dust. On this set a tin pail or can, 
8 inches in diameter and high enough 
to hold a quart bottle of milk. Care 
should be taken that the pail rests 
on sawdust — not on the wood bottom 
of the box. Around the pail place 
a cylinder of tin a little larger than 
the pail, then pack sawdust about 
the cjdinder — not between pail and 
cylinder — up to top of the cylinder. 
On the cover of the box nail about 
fifty layers of newspaper. Set the 

M ^' 

. . •• . J _ , .' 

Vertical section of homemade milk re- 
frigerator; S, saicdust ; T, cijlinder of 
tin or galvanized iron; C, can or pail, 
in which is placed the milk iottle M, 
surrounded hi/ broken ice, I; N, netos- 
papers nailed to lid of case. Courtesy 
Health Department of Chicago. 

milk bottle iii the pail and pack 
broken ice about the bottle. A re- 
frigerator of this description will 
hold two quart bottles of milk, or 
four eight-ounce feeding bottles. It 
can be operated for about two cents 
per day. To prevent rusting, a little 
soda may be placed in the can each 
day. The little expense involved is 

nothing as compared with the cost 
of sickness and death. 

Or, get a box about 18 inches 
square from your grocer, take the 
boards off the top and cleat them 
together to form a lid. Tack to the 

Hurizontal section of homemade milk re- 
frigerator ; M, milk hottle; I, broken 
ice; G, can or pail for holding ice; T, 
tin or galvanized iron ci/linder to 
prevent saicdust, 8, from falling into 
space when can is removed for purpose 
of emptying water. Courtesy Health 
Department of Chicago. 

under side of this lid a number of 
thicknesses of old newspapers up to 
an inch or more in depth, trimming 
around the edges so that they will 
set down in the box, and, preferably, 
protecting them by an inner cover 
of thin boards or a number of cleats. 
Now put three inches of sawdust in 
the bottom. Place two pails in this 
sawdust one inside of the other and 
fill the space between the inner and 
outer with sawdust. Fill the space 
between the outer pail and box with 
sawdust. Place the nursing bottle 
filled with milk in the inner pail and 
cover it with a tin cover. Now fill 
the outer pail over and around the 
inner pail with cracked ice. Put on 
the lid and keep the ice box in a 
cool shady j^lace. 

Or, to make a still cheaper ice 
box, get a large soap box from your 
grocer and another box about half 
as large. Line the smaller box with 
tin or zinc. This will hold your ice 
and milk bottles. Now, put a layer 
at least three inches deep of sawdust 
in the bottom of the larger box, set 
the smaller box on this and fill in 
around the sides with sawdust. Line 
the cover with newspapers fastened 



on by means of tacks or cleats and 
keep the box tightly closed. 

Or, if you cannot get ice, milk may 
be kept fairly cool as follows: Pro- 
cure an ordinary butter or lard tub 
or a half barrel cask. Put on the 
bottom a layer of sawdust three 
inches or more thick and place on 
this a large earthenware jar. Sur- 
round this with sawdust. Cork the 
milk bottles to protect the contents 
from dust, stand them up in the jar 
and surround them up to the necks 
of the bottles with the coldest water 
you can get. Put on the lid of the 
j ar and fit over the j ar a , cushion 
stuffed with sawdust or fine hay that 
will just fill the top of the tub. Keep 
this in the coolest place that can be 
found. Change the water at least 
once in twenty-four hours. The tem- 
perature of the milk will remain 
nearly stationary and about one de- 
gree warmer than the water. 

A Window Box. — Most families 
discontinue taking ice for the re- 
frigerator during half the year or 
more. During such times, if milk is 
allowed to stand in the pantry it 
quickly becomes warm and unfit for 
infants' food. Yet the outdoor tem- 
perature would keep the milk sweet 
for some time. A window box may 
be coiistructed with sides made of 
old blinds, slats, or boards perfor- 
ated with auger holes for ventilation, 
and provided with a solid bottom 
and tight slanting roof. Attach this 
outside the pantry window where it 
can be reached by simply raising the 
sash. Line with wire netting to keep 
out insects, especially flies. Such a 
box costs next to nothing, and serves 
to keep not only the baby's milk, 
but butter, meat and other pro- 
visions when the refrigerator is not 
in use. 

Or stand a deep dish or pail of 
water by an open window away from 
the Sim. Put a narrow board or wire 
screen across the top and on this 
stand the milk bottles or jars. Wrap 

the bottles in a wet cloth and let the 
end of the cloth extend to the bot- 
tom of the water. The cloth will 
be kept wet by capillary attraction 
and the water, by evaporation, will 
cool the milk. 

By some such method you must 
keep the milk and cream cool until 
used if you desire to safeguard your 
baby's health. 

Care of the Ice Box. — Keep the re- 
frigerator sweet and clean. Person- 
ally inspect it at least once a week. 
See that the outlet for melted ice 
is kept open and the space under 
the ice rack is clean. Scald the place 
where food is kept every week with 
a strong sal soda solution. A single 
drop of spoiled milk or small par- 
ticle of other neglected food will 
contaminate a refrigerator in a few 

Care of Milk Bottles. — As soon as 
a milk bottle is empty, rinse it in 
clear lukewarm or cold water until 
it looks clean and set it bottom side 
up to drain. Do not use it for any 
other purpose than holding milk. 
Never return filthy bottles. Rinse, 
wash and scald all utensils with 
which milk comes in contact every 
time they are used. Do not wash 
them in dish water or wipe with an 
ordinary dish towel. This will only 
serve to smear them with an invisi- 
ble coating of grease. Boil them in 
clean water containing a little borax 
or washing soda and set them away 
unwiped. If a case of typhoid, scar- 
let fever or diphtheria breaks out in 
a family do not return any milk 
bottles to the milkman except with 
the knowledge of the attending 
physician and under conditions pre- 
scribed by him. Never accept milk 
from any family, dairyman or dealer 
when you know, or suspect, that there 
are contagious diseases in his family, 
or that they have recently been ex- 
posed to such contagion. The above 
suggestions apply to cream as well 
as to milk. 




The natural and wholesome ten- 
dency toward a normal life in open 
spaces, where fresh air and sunlight 
abound, has been much encouraged in 
recent years by the development of 
such means of rapid transit as the 
automobile and the interurban street 
car. A great number of city dwel- 
lers have returned to the land and 
many more are planning to take this 
beneficial step. Persons already thus 
pleasantly situated in life manifest 
greater contentment, coupled with a 
pardonable pride in their country or 
suburban homes. A determination is 
observable on the part of many own- 
ers of such homes to make the most 
of their advantages of location by 
all sorts of permanent improvements. 

Therefore, apart from the indoor 
problems of house furnishing, clean- 
liness, cookery, sanitation and other 
alfairs which make up the routine 
of daily life and work, there is a 
great and growing interest every- 
where in what may be called the out- 
door problems of the householder. 
These embrace such subjects as the 
laying down and subsequent care of 
lawns, the proper selection, location, 
planting and care of shade trees and 
shrubbery, and their defense against 
all sorts of insects and other pests; 
the construction and maintenance of 
out-buildings and their appurten- 
ances such as fences, gates and the 

like; and the development and care 
of fruit and vegetable gardens. All 
of these are matters with which every 
householder may have to do, whether 
he occupies a rented dwelling or 
owns his own home. They are of 
especial interest to the large class of 
persons who have recently bought 
home-sites with the intention of 
building, or are planning so to do. 
The object of this chapter is to fur- 
nish practical information, wliich has 
been carefully compiled from the 
best and most recent authorities, on 
these various subjects. 


Nothing can add so much to the 
outward attractiveness of a home as 
a well laid and well kept lawn. The 
cost is not great, under ordinary 
conditions, nor the work difficult. 
Yet many persons who have a suit- 
able open space adjacent to their 
dwellings have been prevented from 
making a lawn by a wrong impres- 
sion as to the expense or by lack of 
necessary information. 

The existing condition and nature 
of the soil is the first and most 
important consideration. A fairly 
deep surface soil of good mechanical 
quality and rich in humus, with good 
under-drainage, is essential. If the 
land already produces a good grass 




or other crop every year, the soil 
conditions are probably favorable. 
No great difficulty or expense will be 
encountered in making a good lawn 
unless the surface soil has been re- 
moved or covered with sub-soil in 
the process of grading. Neither 
lawn grass nor other ordinary plants 
will thrive in sub-soil, until it has 
been mixed with humus and mellowed 
by the mechanical action of frosts 
and other natural agencies. And 
this requires time. Hence unless you 
can afford the expense of resurfac- 
ing your lawn with a layer of good 
garden or other fertile soil, you must 
take care, in grading, not to lose 
the valuable surface soil either by 
removing or covering it. 

Grading. — First settle the grade or 
contour you desire the surface to 
have. As a general rule avoid ter- 
races, or other banks or sharp curves 
on any part of your grounds. They 
are ordinarily more expensive to 
grade and much more difficult to 
maintain. They are liable to injury 
from frost and to erosion or "wash- 
ing" by rains. They are also diffi- 

Cross sections of bad and good, grading 
of small front yards. L indicates the 
level of the house foundation, and M 
a straight line from, the top of the 
house foundation to the sideivalk 
level. Section A: Bad, with the rare 
exception of ivhere a strictly formal 
treatment is admissible. Section B: 
Bad. Section C: Good. This ogee 
curie may be short or long to accom- 
modate the difference in height be- 
tween the dwelling and sidewalk, and 
the distance between them. (L. C. 

cult to trim and keep in order. Most 
grounds will admit of the long sweep- 
ing curve shown in the accompany- 
ing illustration. This is greatly to 
be preferred to the more costly and 
less attractive terrace bank. If the 
ground is level, it is most unwise to 

build artificial banks or terraces to 
be covered with turf, or otherwise 
to incur needless expense to produce 
the effect of slopes or curves. A per- 
fectly flat lawn, if well kept, may 
be very beautiful. 

The less grading done, the better. 
The best landscape engineers seek to 
conform to the natural contours of 
the soil. Modify these only when 
necessary, either to produce a more 
pleasing symmetry, or to bring them 
into pleasant relations with the ad- 
jacent street, walks and drives, and 
the home with its accompanying 

Most often all that is necessary in 
grading is to take soil from a high 
point upon the grounds with which 
to fill up a nearby hollow. This 
course is always preferable because 
the work can be done with a scraper 
much cheaper than by shoveling the 
soil into carts. But take care in all 
such cases to first scrape from the 
ground the surface soil. This ex- 
tends to a depth of four to six inches 
and may easily be distinguished by 
its color and texture. Bank this at 
one side to be returned to its origi- 
nal position after the grading of the 
sub-soil has been done. Otherwise 
the top of the hill will be cut down 
to a hard sub-soil and the surface 
soil in the hollow will be covered 
with sub-soil. Such spots can be 
seeded with great difficulty, if at all. 
Moreover, the grass which springs 
up on them will almost "certainly dry 
up at the first drouth thus giving 
the lawn a spotty appearance. After 
all the sub-soil that is needed to fill 
the hollows has been taken from the 
high ground, break up the sub-soil 
which remains on the crest of the 
knoll, to the depth of four to six 
inches with a plow. This will make 
it correspond more nearly in mechan- 
ical condition to the sub-soil which 
was removed. Then level carefully 
with a harrow or rake and replace 
the surface soil in its original posi- 

Preparation of the Soil. — Lawn 
grass, like otlaer plant crops, thrives 


best upon a porous, well drained 
soil, rich in humus, and abundantly 
supplied with moisture. A deep and 
fairly heavy soil, as a clay or sand 
loam with a clay sub-soil, is per- 
haps an ideal condition. It is neces- 
sary, however, as a rule, to accept 
the existing conditions as a basis, 
and then take such measures to modi- 
fy them in the direction of this ideal 
as circumstances will admit. It is 

Proper and improper soil grading, (a) 
/S'ort to be graded; (It) improper grad- 
ing, shoicing exposure of subsoil; (c) 
proper grading. (L. C. Corbett.) 

always well to treat the entire home 
lot — including not only the lawn but 
also the flower garden, and the veg- 
etable garden, if any — as a single 
unit. The characteristics of the soil 
and its requirements as to drainage 
and fertilization will most often be 
the same. This is not the place to 
discuss the question of soils and soil 
fertilization from the standpoint of 
raising farm crops, i. e., of general 
agriculture. A few words, however, 

are necessary as to the different 
kinds of soil and methods of treat- 
ment since the two subjects are in- 
timately related. 

Two general classes of soil are first 
to be distinguished, i. e., heavy or 
clay soils and light or sandy soil. 
Each class may be of various de- 
grees of fmeness due to the mixture 
of different kinds of material. 
Heavy soils may be classified as clay, 
clay loams, silt loams, or loam soils. 
They are formed by the admixture 
of clay with silt or fine earth in 
varying proportions. Light or sandy 
soils may be coarse or fine sandy 
soils or sandy loams. The basis of 
this case is sand which is mixed 
with fine earth and loam in various 

The distinction between surface 
soil and sul)-soil has Jjeen mentioned. 
At some distance below the surface 
of the ground in most localities, a 
change will be observed in both the 
color and texture of the soil. The 
surface soil is tisually darker and 
more porous. This is due to the 
effects of vegetable and animal life 
and to other influences. The depth 
of this surface soil may vary from 
a few inches, as in mountainous or 
stony soils, to many feet as in cer- 
tain prairies and river valleys. As 
a rule the deeper the surface soil 
the more fertile the land. Its depth 
in small lawns and gardens may 
often be profitably increased in 
either or both of two ways: (1) a 
layer of suitable soil from some 
other locality may be added; or (2) 
the surface soil may be deepened by 
the use of an ordinary plow or spade, 
or by sub-soiling. The kind of soil 
to add upon the surface will depend 
upon the nature of that already in 
position. This may be readily un- 
derstood from a brief statement of 
the chief characteristics of the dif- 
ferent kinds of soils. 

A light or sandjr soil is usually 
"leachy." The soil water tends to 
drain off too rajiidly and to carry 
with it soluble plant food. Such 
soils, therefore, lend to become de- 



ficient both in plant food and mois- 
ture. And this tendency is much en- 
hanced if the sub-soil is a porous 
sand or gravel. In such cases, meas- 
ures are required to solidify the soil 
and increase its proportion of hu- 
mus. This may be done by adding a 
layer of two or three inches of clay, 
by the liberal application of stable 
manure, or by liming. 

Heavy soils, upon the other hand, 
are sometimes not sufficiently open 
to admit as much oxygen as the plant 
roots and the soil bacteria require. 
Moreover, such soils do not drain 
freely and evenly enough. The sur- 
face of the ground tends to become 
baked and hard. Yet there may be 
too much water beneath and about 
the roots of the plants. Such condi- 
tions are best overcome by good un- 
der-drainage with tile, by careful cul- 
tivation, by the adding of an inch 
or two of sand and fine loam, by 
liberal top dressing with strawy 
stable manure, or by green manuring. 
The use of lime is especially bene- 

Drainage. — A prime consideration 
to the growth of lawn grasses, shade 
trees, shrubbery, garden plants, and, 
indeed, all sorts of crops, is an abun- 
dance tof moisture coupled with good 
drainage in the soil. The movement 
of soil water above hard-pan is prin- 
cipally up and down. There is very 
little lateral movement except that 
caused by the dip of hard-pan, usual- 
ly at some distance below the surface. 
The free water in the soil tends to 
settle to a uniform level over a larger 
or smaller area depending upon the 
nature of the sub-soil. This level is 
known as the "water table." When 
rains fall, that portion of the rain 
water which is not carried off by 
surface drainage sinks into the soil 
and settles to the level of the 
water table which is thereby raised. 
In times of drouth, the water which 
evaporates from the surface is re- 
placed from this reservoir of free 
water beneath by the process called 
capillarity. The principle is that by 
which oil is fed to the flame through 

the wick of a lamp. The water table 
is thereby lowered. A sandy soil may 
resist drouth poorly for two reasons: 
the water table may be too low or 
it may not have enough of this prop- 
erty of capillarity, its particles being 
too far apart. A clay soil may be 
too wet either because the water 
table is too high so that the plants 
have "wet feet", that is, their roots 
are surrounded with standing water, 
or it may be deficient in capillarity 
for an opposite reason, its particles 
being too close together. A well 
drained soil is one in which the water 
table lies normally several inches be- 
low the roots of the growing plants 
but which has strong capillarity 
properties. Its particles must be 
neither too far apart nor too close 
together, as a good wick is one which 
■ is neither too loosely nor too tightly 

Reasoning from the above prin- 
ciples it is apparent that a sandy 
soil or fine, light, clay loam may not 
require under-drainage unless it lies 
upon a clay or other impervious sub- 
soil or receives excessive moisture 
from springs or underground 
streams. On the other hand most 
heavy soils are improved by under- 
drainage, especially if the land is 
low and springy or marshy, or if it 
contains pools of standing water at 
any period of the year. 

The first step is evidently to find 
out what the soil condition? are. They 
may often be observed from cuts, 
such as the excavation of cellars, 
wells, roadways, planting of shade 
trees and other purposes, or in the 
course of grading operation. But 
unless such cuts are well distributed 
over the grounds, it is a good plan 
to make a few openings here and 
there. Especially make observations 
at the highest and lowest points to 
learn the nature and relations of the 
surface soil, sub-soil and hard-pan 
and the dip of the various strata. 
This may be done with some labor 
by means of spades or the imple- 
ments used to dig post holes. But 
a much more convenient tool is the 


soil auger. By means of this the 
soil can be tested on any part of 
the grounds with very little effort or 
interference with existing conditions. 


Soil auger for collecting soil samples and 
useful in exploring sub-soil conditions 
in lawns. Such an instrument en- 
tirely prevents the disfigurement 
which icould be unavoidable if a 
larfjer hole had to be dug in a laicn. 
{L. C. Corbett.) 

Tile Drains. — Unless investigation 
shows that both surface and sub-soil 
are so porous as to admit of abun- 
dant drainage, it may be assumed 
that an apj^ropriate system of tile 
drainage will be a substantial bene- 
fit to both lawn and garden. To ac- 
complish the best results treat the 
entire plot as a single unit. Lay the 
tile lines at a distance of from five 
to twenty feet apart according to 
the amount of water to be removed 
and the texture of the soil. Lay 
them at a depth of between three 
and four feet according to climate. 
This places them well below the frost 
line and out of the way of injury 
from plowing or other operations 
such as installing a sewage disposal 
system, digging fence posts, tree 
planting and the like. All tile should 
have a gradual inclination toward a 
common outlet. This may be the 
street sewer, if any, or in the ab- 
sence of a sewerage system, any low 
point of ground, the farther from 
the house, the better. Take care to 
see that the outfall does not become 
a stagnant pool, else it will afford 
a breeding place for mosquitoes. 

Use the four-inch red agricultural 
tile laid with open joints according 
to the directions of the manufac- 
turer. First prejiare a plan to show 
the exact location of every line of 
tile and mark the end of each in 
some suitable manner as by an iron 
rod or stone set in the ground. Thus 
it can readily be found and uncov- 
ered if the drains should become 
stopped up. 

The effect of an adequate system 
of tile drainage is to remove all sur- 
plus surface water from tlie soil and 
to lower the water table to a uniform 
point below the roots of the growing 
plants. If the sub-soil is reasonably 
compact and if the surface soil con- 
tains a fair proportion of clay or 
loam and is well supplied with hu- 
mus, the result will be an ideal con- 
dition for growing plants. 

Talce care both in opening and fill- 
ing ditches made for tile, to throw 
the surface soil to one side and the 
sub-soil to the other. Refill the ditch 
so that the two kinds of soil will be 
in their former relation. Otherwise 
the grass will not grow equally as 
well over the lines of the ditches and 
they may be clearly observable in 
the finished lawn. 

To clear tile drain pipes which 
have become obstructed by roots of 
trees or otherwise use a stiff wire 
brush on the end of a wire cable. 
Open the end of the obstructed 
drain most remote from the outlet, 
attach the brush to the cable and 
thrust it along the tile until the ob- 
struction has been reached. If the 
obstruction resists the brush, its ex- 
act location can be measured by the 
length of the cable under ground. 
An opening can then be made at a 
point such that the obstructed tile 
can be removed and cleaned. 

After the tile are laid and the 
grading operations finished, give the 
entire lawn and garden the same 
treatment as a field intended for an 
especially valuable farm crop. Plow 
or spade the land to a depth de- 
pending upon that of the surface 
soil and the nature of the sub-soil. 
If the surface soil is thin and the 
sub-soil is of a markedly different 
character, — if, for example, a thin 
layer of loam lies over a hard gravel 
or clay — do not plow deeply enough 
to mix the raw sub-soil with the sur- 
face soil. Rather, turn over the sur- 
face soil and add a layer of suitable 
soil from some other locality. Or 
use the sub-soil plow to deepen the 
soil. Tliis loosens and breaks up 



the sub-soil without turning or lift- 
ing it. Both before and after plow- 
ing, take great care to pick up and 
remove all pieces of board, broken 
brick, slate, tile, or other building 
material and also all roots, branches 
and trunks of trees, loose stone, 
roots of grasses and weeds, and 
other rubbish of every description. 
Not infrequently odds and ends of 
this sort are deliberately carted in 
to fill up the lawn. Or they may be 
carelessly left lying scattered about 
and merely covered to a depth of a 
few inches with surface soil. Such 
obstructions cut off the grass roots 
from their supply of water and their 
presence is revealed at the first 
drouth by a spot of dead grass in 
the lawn. 

Fertilization. — The lawn is to be 
permanently seeded to a single crop. 
And the gardens are to be subjected 
to an annual cropping of plants and 
flowers. Hence it would seem that 
they could hardly be made too rich. 
The best authorities recommend that 
well composted and rotted stable 
manure be applied to the surface at 
the rate of from forty to sixty two- 
horse wagon loads to the acre, and 
turned in with the plow. But take 
care that this is free from detrimen- 
tal weeci seeds. If the soil is raw, 
from admixture with sub-soil from 
cellars or grading operations, or if 
it is light, thin or poor in plant food 
and humus, it may be very much im- 
proved by sowing it for a year or 
more with some crop suitable for 
green manuring. Cow-peas and soy- 
beans are recommended for latitudes 
south of Washington, D. C, and red 
clover, vetches and Canadian peas 
for northern districts. Let these 
reach their maximum growth and 
then plow under. This will improve 
the structure of the soil and make 
it more retentive of moisture and 
soluble plant food. 

Then apply about 1,000 pounds of 
lime to the acre and later, — at the 
time of preparing the seed bed, — 
apply from 500 to 1,000 pounds of 
fine ground bone, together with 300 

to 500 pounds of a high grade fer- 
tilizer containing about 3 per cent 
nitrogen, 6 to 8 per cent phosphoric 
acid and about 8 per cent potash, 
upon each acre. This is, in sub- 
stance, the recommendation of the 
United States Department of Agri- 

Or if the soil is so raw that it 
will not grow a good forage crop 
suitable for green manuring, manure 
even more heavily and grow such 
crops as corn or potatoes for a year 
or two in order to improve its tilth 
by the process of cultivation. 

Selection of Lawn Grass Seeds. — 
Among the qualities most sought for 
in lawn grasses are a close turf, 
soft, rather than wiry, of pleasing 
color and with capacity to resist 
drouth and other climatic conditions 
under repeated clipping. Under ideal 
c'onditions a better lawn can be made 
with one kind of lawn grass than 
with a mixture. Kentucky blue 
grass is the prime favorite. It thrives 
best on a comparatively retentive, 
strong and well drained soil where 
there is an abundance of moisture. 
It is adapted to most parts of the 
United States. Where conditions are 
not ideally adapted to blue grass — ■ 
as, for example, on lighter soils — a 
better lawn may be secured by the 
admixture of other grasses as Rhode 
Island red top. The preferred mix- 
ture in most localities is two parts 
by weight of Kentucky blue grass, 
to one of red top. This Tnixture is 
a leader with the i^rincipal seedsmen. 
White clover seed is often added, as 
a nurse crop, to protect the young 
grasses the first year. It springs 
up quickly and makes a good lawn, 
but is soon crowded out under close 
cutting in the presence of a good 
stand of the best lawn grasses. On 
very light land Rhode Island bent 
may be substituted for Kentucky 
blue grass in the above mixture. 
These are the standard lawn grasses 
but others as Canadian blue grass, 
the fescue grasses, wood meadow 
grass and sweet vernal grass are use- 
ful for special purposes. 


Shady Nook Mixtures. — Rhode 
Island bent, creeping bent and Cana- 
dian blue grass do well in the shade 
and so do red fescue and sheep fes- 
cue, especially if used in mixtures 
under heavy seeding. The best plan 
is to try a mixture of a number of 
these grasses and seed heavily. Only 
the grass or grasses which prove best 
adapted to the location will survive. 

Kentucky blue grass stands shade 
well and mixed with wood meadow 
grass makes perhaps the best of all 
shade mixtures, but as the latter is 
very high in price, its use in recent 
years has been very limited. 

In seeding a lawn it is sound econ- 
omy to procure the best select or 
recleaned seeds and to seed heavily. 
Pure blue grass weighs about 23 
pounds to the bushel, whereas, an 
ordinary market grade averages only 
about 13 pounds. Pure red top 
should weigh 24 pounds to the bushel, 
although it ranges as low as 10 
pounds. A fair grade should weigh 
not less than 16 to 20 pounds to the 
bushel. A standard mixture of blue 
grass with the bent grasses and the 
fescues should be sown at the rate 
of 3 to 5 bushels of seed an acre. 
Blue grass alone should be sown at 
a rate of from 50 to 70 pounds to 
ihe acre. White clover may be add- 
ed in either case at the rate of one 
peck to the acre. 

For latitudes north of Washington, 
D. C, under ideal conditions of soil 
and seed bed, sow a mixture of 50 
pounds blue grass, 25 pounds red top 
and 6 quarts of white clover to the 
acre on fairly heavy soils. But in- 
crease the proportion of red top 
on light soils to equal parts by 
weight with the blue grass, or 37 i 
V^rnds of each with 6 quarts of 
white clover, to the acre. 

Planting the Lawn. — Lawn grass 
seed may be sowed either in the 
spring or fall depending ujjon the 
climate, nature of the soil and other 
conditions. If the soil is not pro- 
tected by snow in winter, so that the 
seed bed is liable to washing from 
rains and upheaval from alternate 

frosts and thaws, it will be found 
better to prepare a fresh seed bed 
for spring planting. The chief ob- 
jection to this i>lan is the liability to 
delay from unfavorable soil condi- 
tions in spring, especially in clay 
land or other wet or heavy soils. 
This difficulty may be overcome by 
good under-drainage, and by fall 
plowing or other previous cultivation, 
to bring the land into a good state 
of tilth. If the ground is broken in 
the fall the first crop of weeds will 
come up early in the spring and 
may be turned under when preparing 
the seed bed. Keep down weeds 
which spring up later by frequent 
clipping with the lawn mower. They 
will soon be killed out by the grow- 
ing stand of grass, particularly if 
white clover is added as a nurse 

Plant the lawn as early in the 
spring as the soil is dry enough to 
work projDerly and there is enough 
heat to germinate the seed and bring 
along the crop. If the planting is 
too late, the tender young plants 
will be injured by the heat and 
drouth of summer. In the northern 
half of the United States, fall plant- 
ing may be done from the latter part 
of August to October according to 
location. In the South the best time 
for fall planting comes later and 
that for spring planting earlier, ac- 
cording to climatic conditions. 

Maintenance of the Lawn. — Close 
clipping will eradicate most weeds 
except those having broad, flat heads 
such as plantain, dandelion and dock. 
These must be cut out by the use of 
a knife or trowel. A short-handled 
asparagus knife is suitable for this 
purpose. But if dandelions or dock 
come up in great numbers, it is often 
cheaper to plow and remake the 

Fertilization. — The basis of a good 
lawn is to bring the seed bed into 
a proper state of tilth by the liberal 
application of well rotted barnyard 
manure, bone phosphate, lime or 
green manuring, as above suggested. 
A winter mulch of well rotted stable 



manure will lessen the danger from 
alternate frosts and thaws and en- 
rich the soil. Apply a light covering 
in the late fall and rake off the 
coarse residue when the grass starts 
In the spring. Or if the grass clip- 
pings are allowed to remain on the 
lawns they serve much the same pur- 

As a rule fertilizers should be ap- 
plied to lawns in the fall. A good 
plan for a small lawn is a three year 
rotation of a complete commercial 
fertilizer the first year, followed by 
ground bone the next two years and 
so continued. But any of the stand- 
ard fertilizing materials may be em- 
ployed. These have the advantage 
over stable manure that they contain 
no weed seeds. 

Nitrate of soda scattered over the 
lawn at the rate of 100 pounds per 
acre in the spring will stimulate its 
growth and give it a richer color. 
This should be done after the grass 
begins to grow and just before a rain 
or sprinkling. Or the nitrate may 
be dissolved in water and sprinkled 
upon the lawn. Later applications 
at the rate of 50 pounds to the acre 
will help to keep the lawn green dur- 
ing the heated summer. An appli- 
cation of well slaked lime scattered 
broadcast, at the rate of 500 to 1,000 
pounds to the acre, will be found 
beneficial on some soils. On those 
especially which are sour, as shown 
by the presence of sorrel or those 
which have a tendency to bake and 
crack as clays, or heavy clay loams, 
the use of lime is indicated. Lime 
tends to favor such desirable grasses 
as blue grass and white clover. 


"God Almighty," says Bacon, "first 
planted a garden eastward in Eden 
and walked there in the cool of the 
day." And there can be no purer 
nor more wholesome pleasure than 
that which the gardener enjoj^s when 
observing the growth of plants and 
flowers. Not only is gardening a 
source of the liveliest and most un- 

failing delight. If properly con- 
ducted, it is an educational process 
of the greatest value. A good flower 
garden exerts a powerful influence 
upon the aesthetic side of the home 
life. The home vegetable garden also 
contributes to the health and physi- 
cal well being of the family and is, 
moreover, an important measure of 

The custom of setting apart a por- 
tion of the home grounds for flower 
and vegetable gardens, while nearly 
universal in New England and many 
other of the older and more thickly 
settled portions of the United States, 
is much less widely practiced over 
the whole national area than it ought 
to be. Garden vegetables grown as 
farm crops are commonly used as ar- 
ticles of summer diet everywhere. 
But this custom can by no means vie 
with a well kept kitchen garden, 
either in the variety or quality of 
the wholesome eatables which it af- 
fords. An area of land cultivated 
as a kitchen garden will easily sup- 
ply the family table with one hun- 
dred dollars' worth of vegetables 
every year. The advantage to the 
housewife of a bountiful supply of 
good vegetables, close at hand, is 

Many of the best varieties of gar- 
den vegetables lose much of their 
proper flavor within a few hours 
after gathering. Hence these are 
rarely, if ever, seen in the market. 
Their places are commonly taken 
by inferior sorts which have better 
keeping qualities. Moreover, fresh 
vegetables in the home garden are 
clean and not liable to infection from 
handling and exposure. 

Location of the Garden. — On small 
grounds the garden site may be con- 
fined of necessity to one location. 
But if choice is afforded, select pre- 
ferably a spot having a gentle slope 
and southern exposure. A prime 
consideration is to secure the best 
possible crops of early vegetables as 
a wholesome change from the monot- 
ony of winter diet. A windbreak 
either of trees, buildings or hedges, 



or even a high board fence or stone 
wall, will be an aid to this end by- 
breaking the force of the cold spring 
winds. Some persons prefer, where 
space admits, to change the location 
of the garden every five or six years. 
But by proper rotation of crops and 
suitable cultivation, it has been found 
possible to continue growing garden 
crops with equal, or even increasingly 
good results, upon the same piece of 
ground for many years. 

The subject of drainage and the 
original preparation of the soil have 
already been considered. The proper 
treatment in after years depends 
upon the nature of the soil. A clay 
or other heavy soil should be plowed 
in the fall so that it may be mel- 
lowed by the frosts. A lighter soil 
may be plowed in the spring as soon 
as the ground is dry enough to be 
worked. The rule is to grasp a 
handful of soil firmly in the hand 
and observe whether or not it crum- 
bles when released. If so, the soil 
may be worked with safety. The 
finer the soil, the better the crops 
will be. Hence, some gardeners go 
over the soil in the spring with the 
disc harrow before plowing so that, 
when turned over, the bottom soil 
will be fine. They also use the disc 
harrow after plowing so as to mel- 
low the soil through and through. 

Fertilization. — Only well rotted 
stable manure or high grade com- 
mercial fertilizer should be used. 
The latter may be applied in the 
fall on heavy soil and plowed under. 
Or on light soil it may be applied 
either in the fall or spring and 
turned under at the spring plowing. 
Fertilizer may be applied either 
broadcast or in the hill; or better, 
part one way and part the other. 
A handful of fertilizer sprinkled in 
the hill over a space about as large 
as a dinner plate and worked into 
the soil with a hoe will help to give 
any vegetable, and especially early 
crops, a flying start. But never dump 
a handful of fertilizer in the bottom 
of the hill without mixing it thor- 
oughly with soil. Otherwise some of 

the roots will not come in contact 
with it at all, and those which do will 
be burned. Hence for the time be- 
ing it will be somewhat worse than 

Garden Seeds and Plants. — The 
selection of seeds and plants for the 
garden, the depth at which they 
should be planted, and many other 
particulars about the diff^erent gar- 
den crops vary so greatly by reason 
of climatic and other conditions that 
they cannot be properly discussed in 
this place. Send for the catalogs 
of the principal seedsmen in your 
section and follow carefully the di- 
rections which they give. For fur- 
ther information apply by letter to 
the State Experiment Station of the 
Department of Agriculture in your 
ov n State or to the Secretary of 
Agriculture at Washington. 

Tables for Planting. — The tables 
on the following pages for planting 
flowers and vegetables are taken from 
"The Garden Annual" of the Chicago 
Simday Tribune. The times of plant- 
ing are calculated for the latitude of 
New York. Allow ten days for each 
one hundred miles north or south of 
that latitude. The date for indoor 
planting applies to seeds started in 
the house, in a hot bed, or in a cold 
frame, but observe that cold snaps 
and other weather conditions may af- 
fect these dates. The table for 
planting vegetables is planned espe- 
cially for those having small gar- 
dens in which most or all of the work 
must be done by hand. 

Hot Beds. — To start early plants 
in the northern half of the United 
States build a hot bed. This is sim- 
ply a box sunk in the groimd and 
heated from below by means of a 
bed of stable manure or otherwise. 
It contains a layer of soil for the 
seed bed and is protected by a cover 
of window sash filled with glass. 
Hot beds may be either temporary 
or permanent. 

To Build a Temporary Hot Bed. — 
Select a sheltered, well drained lo- 
cation and shake out a pile of man- 
ure in a broad flat heap 8 or 9 feet 




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wide. Pack by tramping to a solid 
mass 18 or 24 inches deep. The 
length will depend upon the number 
of sash to be employed. Select for 
tliis j)urpose horse manure contain- 
ing sufficient litter to spring lightly 
when trodden. Now adjust the 
frames facing to the south. These are 
merely an open box without top or 
bottom. Build them of any soimd 
inch lumber, 6 feet wide, and long 
enough to accommodate any required 
number of sash. Standard garden 
sash 3 by 6 feet in size can be pur- 
chased of seedsmen or dealers in gar- 
den supplies. Or suitable frames to 
hold the glass can be made at home 
or by a local carpenter. Including 
the item of labor, however, this meth- 
od is likely to be more expensive. 
Make the front from 4 to 6 inches 
lower than the back so as to incline 
the glass enough to afford good 
drainage. Now sj^read 3 to 5 inches 
of good garden loam, or special pre- 
pared soil, evenly over the manure 
within the frame, put the sash on and 
let the bed heat. At first the tem- 
perature will be high. Do not plant 
seed until it falls to 80°. This will 
be in about three days. 

Or, to make a permanent hot bed, 
dig a pit about 30 inches deep 
and 6 feet wide to any desired length 
and line the walls with brick or 3- 
inch plank. Fill this with manure. 
Or, if convenient, install a suitable 
heating system. Care must be taken 
to adjust this so that the tempera- 
ture within the hot bed will not ex- 
ceed 80° F. 

Provide board shutters, straw mat- 
ting, burlap or old carpet to cover 
the frames during cold nights. Also 
have at hand a supply of straw, or 
loose stable manure, to throw over 
them during cold snaps. 

Place the hot bed near the house 
or barn, convenient to some walk 
which is used several times a day, 
and keep it under close and constant 
observation. When the sim shines on 
the glass, ventilate the hot bed by 
raising the sash a little on the side 
opposite the wind. Take care to 

keep the plants from a draft of cold 
air. Toward evening close the sash 
and let the bed warm up for the 
night. Water only on bright days 
and in the early morning. Watering 
in the evening or on cloudy days 
may chill the bed and expose it to 
frosts. After watering, ventilate to 
let surplus moisture escape, else the 
plants may be lost by damping-off 
fungus or mildew. 

Cold Frames. — These are made 
precisely the same as hot beds ex- 
cept that they rest on the bare earth 
and are not heated. Place a cold 
frame near the hot bed in northern 
climates and transplant to it plants 
that have been started in the hot 
bed, to harden them before trans- 
l^lauting to the garden. But in the 
South, the cold frame may take the 
place of the hot bed in starting early 
plants. Ventilate and water cold 
frames the same as hot beds. 

Earth, for Seed Beds. — To prepare 
earth for seeds or small plants, for 
filling pots, window boxes, hot beds, 
cold frames or for certain purposes 
in the open garden, mix one part 
by bulk of well rotted manure, two 
parts of good garden loam and one 
part of sharp fine sand. Choose for 
this purpose manure which has been 
thoroughly rotted but not exposed 
to leaching from the weather. Mix 
all together in a heap, stir well with 
the shovel, sift and place in boxes 
or in the bed prepared for the seed. 
If convenient, bake the soil for an 
hour in a hot oven. This will kill 
all weed seed and spores of fungous 

Seeding'. — Sow all garden seeds 
which are to be transplanted in 
straight rows 2 inches or more apart 
according to kind and convenience. 
Water just often enough to keep the 
soil in such condition that a hand- 
ful will crumble freely after being 
pressed in the hand. 

Thin the plants as soon as they can 
be handled and before they begin to 
"draw" or grow tall and spindling. 
Remove the centers of the thick 
bunches so as leave uniform spaces 


but preserve as far as possible the 
best plants. 

Hardening' Off and Transplanting. 
— Do not transplant seedlings grown 
in the house, hot bed or cold frame 
to the open garden without first ac- 
customing them to efi^ects of sun 
and wind. To "harden off" plants, 
increase gradually the ventilation and 
reduce the amount of watering. But 
do not let the ground become so 
dry that the plant will wilt. After 
a few days leave the plants uncov- 
ered throughout the day and on mild 
nights. They can then be transplant- 
ed without loss. Transplant prefer- 
ably twice; first from the hot bed 
to the cold frame or especially pre- 
pared seed bed in the open garden 
and, afterwards, thence to the per- 
manent location. This strengthens 
and improves most plants by in- 
creasing the size and vigor of the 
root system. 

Others as melons, cucumbers and 
beans, do not transplant readily from 
the seed bed to the open ground. 
Start each hill of these in a pint or 
quart berry box, or on the bottom 
of a piece of sod 2 or 3 inches thick 
and 5 or 6 inches square placed root 
side up in the hot bed or cold frame. 
Then bury the box or sod in its 
proper place in the garden a little 
below the surface of the earth. Cut 
out the bottom of the berry box with 
a sharp knife before planting. By 
these means the roots of the growing 
plants are not disturbed. 

Choose for transplanting a cool, 
cloudy day or work in the evening 
and pueferably when the soil is moist 
but not wet. Soak the earth in the 
seed bed a few hours before trans- 
planting. Separate the plants from 
one another by cutting the soil into 
cubes by means of a knife or trowel. 
Remove preferably enough earth 
from the seed bed to protect the 
roots. Or, should the earth fall from 
the roots, "puddle" the plant by dip- 
ping the roots in a thin slime con- 
sisting of clay, cow manure and wa- 
ter, mixed in a pail or tub. Pick up 
the plants in small bunches and 

"puddle" until the roots are coated 
with moist earth. This protects them 
from air and afi'ords direct contact 
of the roots with the soil. 

Have the seed bed smooth, fine and 
level. Mark the location of the rows 
by a cord fastened to stakes at either 
end and drawn taut. But do not 
open the holes or separate the plants 
until ready to insert them so that 
the soil will be moist and fresh. 
Should the earth be dry, pour a little 
water in the hole and cover with dry 
soil to prevent baking. Set the 
plants upright a little deeper than 
they stood in the seed bed. Press 
the earth about them with the fingers 
so that no open spaces are left. The 
time of planting must depend ujjon 
climatic and other local conditions. 
If in doubt, ask some experienced 
local gardener. 

To protect small plants from heat 
in hot climates drive stakes into the 
ground slanting toward the north 
and lean boards against them so as 
to shade the rows. Or use light 
frames on lath or wooden slats and 
cover them with cotton cloth. To 
protect crops planted in winter from 
cold and give an early start in the 
spring, set the stakes slanting to the 
south and lean boards against them 
on the north side. Or cover with a 
mulch of manure, straw or leaves. 
But take care that this is not so 
thick as to keep the air from the 
plants and also see that it is free 
from injurious weeds. 

Cultivation of Gardens. — Horse 
cultivation is to be preferred when 
possible. It is cheaper and likely to 
be more thorough. In this case make 
the rows as long as possible and 
plant potatoes, or other crops not 
easily injured by tramping, in the 
space required for turning at the 
ends. The objects of cultivation are 
to keep down the weeds and conserve 
soil moisture by providing a surface 
mulch. Stirring the top soil to a 
depth of 2 or 3 inches after every 
rain accomplishes both. Frequent 
shallow cultivation is the rule with 
all good gardeners, the more fre- 


quent, the better. A light mulch of 
fine manure, lawn clippings, or the 
like for ten or twelve inches around 
young plants will help to jsreserve 
the moisture. This is essential for 
strawberries to keep the fruit from 
contact with the ground. But do not 
make this mulch so heavy as to ex- 
clude the air. Do not cultivate too 
soon after a rain. Test the soil by 
squeezing it in the hand. 

It is sound economy to provide a 
full set of garden tools. A com- 
plete outfit of hand tools should in- 
clude spade and spading fork, steel 
rake, common hoe, narrow hoe, dib- 
bles and trowels for transplanting, 
weeders, watering can and wheel- 
barrow. A wheel hoe is also a great 
convenience, especially if a horse cul- 
tivator is not available. 

Combined Fruit and Vegetable 
Garden. — It is quite surprising how 
much can be accomplished upon a 
very small area by wise selection and 
proper modes of culture. Often two 
kinds of crops can be grown upon 
the same space as by growing small 
fruits, like the currant or raspberry, 
between the rows of apple or other 
fruit trees. Or strawberries may be 
grown between rows of grapevines. 
Or grapevines may be used to screen 
out-buildings or porches. Or a grape 
arbor may be utilized as a summer 
house. Some flowering plants as 
pansies or violets — and some garden 
vegetables — as radishes — may also be 
grown between grapevines, or fruit 
trees. Asparagus grows well in such 
a location. There are many plans 
for combining fruit and vegetable 
garden which may readily be adapted 
to local conditions. The following- 
suggestions are made by the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture: 

An area of 60 by 80 feet set apart 
as a fruit garden will accommodate 
443 fruit-bearing plants of the kinds 
designated, while an area of 40 by 
80 feet will be suificient for quite a 
variety of vegetable plants. On these 
areas, if carefully planned, the fol- 
lowing fruit and vegetable plants 
may be grown: 

Thirty-two grapevines, dispersed at 
intervals of 10 feet around the en- 
tire garden; three rows, each contain- 
ing 6 trees dwarf pears, 18 speci- 
mens in all (rows Nos. 3, 10, 14) ; one 
row, 6 specimens, peaches (row No. 
4) ; one row, 6 specimens, cherries 
(row No. 8) ; one row, 6 specimens, 
dwarf apples (row No. 6) ; one row, 
6 specimens, plums (row No. 12) ; 
one row, 30 specimens, blackberries 
(row No. 1) ; two rows, 40 specimens, 
blackcaps (rows Nos. 3 and 5) ; two 
rows, 40 specimens, red raspberries 
(rows Nos. 7 and 9) ; three rows, 300 
specimens, strawberries (rows Nos. 
11, 13 and 15). 

Vegetable Plants That Can Be 
Grown on an Area of -40 by 80 Feet. 
— One row, ^ row rhubarb, -J row 
asparagus (occupying four feet) ; one 
row, salsify (IJ feet); one row, 
parsnips (1^ feet) ; two rows, beets 
(3 feet) ; one row, eggplant — plants 
set 18 inches apart — 3 dozen (3 feet) ; 
two rows, tomatoes, plants set 3 feet 
apart — 3 dozen (6 feet) ; one row, 
summer squash, 13 hills, 3 feet apart 
(3 feet) ; two rows, cucumbers, 34 
hills, 3 feet apart (1 foot) ; two rows, 
early cabbage, 4 dozen plants, set 18 
inches apart (4 feet) ; two rows, 
late cabbage, 4 dozen plants, set 18 
inches apart (4 feet) ; one row, early 
celery, 6 dozen plants, set 6 inches 
apart (3 feet) ; eight rows, peas, 
plant in double rows, 4 inches apart, 
follow by 6 rows late celery, 36 dozen 
plants (16 feet) ; two rows, lima 
beans, 4 dozen hills, 18 inches apart 
(4 feet) ; six rows, bunch beans, in 
succession sow seeds in drills, placing 
seeds about 6 inches apart in the 
row; follow by late cabbage, turnips, 
or spinach (13 feet) ; two rows, rad- 
ishes, 4 sowings, planted in double 
rows 6 inches apart (3 feet) ; two 
rows, lettuce, two sorts, adajjted for 
early and late use (3 feet) ; one row, 
parsley and peppergrass (1^ feet). 
The space occupied by the last three 
plants may be given over to winter 
squashes by planting these before 
other crops are off the ground. 

This general plan will serve as a 


guide to planting in any portion of 
the United States, but the sorts 
chosen must be suited to each par- 
ticular section of the country. 

As will be seen, this garden is 
planned to utilize the space to the 
best possible advantage. In order to 
secure large returns, the soil must be 
kept cultivated and well enriched. 
Walks, if any are to be maintained 
as permanent features, should only 
exist where necessary for ease and 
comfort in getting about. A perma- 
nent walk should divide the fruit 
garden from the vegetable garden. 
This is best made of gravel or some 
other loose material, which will pre- 
serve a dry passageway without pre- 
venting rain from penetrating the 
soil beneath it. The fruit trees which 
stand beside it will need the moisture 
which it gathers. On account of the 
small area occupied and the close 
planting necessary to secure the re- 
sults desired, the culture of such a 
garden must of necessity be by hand. 
If the grapevines are trained on the 
high renewal system, they will serve 
both as a screen for the rest of the 
garden and as a source of fruit sup- 
ply. A good wire fence should, how- 
ever, be constructed on the line be- 
tween adjoining properties, and the 
grape border planted not farther 
than 2 feet from the boundary fence. 


A good, well-kept lawn affords a 
natural background against which to 
display shade trees and shrubbery. 
These may be purely ornamental ob- 
jects. Or such useful trees and 
shrubs as fruit trees and currant or 
barberry bushes may be chosen with 
both ornament and utility in view. 
Both these thoughts should be kept in 
mind in the selection of trees and 
shrubs and in making the decision 
where to plant them. As above sug- 
gested, to secure best results, treat 
all of the available space about the 
home site as a single tract. The work 
of grading, breaking, manuring and 
otherwise preparing the soil can be 

done both cheaper and better all at 
one time. And the treatment requi- 
site for the lawn and garden will pre- 
pare the soil for the reception of 
trees and shrubs. 

First make a plan of the home site, 
to scale, with pencil and paper. On 
this mark the location of all build- 
ings and other cultural objects and 
landmarks. This will greatly assist 
in securing pleasing effects in laying 
out even the smallest and simplest of 
home grounds. Mark the dimensions 
and outlines of the portion to be 
reserved for lawn and greensward. 


^ 3 '* * « * « 

iti * % a « <* •< 

i3> *»{»-» • 
« «« 8* « 

General plan for farmhouse grounds. 

Set apart spaces for vegetable and 
flower gardens. Now sketch in the 
necessary pathways, walks and drives. 
Finally consider how to secure 
against this background the most de- 
sirable effects by the planting of 
trees and shrubbery. The size of the 
home grounds and their location and 
surroundings — including climatic and 
other conditions — vary so widely that 
the problem of beautifying them is 
necessarily an individual one. How- 
ever, experience has suggested cer- 
tain general principles which are of 



universal value. These may be briefly 

General Design. — Observe the main 
lines of travel and, unless there 
should be some good reason for 
changing, make these the basis for 
permanent paths and vv^all'cs. Custom 
is very persistent and usual lines of 
travel will not only prove as a rule 
to be the most convenient, but will be 
difficult to change. They may result, 
if changed unwisely, in unsightly foot 

Group planting. 

paths across the lawn. Short walks 
and drives of less than 100 feet 
should preferably be straight. If 
longer they may be gently curved to 
provide bays in which trees and 
shrubs may be planted. Observe 
carefully the outlook from all the 
doors and windows to determine 
which parts of the landscape should 
be retained in view and what objects 
should be cut off from sight by trees 
and shrubs. 

The best practice is to confine trees 
and shrubs to the borders of the 
grounds or the lines of walks or 
drives. Leave the lawn lying in un- 
broken stretches. But such borders 
need not be continuous around the 
grounds. They should be broken here 
and there to preserve attractive views 
of the exterior landscape. Often a 
continuous belt of trees is desirable 
across the rear or at the sides of the 
lot to afford protection. But since 
the rear views may be as attractive 
as those toward the front, these belts 
may also be broken at intervals. 
Great care must be taken, however, 
not to leave openings which will 
cause snow to drift in the vicinity of 
the house and outbuildings. 

Formal arrangements of trees in 
straight rows are sometimes desirable 
to screen public highways, or as bor- 
ders. But more pleasing effects can 
usually be produced by spacing the 
trees irregularly. The width of a 
belt of trees may properly be varied. 
Let them project in some places into 
the interior open space and retreat, 
in others, almost to the limit of the 

The best effects may be secured 
from a variety of kinds of trees. 
Group each kind by itself. Vistas 
of the more distant landscape open- 
ing between groups of trees irregu- 
larly spaced are among the most 
pleasing views imaginable. A few 
elms, a group of oaks, or a clump 
of graceful birches scattered about 
the grounds gives character to the 
planting from a near view and, when 
' seen at a distance, makes a pleas- 
ingly diversified sky-line. 

Shrubbery is properly placed when 
planted in clumps against belts of 
trees, in bays or corners, or when 
employed to screen a rough founda- 
tion wall, to soften the outlines of 

Scattered plantations. 

unsightly objects or to hide them 
wholly from view. 

Walks may properly follow the 
contour of the ground. 

Windbreaks. — Many homes are 
naturally sheltered by adjacent hills 
or timber. But countless thousands 
of dwellings, school-houses, barns and 
other occupied buildings stand on 
hills, or treeless plains, such that 
some suitable protection is required. 
Such a windbreak, recommended bj' 
the Department of Agriculture for 


the northern half of the United 
States, consists of thirteen rows of 
trees parallel to one another and 6 
feet 10 inches apart. The first two 
rows on the north and west edges of 
the belt are Russian wild olive; the 
third and fourth, arborvitse; fifth and 
sixth, box elder; seventh and eighth, 
white elm; ninth and tenth, white 
willow; and the remaining three rows, 
common cottonwood. Such a wind- 
break when the trees are matured will 
appear like the side and top of a 
building having a sloping roof. 

For the southern part of the 
United States, to afford protection 
from south and west winds, the fol- 
lowing is advised: The first two 
rows on the south and west edges of 
the belt to be Russian mulberry or 
Osage orange; the third and fourth, 
Chinese arborvitse; the fifth and 
sixth, black locust; seventh and 
eighth, green ash; ninth and tenth, 
white elm; the remaining three rows, 
honey locust or common cottonwood. 

For portions of the Pacific slope 
where damaging wiriids may come 
from either southwest or northeast, 
the whole tract should be surrounded 
by a windbreak having the tallest 
and most flexible trees in the middle 
and those on either side sloping- 
downward. The Department recom- 
mends a windbreak 3-J- rods wide, 
consisting of seven rows of trees; the 
three middle rows to be eucalyptus 
of the species most suitable to the 
site; the next row on each side, Mon- 
terey pine; the two outside rows on 
both edges, Monterey cypress. Or 
any number of rows of these varieties 
of trees may be planted in the same 
relative proportions. 

Such windbreaks not only protect 
the land for a distance approximately 
ten times their height. Thej'' also 
provide timber for the repair of 
buildings and many similar purposes. 
An objection to windbreaks is that 
trees adjacent to lawns and gardens 
may injure them by their shade and 
may also rob the soil of plant food 
and moisture. Such loss is more than 
offset — in localities where wind- 

breaks are most needed — by the con- 
servation of moisture which would 
otherwise be removed by jirevailing 
winds, and by the favorable modifica- 
tion both of summer's heat and win- 
ter's cold. 

Leave an opening in the wind- 
break, in Northern latitudes, from 75 
to 100 feet in width to the north and 
west of buildings and orchards. This 
will act as a snow trap. It will catch 
the drifts during winter storms and 
jirevent them from forming about 
the residence and outbuildings. The 
space next the windbreak upon 
which the snow is thus accumulated 
makes a good location for gardens. 
The soil is protected against deep 
freezing, yet stores up large quanti- 
ties of moisture from the melting 
snow in spring. 

Windbreaks more than pay for 
themselves, when needed, by econo- 
mizing the feed required by domestic 
animals and also the fuel necessary 
to warm dwellings in winter. They 
protect fruit trees against frosts, and 
lawns and gardens against the ef- 
fects of drouth. They may, there- 
fore, be regarded as among the most 
desirable permanent improvements. 

Orchards. — When space admits, a 
small orchard of apple, pear and 
other desirable fruit trees, according 
to climate, will add greatly to the 
resources of any householder and 
enhance the value of any piece of 
property. The selection of varieties 
must depend upon the amount of 
space available, and climatic and oth- 
er conditions. But as a rule, the 
greater variety of kinds of fruits ob- 
tainable from the home orchard, the 
better. A separate plot of ground 
set apart as an orchard presents 
some advantages over the plan of 
scattering fruit trees over the lawn 
and grounds for shade and ornament. 
More care can be taken to select for 
a separate orchard a site having the 
right kind of soil, with suitable ex- 
posure and protection from prevail- 
ing winds and frosts. Fruit trees are 
also easier to cultivate when grow- 
ing together in an orchard and, espe- 



cially, to protect against the attacks 
of insects by spraying. But if space 
does not admit of a separate or- 
chard, fruit trees, if properly lo- 
cated, pruned and cared for, make 
very desirable shade trees. Indeed, 
they are regarded by many as among 
the most decorative objects which can 
be used to beautify the lawn and 

Ornamental Trees and Shrubs. — 
Choose, preferably, for shade and 
ornamental purposes, the kinds of 
trees and shrubs which may be ob- 
served growing wild and the species 
which seem to flourish best in the 
locality. Many persons neglect the 
beautification of their grounds by 
tree planting either from motives of 
false economy or from lack of neces- 
sary information. The cost of plant- 
ing a number of trees required by 
the ordinary home grounds is very 
small. The process is simple. And if 
ordinary care is taken there will be 
little danger that the trees may not 
thrive. It is quite surprising how 
quickly a few seedlings will spring 
up and how much they will add both 
to the beauty and comfort of the 
home surroundings. 

The cost, if any, of nursery stock 
will be the principal item of expense. 
Even this expense can be saved, in 
many localities, by transplanting 
growing seedlings from neighboring 
forests. These can be had in most 
cases for the asking and at very 
slight cost for removal. Or grow 
the young trees themselves from seed 
in a little nursery in a corner of 
the kitchen garden. This is one of 
the most interesting experiments 
which can be made by any family and 
has great educative value for chil- 

The Home Nursery. — The seeds of 
most trees can be purchased from 
seedsmen the same as garden seed. 
Or they may be collected from trees 
growing in the vicinity. Most tree 
seeds mature in the fall. Gather 
them as soon as ripened. A few, 
such as silver maple and elm, ripen 
in the spring. Collect these when 

ripe and plant immediately. Such 
tree seeds as those of the honey lo- 
cust, acorns, and the various nuts, 
may be gathered from the ground. 
But the small, thin-coated seeds, like 
those of maple, box elder, ashes, and 
elms should preferably be picked 
from the tree by hand. Collect these 
after the first seeds have fallen from 
the tree; since the sterile or infer- 
tile seeds ai-e the first to fall. Dry 
the seeds for a few weeks to remove 
surplus moisture and prevent mold- 
ing. Spread acorns and other nuts 
on a dirt floor and smaller seeds on 
boards in a dry place. If there are 
signs of mold spread out thinner. If 
the kernels shrink, they are drying 
too rapidly; cover with clean sand or 
chaff. For permanent storage, place 
acorn and other nuts in a close cov- 
ered wooden box mixed with dry 
chaff or straw. Sink this in the 
ground in some well drained place to 
within a few inches of the top. Heap 
over it a mound of earth to protect it 
from rains and frost. 

When planting time comes, cut 
open a number of seeds and examine 
the kernels. If these are plump and 
firm the seeds are good; if withered. 

Seed-testing device. (Dick J. Crosby.) 

the seeds are not fit to plant. A good 
plan is to make a germination test 
by sprouting a few seeds between 
pieces of clean wet blotting paper or 
in shallow boxes of sand. To test 
small seeds count a certain number 
■ — as one hundred or more — and 
spread them on a piece of moist blot- 
ting paper. Lay this on a plate and 
cover with another layer of blotting 
paper. Place over all another plate 
or a pane of glass. Set in a warm 
sunny room at a temperature of 68° 
to 86° F. Keep the blotting paper 
constantly moist but not wet. Keep 
a record of the kind and number of 
the seeds and the date. Look at 


them every day for two weeks or 
more, depending upon the kind of 
seed, until all that will are sprouted. 
Count the number which fail to ger- 
minate and figure the percentage of 
good seed. In general the percentages 
which should germinate in the dif- 
ferent kinds of trees are as follows 
ash, 35 to 50; basswood, 35 to 50 
beach, 70 to 80; box elder, 40 to 60 
catalpa, 40 to 75; cherry, 78 to 80 
Kentucky coffee tree, 70 to 75; Cot- 
tonwood, 75 to 95; elm, 50 to 75; 
hackberry, 70 to 80; hickory, 50 to 
75; locust, 50 to 75; rnaple, 25 to 60; 
mulberry, 75 to 95; oak, 75 to 95; 
Osage orange, 60 to 95; poplar, 5 to 
10; walnut, 75 to 80. 

If the percentage shown by testing 
falls much below this standard the 
seeds are poor. Either reject them 
or sow more thickly than usual. To 
test large seeds such as nuts, cherry 
and other pits, use shallow boxes of 
moist sand under similar conditions. 

Prepare soil for the nursery as 
for the lawn or garden. But the 
seed bed should not be too much ex- 
posed to the sun. It should prefer- 
ably be sheltered to the east or north 
by a group of trees or buildings. A 
heavy dressing of well rotted stable 
manure plowed under in fall, fol- 
lowed by spring plowing will bring 
about an ideal condition. A nursery 
only one square rod in size, with 
eleven rows 18 inches apart, will pro- 
duce about fifty seedlings to each 
row or 550 trees in all. And each 
row may be devoted to a single spe- 
cies of tree if desired. It will thiis 
be seen that a very small space will 
grow all the trees that will be re- 
quired for the grounds of an ordi- 
nary dwelling. 

The best time to plant tree seeds is 
as early in the spring as the ground 
can be worked. Exceptions to this 
rule, already noted, are the seeds of 
the silver maple and white elm. 
These mature in the late spring and 
should be planted at once. Other ex- 
ceptions are those of the basswood 
and yeUow poplar. These ripen in 
autumn and must be planted in the 

fall. As a rule tree seeds may be 
planted at the same time the earliest 
vegetable seeds are planted in the 
garden. Fresh nuts, acorns of good 
quality, or cherry and peach pits 
may be planted 2 or 3 inches apart in 
rows. Seeds of which the average 
germination is from 45 to 75 per 
cent should be spaced from IJ inch 
to li inches apart. Those whose 
germinating powers are very low — as 
the basswood and yellow poplar — 
should be sown thickly, three or four 
seeds deep in the row; the others, in 
proportion to their power of germi- 
nation. Cover tree seeds very light- 
ly; the rule is, about twice their av- 
erage diameter. 

Care of Seed Beds. — Cultivate seed- 
lings the same as garden crops. Keep 
down the weeds with a hoe. Stir the 
surface of the soil to a depth of 1 or i2 
inches every few days especially after 
rains. In time of drouth this forms 
a surface mulch and conserves soil 
moisture. If the rains do not keep 
the soil moist, the seedlings must be 
watered or irrigated. The best plan 
is to dig a trench between the rows 
and fill this with water at night or 
early morning, so that it will not be 
drunk up by the sun. The soil must 
be moistened to a deptli of 6 inches. 
Merely sprinkling water on the soil 
does little or no good. To carry the 
seedlings through the winter, hill 
them up 4 to 6 inches and cover with 
a mulch of straw, leaves or moss 
from 6 inches to 1 foot in depth. 
Hold this in place by branches or 

Transplanting Trees. — Seedlings 
of broad leaf trees — i. e., other than 
evergreen — should be, at the end of 
the first year, transplanted from the 
seed bed to some other part of the 
garden where they will have more 
room in whicli to grow. They should 
not be placed in permanent position 
in tlie lawn or road-side until they 
are two to five years old and have 
been transplanted once or more. 

As a rule small trees can be handled 
more safely and conveniently than 
large ones. But with care forest 



trees 8 or 10 feet high, or even larg- 
er, may be transplanted. These are 
somewhat less liable to injury after 
planting. If nursery stock is to be 
used, the less distance the stock has 
to travel and the shorter time it is on 
the road, the better. Take care to 
insure shipment by the most direct 
and fastest route. Receive the stock 
and plant it promptly or "heel it in" 
on arrival. The likelihood to injury 
is in direct proportion to the amount 
of exposure to drying winds or sun. 
But if seedlings from the home 
nursery or adjacent forests are 
available, and if proper precautions 
are observed, there need be no such 

To take up seedlings one year old, 
drive a spade as deep into the soil 
as possible 5 or 6 inches to the side 

ject is not only to take up the main 
laterals and as much of the tap root 
as possible, but also to prevent strip- 
ping from these larger roots their 
net-like tracery of fine rootlets. The 
best results in transplanting very 
large trees are obtained in winter. A 
large ball of frozen earth surround- 
ing the roots can then be taken up 
with the tree. It can thus be moved 
to its new location without disturbing 
the most delicate rootlets. The less 
injury these sustain, the better the 
tree will flourish when transplanted. 

(a) The relation of root to top in a 
nursery tree lifted for shipment; 
(6) how the roots are cut at digging 
time. (L. C. Corbett.) 

of the tree and pry upward until the 
earth about the roots is thoroughly 
loosened, then grasp them by the 
stem close to the ground and gently 
raise them from the soil. 

To take up large trees cut off 
the lateral roots proportionately fur- 
ther from the trunk, and dig more 
deeply into the ground so as to pry 
up a considerable ball of earth sur- 
rounding the root system. The ob- 

Cuttings set in trench. (L. C. Gorhett.) 

To protect nursery stock or oth- 
er seedlings from injury after being 
taken up, if there should be any de- 
lay in planting them, "heel them in" 
or plant them in temporary trenches. 
Dig for this purpose a trench deep 
enough to bury the roots and about 
half the tops. Extend this east and 
west and have its south bank slope at 
an angle of about 30° with the sur- 
face of the ground. Place in this a 
layer of trees with their tops lean- 
ing south and cover the roots and 
trunk with fresh, fine earth taken 
from the north side of the trench. 
Add another layer of trees in the 
trench thus formed and so continue 
until all the stock is heeled in. The 
trees may be safely left in this con- 
dition until ready for planting. 

To Plant a Tree. — The best time 
to plant trees in Northern and tem- 
perate climates is as early in the 
spring as the ground can be worked. 
But in warm regions trees planted in 
fall secure some root growth which 
gives them an early start in spring. 
Avoid sunny and windy weather. 
Select, rather, a cool, wet or cloudy 
day. Deciduous trees may be planted 


as soon as the ground stops freezing; 
evergreens, even up to the time the 
young growth begins to start. 

Carry the trees to the site in a 
barrel half filled with a thin mix- 
ture of earth and water. Lift them 
out only as needed. The slightest ex- 
posure of the delicate roots to sun 
or air will dry and injure them. To 
secure good results the soil should be 
well drained. If there is standing 
water in the soil, postpone planting. 
The earth surrounding the trees 
should be moist, but not wet. If too 
dry, the best plan is to dig the holes 
a few days beforehand and fill them 
with water. Refill them as the water 
soaks away and persist until the sur- 
rounding soil is well moistened. A 
thorough irrigation of dry soil is to 
be preferred. Then as soon as the 
standing water is drained off and the 
ground is dry enough to crumble 
freely, the trees may be planted. 

Dig holes for trees big enough so 
that the roots may be spread out flat 
in about their normal condition. Dig 
deep enough so that the trunk or 
stem will be 2 or 3 inches lower in 
the soil than its former position. 
Make the holes for seedlings one year 
old at least two feet in diameter and 

1 foot deep in good soil; but make 
them 4 feet across in poor soil. 
Make holes for older trees larger in 
proportion. Have the sides perpen- 
dicular and the bottom flat. Loosen 
the soil in the bottom of the hole to 
the full depth of the spade. Spread 

2 or 3 inches of fine top soil, free 
from sod or other decomposible or- 
ganic matter over the bottom of the 
hole. If fertile garden earth can be 
procured for this purpose, so much 
the better. At all events the root 
system of a young tree must not be 
immediately surrounded by raw sub- 
soil. On top of this layer of earth 
place the roots of the tree and 
spread them as evenly as possible 
over the bottom of the hole. Extend 
the roots in their natural position. 
Now carefully pack about them fine 
loam soil free from stone and rub- 
bish. Work the soil about each root 

separately and pack it solidly with 
the foot. Now fill the hole and com- 
pact the earth about the roots to hold 
them firmly in place by treading. 
But do not tamp the soil with a bar 
or otherwise. This tends to prevent 
the circulation of air in the soil which 
is necessary to supply oxygen. 

Make the last two or three inches 
of soil very fine and let it lie per- 
fectly loose. This forms a mulch to 
conserve the soil moisture. Hill up 
the soil a few inches above the level 
of the ground. 

The above practice makes it unnec- 
essary to use water at the time of 
planting when it might be injurious. 
The presence of free water, especial- 
ly in clay soils, tends to cause the 
earth to puddle or cake. And this 
tends to shut off the supply of oxy- 
gen from the roots. 

Why Trees Die. — The fear of los- 
ing trees from transplanting doubt- 
less deters many persons from at- 
tempting this most attractive kind of 
permanent improvements. There is 
a kind of mystery about the death of 
some trees, while others planted at 
the same time thrive prosperouslj\ 
A study of some of the more com- 
mon reasons for the death of trees 
will usually reveal the cause. It will 
show that such losses can be pre- 
vented by the use of ordinary care. 
Chief among these are exposure of 
the roots before planting, failure to 
plant properly, or the effects of over- 
wet soil or di-outh. The need for 
great care to avoid injury to the 
rootlets and exposure to sun and dry 
air has been emphasized. Failure to 
pack the soil tightly about the roots 
is a common error. This not only 
leaves the tree unstable, it partially 
prevents the rootlets from absorbing 
nutriment. This they cannot do un- 
less they come into very close con- 
tact with the soil. Turf, manure or 
rubbish of any kind should not be 
brought into contact with roots. 
Only fine loamy soil should be used. 
Compact this firmly against the 
roots by the foot and weight of the 
body. Another error is false econ- 



omy of time and labor in digging too 
small or too shallow holes. Standing 
water in or about the roots of the 
trees not only prevents the air from 
reaching them. It causes the soil to 
become puddled in the process of 
planting. When dry it then bakes 
into a hard lump which excludes the 
air. Drying out of soil from drouth 
is always injurious to newly trans- 
planted trees. This may be largely 
overcome by proper cultivation. 
Small trees are frequently injured 
by stock and other accidents. If 
standing in exposed locations they 
should be protected by suitable fenc- 
ing. If, however, the rules above 
stated are carefully followed there 
need be little or no loss from trans- 
planting trees under ordinary condi- 

Care of Trees. — Even well planted- 
and thrifty young trees sometimes die 
for lack of proper care. They must 
be protected against injury from 
stock and other accident by suitable 
fencing; and against drouth by irri- 
gation, or other steps to increase the 
supply of moisture when necessary, 
and by frequent cultivation to con- 
serve moisture in the soil. Artificial 
watering is not usually desirable. 
But 'surface water from an adjacent 
hill can sometimes be conducted to the 
home grounds by a trench made by 
turning a few furrows with the plow 
along the contour lines of the slope. 
In the Northwest, trees planted as 
windbreaks a few rods from the 
northwest side of the home grounds 
will cause drifts of snow to form 
just under the edge of the wind- 
break. They thus protect the orchard 
and ornamental trees and shrubbery 
from breakage and conserve a supply 
of moisture along the edge of the 

Deep cultivation with the plow or 
spade in orchards or beneath shade 
trees is not desirable. It injures the 
root system. If the seed bed has 
been properly prepared, the only cul- 
tivation necessary is to stir the 
ground to a depth of 2 or 3 inches 
with a cultivator or hoe to keep down 

weeds and grass and conserve soil 
moisture by maintaining a surface 
mulch of fine, loose, diy earth. 



A tree may reproduce itself either 
by seeds or buds. Hence a valuable 
tree or shrub once established may 
be made to supply as many other 
specimens as may be desired. Or 
cuttings, scions, or buds may be ex- 
changed with neighbors, or obtained 
from them for the asking or at slight 
expense. Many trees can be propa- 
gated by cuttings and nearly all can 
be grafted and budded. 

Grafting. — The following is, in 
substance, the method of grafting 
recommended by the Department of 
Agriculture : 

A scion is a portion cut from a 
plant to be inserted upon another 
(or the same) plant, with the inten- 
tion that it shall grow. The wood 
for scions should be taken while in a 
dormant or resting condition. The 
time usually considered best is after 
the leaves have fallen, but before se- 
vere freezing begins. Tie the scions 
in bunches and bury in moist sand 
where they will not freeze and yet 
will be kept cold enough to prevent 
growth. Good results in cleft graft- 
ing often follow cutting scions in the 

1 2 S 

(1) Grafting tool; (2) cleft grafting: 
a, scion; 6, scions inserted in cleft; 
(3) cross section of stock and scion, 
(L. O. Coriett.) 

spring just before or at the time of 
grafting. But spring cutting of 
scions for whip grafting is not de- 
sirable. Not enough time is given 
for a proper union to take place. 

The stock is the plant or part of 
a plant upon which or into which the 


bud or scion is inserted. For best 
results in grafting it is essential that 
the stock be in such condition that 
active growth can be quickly brought 

Grafting.— The cleft style of graft 
is particularly adapted to large trees 
when for any reason it becomes 
necessary to change the variety. 
Branches too large to be worked by 
other methods can be cleft grafted. 

To Make a Cleft Graft. — Select a 
branch 1 or 1| inches in diameter 
and sever it with a saw. Take care 
not to loosen the bark from any 

Cuttings: (a) Simple cutting; (&) heel 
cutting; (c) mallet cutting; (d) Sin- 
gle-eye cutting. {L. C. Corbett.) 

portion of the stub. Split the ex- 
posed end with a broad, thin chisel 
or grafting tool. Then with a wedge, 
or the wedge-shaped prong at the 
end of the grafting tool, spread the 
cleft so that the scion may be in- 
serted as shown in the illustrations. 
The scion should consist of a por- 
tion of the previous season's growth 
and should be long enough to have 
two or three buds. The lower end of 
the scion, which is to be inserted into 
the cleft, should be cut into the shape 
of a wedge, having the outer edge 
thicker than the other. In general, it 
is a good plan to cut the scion so 
that the lowest bud will come just 
at the top of this wedge. Thus it 
will be near the top of the stock. 
The advantage of cutting the wedge 
thicker on one side is shown in the 
illustration. This shows how the 
pressure of the stock is brought upon 

the outer growing parts of both scion 
and stock. Were the scion thicker on 
the inner side, the conditions would 
be reversed and its death would fol- 

The importance of having an inti- 
mate connection between the growing 
tissues of both scion and stock can 
not be too strongly emphasized. 
Upon this alone the success of graft- 
ing depends. To malie this contact 
of the growing portions doubly cer- 
tain, the scion is often set at a slight 
angle with the stock into which it is 
inserted. This causes the growing 
portions of the two to cross. 

After the scions have been set, the 
operation of cleft grafting is com- 
pleted by covering all cut surfaces 
with a layer of grafting wax. 

Whin Grafting. — The style known 
as whip grafting is the one almost 
universally used in root grafting. It 
has the advantage of being well 
adapted to small plants only 1 or 2 
years of age. It can be done in- 

WJiip grafting: (a) The stock; (6) the 
scion; (c) stock and scion united. 
(L. C. Corbett.) 

doors during the comparative leisure 
of winter. 

To Make a Whip Graft.— Cut the 
stock off diagonally with one long 
smooth cut with a sharp knife. 



Leave about three-fourtfis of an inch 
of cut surface, as illustrated. Place 
the knife about one-third of the dis- 
tance from the end of the cut sur- 
face at right angles to the cut, and 
split the stock in the direction of its 
long axis. Cut the lower end of the 
scion in like manner. When the two 
are forced together, as shown in the 
illustration, the cut surfaces will fit 
neatly, and, if the scion and stock are 
of the same size, one will nearly cover 
the other. A difference in diameter 
of the two parts to be united may 
be disregarded unless it be too great. 
After the scion and stock have been 
locked together they should be 
wrapped with five or six turns of 
waxed cotton to hold the parts firmly. 

While top grafting may be done in 
this way, it is in root grafting that 
the whip graft finds its distinctive- 
field. When the roots are cut into 
lengths of from 2 to 5 or 6 inches to 
be used as stocks, the operation is 
known as piece-root grafting. Some- 
times the entire root is used. 

The roots are dug and the scions 
are cut in the autumn and stored. 
The work of grafting may be done 
during the winter months. When the 
operation has been completed, the 
grafts are packed away in moss, saw- 
dust or sand, in a cool cellar, to re- 
main until spring. It is important 
that the place of storage be cool, else 
the grafts may start into growth and 
be ruined, or heating and rotting may 
occur. If the temperature is kept 
low — not above 40° F, — there will 
be no growth except callousing and 
the knitting together of stock and 

In ordinary propagation by means 
of whip grafts, the scion is cut with 
about three buds, the stock being 
nearly as long as the scion. The 
grafted plant is so set as to bring 
the union of stock and scion below 
the surface of the ground. 

When whip grafting is employed 
above the ground, the wound must 
be protected, as in cleft grafting, 
either with a mass of grafting wax or 
a bandage of waxed muslin. 

Grafting Wax. — A good grafting 
wax may be made of the following 
ingredients: Resin, 4 parts; bees- 
wax, 2 parts; tallow or linseed oil, 1 
part by weight. If a harder wax is 
needed, 5 parts of resin and 3J of 
beeswax may be used with 1 part of 

Break the resin and beeswax up J 
fine and melt together with the tal- ^ 
low. When thoroughly melted pour 
the liquid into a vessel of cold water. 
When hard enough to handle take it 
out, pull and work it until it be- 
comes tough and has the color of 
very light-colored manila paper. To 
apply wax by hand grease the hands 
well with tallow. Or apply the wax 
with a hot brush. But take care to 
avoid injury. 

Spread the wax carefully over all 
cut or exposed surfaces and press 
closely, so that upon cooling it will 
form a sleek coating impenetrable to 
air or moisture. 

To prepare waxed string put a ball 
of No. 18 knitting cotton into a ket- 
tle of melted grafting wax. In five 
minutes it will be thoroughly satu- 
rated. It will remain in condition 
for use indefinitely. 

Budding. — This is one of the most 
economical forms of artificial repro- 
duction, and each year witnesses its 
more general use. Some nurserymen 
go so far as to use it as a substitute 
for all modes of grafting save whip 
grafting in the propagation of the 
dwarf pear. Budding is economical 
in the amount of wood used from 
which to take buds. A single bud 
does the work of the three or more 
upon the scion used in grafting. But 
while economical of wood, it is ex- 
pensive in the use of stocks. A seed- 
ling is required for each tree, while, 
with the piece-root system of graft- 
ing, two, three, or more stocks can 
be made from a single seedling. 

The operation of budding is sim- 
ple, and can be done with great speed 
by expert budders. The expense of 
the operation is, therefore, not more 
than that of whip grafting, although 
the work has usually to be done in 


July, August, or early September. 
The usual plan is for a man to set 
the buds and a boy to follow closely 
and do the tying. 

The bud should be taken from 
wood of the present season's growth. 
Since the work of budding is done 
during the season of active growth, 
the bud sticks are prepared so that 
the petiole or stem of each leaf is 
left attached to serve as a handle to 
aid in pushing the bud home when 
inserting it beneath the bark of the 
stock. This is what is usually called 
a shield bud. It is cut so that a 
small portion of the woody tissue of 
the branch is removed with the bud. 
A bud stick and the operation of cut- 
ting the bud are illustrated. 

(a) Cutting the iud; (b) a hud stick. 
(L. C. Corhett.) 

The Stock. — The stock for budding 
should be at least as thick as an 
ordinary lead pencil. With the ap- 
ple and pear, a second season's 
growth will be necessary to develop 
this size. With the peach a single 
season will suffice. Hence peach 
stocks can be budded the same season 
the pits are planted. Consequently 
the peach is left until as late in the 
season as is practicable in order to 
obtain stocks of suitable size. The 
height at which buds are inserted 
varies with the operator. In gen- 
eral, the nearer the ground the bet- 

To Bud a Plant. — Make a cut for 
the reception of the bud in the shape 
of a letter T, as shown in the illus- 
tration. Usually the cross-cut is not 
quite at right angles with the body 
of the tree, and the stem to the T 
starts at the cross-cut and extends 
toward the root for an inch or more. 
Loosen the flaps of bark caused by 
the intersection of the two cuts with 
the ivory heel of the budding knife. 

Budding: (a) Inserting the hud; (b) 
tying; (c) cutting off the top. \L. G. 

grasp the bud by the leaf stem as a 
handle, insert it under the flaps and 
push it firmly in place until its cut 
surface is entirely in contact with 
the peeled body of the stock. Tie a 
ligature tightly about it, above and 
below the bud, to hold it in place 
until a union shall be formed. Bands 
of raffia or wrapping cotton, about 
10 or 13 inches long, make the most 
convenient tying material. As soon 
as the buds have united with the 
stock cut the ligature to prevent 
girdling the stock. This done, the 
operation is complete until the fol- 
lowing spring. Then all the trees in 
which the buds have "taken" should 
have the top cut off just above the 
bud. The various processes are illus- 

Cuttings. — Some trees, as the wil- 
low, Cottonwood and poplars, are 
difficult to grow from seed but may 
be propagated readily from cuttings. 
These should be made some time in 
February or March, just before the 
spring growth begins. Select a 
smooth branch or sprout of the pre- 
vious season's growth and from one- 



fourth to three-fourths of an inch in 
diameter. Cut oflF a section aliout 
10 inches long squarely at both ends 
with a sharp hatchet. Let the upper 
cut be just above a bud. Arrange 
the cuttings with the tops together, 
tie them in bimdles and bury them 
in moist sand or earth until they are 
ready for planting. They will not be 
injured by frost. 

Prepare the soil the same as for a 
seed bed, as soon as it can be worked 
in the spring. Set the cuttings so 
that but one bud remains above the 
surface. They may be merely thrust 
into the soil — if it is sufficiently mel- 
low — or planted with the aid of the 
plow or spade. To secure better con- 
tact with the soil set cuttings at a 
slight angle. The growth will be 
erect. Pack the soil lightly with the 
foot or tamping block. Give the 
same after cultivation as for seed- 



Pruning Orchards. — The objects of 
pruning fruit trees are manJ^ Among 
them are protection against break- 
age from wind and loading with 
snow 1- during storms; checking the 
growth of the tree to increase its 
fruitfulness, or, under other condi- 
tions, accelerating growth; rejuve- 
nating old trees; limiting the fruit 
production, to avoid exhausting the 
trees; and controlling such diseased 
conditions as pear blight, plum and 
peach rot and others. 

Forming the Head. — For most de- 
ciduous, ornamental and orchard 
trees, the object is to form symmet- 
rical open crowns such that all the 
space will be occupied and as large 
a quantity of foliage as possible ex- 
posed to sxm and air. Avoid form- 
ing a thick bushy head such that the 
branches will shade one another. 
Commence to form the head of a 
young tree at planting time by se- 
lecting three to five branches accord- 
ing to the kind of tree to form the 
niain framework for aftergrowth. 

Cut these back to a point about 8 
inches from the main stem and just 
above an outside bud, i. e., a bud fac- 
ing toward the outside of the tree. 
Cut back the main stem to a point 
just above the topmost of these 
branches and remove all other 
branches and buds. 

Plan of iree at planting time. 
(L. C. Corbctt.) 

Choose branches disposed at equal 
distances about the main stem or axis 
of the plant and springing thence at 
intervals of several inches one above 
the other. The branches when viewed 
from above should radiate from the 
stem like spokes from the hub of a 
wheel and at about equal angles from 
one another. Thus all the space will 
be occupied and a symmetrical de- 
velopment will result. Two or more 
branches which spring from the 
trunk side-by-side or opposite to one 
another, at the same level, must never 
be allowed to develop. This makes a 
weak joint which tends to split un- 
der pressure when loaded with fruit, 
or snow, or when twisted by storms. 
Some trees such as the elm and sil- 
ver maple have a tendency to form 
branches by twos in this manner. 
This must be corrected by careful 


The best orcharclists now form the 
heads of apple, pear and all small 
fruit trees very low, not over 18 or 
20 inches from the ground. Such low 
lying trees are not only better pro- 
tected against injury from weather 

Plan of top after one year's f/rowtli in 
the orchard. (L. C. Corbett.) 

conditions at all seasons. They can 
also be pruned, sprayed and other- 
wise cultivated much more cheaply 
and easily. And a large part of the 
annual fruit crop can be picked from 
the ground. 

After Pruning. — At the close of 
the first season treat each of the 
principal branches as if it were a 
new tree. Select three of its branches 
for future growth. Cut these back 
to 8 inches in length from the main 
branch and remove all other branches. 
Repeat the operation at the end of 
the third year. But observe that the 
number of branches suffered to re- 
main should now be reduced to two. 
Take equal care throughout not to 
allow branches to spring side-by-side 
or opposite from one another upon 
any part of the branch system. 

Observe that some trees have an 
erect and others a lateral system of 
branch development. The former 
may be improved by pruning the 
branches just above an outside bud 
so that the new growth will tend to 
shoot in an outward direction and 
vice versa. A careful study of the 

accompanying illustrations will fix 
clearly in mind the principal types of 
tree development sought by expert 

Pruning Large Branches. — Re- 
move large branches with a clean 
sharp cut by means of a saw. Cut off 
as nearly flush with the ti'vuik of the 
tree as possible. Avoid leaving any 
stub, breaking any part of the 
branch, or stripping the bark so as 
to leave a rough, uneven surface. 
Such wounds accumulate dirt and 
moisture, and invite the entrance of 
the fungous diseases which cause de- 
cay and the attentions of squirrels 
and woodpeckers. All stubs tend to 
decay back to the heart wood of the 
trunk. They thus become the most 
fruitful cause of hollow trees and 
branches. A wound flush with the 
main stem is quickly covered with 
new growth. It is thus not only pro- 
tected from injury but actually lud- 
den from view. 

To remove large branches with- 
out injury make two cuts, one about 
18 inches or 2 feet from the trunk 
of the tree to get rid of the weight 
of the limb, the other flush with the 
stump. The stub remaining after the 

(a) Method of cutting a large limh 
which should he avoided; (6) proper 
method of cutting off a large limb. 
(L. O. Corbett.) 

first cut can be supported vmtil com- 
pletely severed, with one hand, while 
the saw is being used with the other. 
Always begin to cut from the bottom 
of the branch and continue as long 
as the saw can be moved freely. Cut 
especially through the bark around 
the lower half of the limb. Then 
finish the cut from above. Take care 



to meet the lower cut accurately. 
There will then be little danger of the 
limb breaking or of stripping the 

Paint the wounds made by remov- 
ing large branches with good white 
lead paint, yellow ochre, coal tar or 
grafting wax. The only object to be 
attained is to keep out moisture and 
insects until the wound has time to 
heal naturally. Antiseptics and pat- 
ented preparations are wholly un- 

Hollow Trunks. — To fill hollows 
caused by the decay of old stumps in 
valuable orchard or shade trees, first 
clean out the hole and remove all 
diseased wood from the interior with 
a sharp gouge or chisel. Cut away 
until sound wood is exposed. Now, 
preferably, spray the inside with a 
solution of copper sulphate at the 
rate of one pound to five or six gal- 
lons of water. This kiUs the or- 
ganisms which cause decay. Choose 
for this purpose a dry day, prefer- 
ably with hot sun and wind. Before 
the surface of the cavity can become 
in any way infected, fill it with a thin 
mortar made by mixing one part 
Portland cement with three parts 
clean sharp sand. 

Remember that Portland cement 
will set' in twenty minutes. Hence 
have everything in readiness to pour 
it soon after it has been mixed. 
After the mortar has set stiff, but 
not too hard, point up the exposed 
surface with a mixture of one part 
sand and one pai't cement. Take 
care to exclude the entrance of moist- 
ure to the cavity. 

Pinching and Disbudding. — 
"Pinching" or "stopping" are tech- 
nical terms which mean simply re- 
moving the extreme points of grow- 
ing shoots, in summer, with a pinch 
between the finger and thumb. This 
retards the shoot from growing 
longer and encourages other buds and 
shoots to grow upon its sides. It 
also promotes the growth of other 
less thrifty shoots. 

"Disbudding" means rubbing off 
superfluous buds to prevent waste 

caused by the growth of shoots that 
are not desired. It diverts the sap 
to the remaining shoots and thus 
tends to produce branches, flowers 
and fruit of superior quality. If 
practiced with care, pinching and 
disbudding take the place of all after 
pruning, since if no shoots are al- 
lowed to develop where not wanted, 
there will be no useless branches to 
be pruned away. But the inexperi- 
enced gardener should experiment on 
a small scale for a year or two and 
carefully observe the effects of these 
methods before adopting them ex- 
tensively. If too much foliage is re- 
moved by them, they may irreparably 
injure the tree. 

When to Prune. — The old rule 
used to be "prune when your knife 
is sharp." This is not bad general 
practice. But recent study has sug- 
"gested some important modifications. 
Small branches of most trees may be 
removed at any convenient time dur- 
ing winter or the early spring months. 
But large branches should be pruned, 
preferably, during the season of most 
rapid growth. This may or may not 
be when the tree is in flower. It 
must be determined for each species 
by special observation. But defer 
pruning peach trees and other spe- 
cies liable to suffer from winter kill- 
ing until the amount of injury from 
this cause can be determined. This 
will be just previous to the begin- 
ning of growth. Then remove all 
dead or injured branches." But take 
care to make allowance for the 
amount of winter killing. Do not 
prune so severely as to prevent the 
development of a full crojj. For 
most fruit trees pruning can be done 
in February or March as well as at 
any other season. But pruning 
grapevines, which produces a heavy 
flow of sap, should preferably be 
done in the late fall or early winter 
months. Still if there is danger of 
winter killing, it may be best to delay 
pruning the vines as late as possible. 

Pruning Implements. — The hawk- 
bill knife, pruning shears, lopping 
shears, hedge shears, double-edged 


curved-blade pruning saw and a 
special device for cutting small limbs 
on tall trees, are the most conveni- 

(a) Pruning shears; (6) lopping shears; 
(c) hedge shears. (L. G. Corbett.) 

ent tools for pruning. These are 
shown in the accompanying illustra- 
tions. The advantage of the special 
saw illustrated is that the operator 
can use it to cut off branches within 
arm's reach overhead. The upper 
edge of the blade is convenient to 
make the first cut on the under side 
of the limb. The curve of the lower 
edge and inward slant of the teeth 

(a) The hawkbill knife; (6) device for 
cutting small limbs on tall trees; (c) 
double-edged curved-blade pruning saw. 
(L. C. Corbett.) 

cause it to cut deeply on the back 
or downward stroke. 

Pruning- Pear Trees. — Form the 
heads of four or five main branches 
distributed about the stem at equal 
spaces and different heights. Cut 

back to ten or twelve inches at the 
end of the first year. From each, 
start two or three new shoots and 
cut these back to twelve inches at the 
second year. So continue until the 
tree comes into full bearing. The 
annual growth will then not exceed 
6 or 8 inches. 

Pear Blight. — The only effectual 
way to control pear blight is by 
pruning. The spores of this disease 
gain entrance to the tree through its 
flowers. These are borne upon spurs. 
If spurs are permitted to grow upon 
the trunk of the tree or any of its 
principal branches, and if they be- 
come diseased, the entire trunk or 

(a) Peach tree from the nursery; (b) 
peach tree pruned for orchard plant- 
ing. (L. C. Corbett.) 

branch is infected and must be de- 
stroyed. Hence to control pear 
blight, all fruit spurs must be dis- 
budded or rubbed from the main 
stems and branches. The flowers 
must be suffered to grow only upon 
the external branches of the tree. 
These must then be closely observed. 
The moment they are found to be in- 
fected they must be cut away and 
burnt. Thus the tree can be rid of 
blight without serious or permanent 

Pruning Peach Trees. — Buy year- 
ling stock and reduce the young 


plant to a single whip or stem. Form 
the head at the end of the first year, 
from the shoots which develop along 
the body of the tree, by rubbing off 
the buds which are not desired. 
Start three or four branches 18 or 

Sour cherru; good form. 
(L. C. Corbctt.) 

30 inches from the groxmd. Cut 
them off to about Ix? inclies in length 
at the end of the first season's 
growth. Allow each to divide into 
three or four branches the next sea- 
son and at the season's end cut these 
back tp 1-2 inches in length and so 
continue. Defer pruning until all 
danger of freezing is past. Then 
gauge the amount of wood, if any, 
which has been winter killed. Prune 
so as to leave only outside buds and 
thus cause the tree to form a broad, 
round head. 

Pruning- Plum and Cherry Trees. 
— Prune the plum and cherry tree 
upon the same general principles as 
the preceding. But take special care 
to prevent limbs forming at the same 
level or with a close angle between 
them. Such branches are almost sure 
to split off when loaded with fruit. 
Rub oft' all shoots which spring from 
the roots or trunk of the tree and 
confine the flowering and fruit pro- 
duction to the other branches. The 
desired form for these two trees is 
shown in the illustrations. 

Pruning' the Grapevine. — There 

are various methods of pruning 
grapevines of which that known as 
the modified Knift'en system is here 
recommended. Plant the roots in 
rows and provide a trellis of two 
wires, one (5 feet above the ground, 
the other 18 or HO inches lower. 
Support the wires on any kind of 
post. But for a permanent vineyard 
use, preferably, posts of concrete or 
creosoted wood. Carry two main 
trunks from each root, one to the 
lower and the other to the upper 
wire. Preserve two shoots of new 
cane to extend along the wires from 
each trunk. Cut these back to six or 
eight buds and tie them to the two 
wires of the trellis. Preserve also 
two spurs at the head of each main 
trunk to furnish fruiting canes for 
the following season. The style of 
pruning, construction of the trellis 
and method of renewing the wood, are 
shown in the illustration. By this 
system the fruit branches are lifted 
so far above the ground that the 
annual growth falls from the sup- 
porting wires in a natural way. This 
does away with the labor and ex- 
pense of tying. The fruit is also 

Vine trained by modified Kniffen system; 
two stem. (L. G. Corbett.) 

further from the ground, and, hence, 
less liable to injury from mildew and 

Pruning" the Raspberry and Black- 
berry. — Set the plants in rows six 
or eight feet apart and three feet 
apart in the row. No trellises are 
necessary. Let the young shoots 


spring up a little over 3 feet high. 
Then break off 3 or 4 inches from 
the top with the fingers, leaving the 
shoot 20 or 32 inches in height. No 
knife or shears will be needed. 
About blooming time, pinch back and 
shorten the lateral branches which 
have developed from the central 

Typical raspberry after pruning. 
{L. C. Corbctt.) 

shoot, to regulate the crop to such an 
amount as the cane can easily sup- 
port. This process causes the stalks 
to increase in size and promotes the 
development of lateral fruit-bearing 

Remove the old wood, preferably 
with the type of pruning hook shown 
in the illustration, as soon as the 


Pruning TiooJc for brambles. 
(L. G. Corbett.) 

crop has been harvested. It is then 
easy to tell the new from the old 
wood. By cutting out the latter the 
energy of the root is preserved for 
next year's crop. 

Observe the same general plan in 
pruning blackberries except that the 
annual shoots should be allowed to 
grow somewhat higher before being 

Pruning the Currant and Goose- 
berry. — Train both these plants in 
bush form. Let new wood spring up 
annually from the roots to replace 
any canes which may be destroyed by 
borers, or otherwise become diseased. 
Break off the new shoots to stop 
their growth at any convenient height. 
This will induce the formation of 
fruit spurs on lateral branches. Ob- 
serve that the spurs form on wood 
two or more years of age. But the 
renewal of the bush from the roots 
year-by-year is necessary to insure 
fresh cane to replace that lost by in- 
jury, disease or age. 

Prune a currant bush to six or 
eight stalks about 18 or 20 inches 
high. The gooseberry requires less 
heading back because its normal 
habit is to produce side shoots freely. 

Pruning Deciduous Hedges. — Cut 
back the plant to about 2 or 3 inches 
from the ground when transplanted. 
Again cut back to 6 or 8 inches in 
height at the end of the first sea- 
son. Prune all lateral growth to 
within 1 inch of the main stem. The 
second season pinch back the strong 
upright shoots to divert the sap into 
the weaker shoots and to promote an 
even growth in height and desirable 
breadth of base. During the follow- 
ing winter prune into shape as a 
pointed pyramid with sides 8 or 10 
inches from the center. 

Pruning Evergreens. — Evergreens, 
such as arborvits, naturally assume 
a pyramidical form. Pinch back the 
more vigorous shoots to encourage 
lateral growth and trim annually just 
before growth commences in the 
spring. A hedge 5 feet high should 
be about 3 feet wide at the surface 
of the ground. Plence, prune with 
this object in view. 

Pruning Street Trees. — Keep 
street trees under nursery culture 
until they reach the height of 8 to 10 
feet. Then remove all side shoots to 
a height of at least 6 feet. Do not 
cut off the main stem. On the con- 
trary if it is divided into two or 
more shoots which rival one another, 
select the most vigorous to remain 


Household discoveries 

and remove the others. The object 
is to cultivate a well defined central 
stem with symmetrically set branches 
subordinate to it. Hence, pinch back 
the more vigorous side branches to 
divert the sap to the weaker limbs 
and promote uniform development. 

Remove the lower branches from 
time to time as they interfere with 
traflBc. But cut off first the ends 
which droop over the street. Post- 
pone the removal of such branches 
close up to the trunk until it be- 
comes absolutely necessary. 

To prune large trees remove every 
second or third branch. But never 
"head down" the tree, i. e., cut off 
part of the main stem or of each 
branch. Seek rather to remove one- 
third or more of the branches, flush 
with the trunk, so skillfully that the 
tree will retain its natural appear- 

Pruning Forest Trees. — Set the 
trees quite closely together and en- 
courage a single upright stem as with 
street trees. The tops will be drawn 
toward the light and the side 
branches in the shade will die off. 
Thus natural pruning will be effected. 
As the trees become overcrowded, 
thin by removing inferior specimens. 
Later remove branches two or more 
inches in diameter from especially 
valuable trees by cutting off flush 
with the trunk. Cover the wound 
with paint, tar, or the like. 

Pruning Plowering Shrubs. — 
Avoid cutting back the summer 
growths of flowering shrubs. The 
flower buds grow on the new wood 
and the effect of its removal is to 
lessen the number of blossoms the 
following year. Instead, pinch back 
the more vigorous shoots during sum- 
mer to promote symmetrical growth 
and remove only the oldest branches 
or a few of the young shoots if they 
are too dense. Cut these off close to 
the root. 


Our Common Birds.— Common ob- 
servation of the feeding habits of 

some well known birds has led to 
widespread prejudice against birds in 
general as enemies of the orchard 
and garden. The robin, cat bird, ce- 
dar bird, and others are often ac- 
cused as thieves of fruit. The king 
bird is thought to rob the apiary. 
The woodpecker is said to injure or- 
chard and forest trees by girdling 
them or excavating hollows in their 
trunks and branches. The crow, 
blackbird, and others, rob the grain 
fields both at planting time and har- 
vest. The blue jay destroys the 
nests and eggs of other birds. And 
many similar charges are brought 
against different species of the feath- 
ered tribe. The existing prejudice 
against birds is the more unfortu- 
nate, since recent scientific studies in- 
dicate that, almost without exception, 
our common birds are among the 
best friends of the orchardist and 
gardener. Any harm they may do 
to fruit crops or otherwise is more 
than compensated, in the opinion of 
scientists, by the enormous numbers 
of injurious insects, grubs and lar- 
vae that they annually destroy. 

Scientific analyses have been made 
of the stomach contents of most com- 
mon kinds of birds throughout the 
United States. These prove beyond 
question that the great bulk of the 
diet of most species consists of nox- 
ious weed seeds and injurious in- 
sects or other grubs and larvae. 
With the exception of a very few 
species, the proportion of fruit, grain 
or other farm or garden crops found 
in the stomachs of birds has been 
very small. Hence, it seems certain 
that bird life in the vicinity of our 
farms and gardens should be encour- 
aged by every means within our 

It is true that some birds which 
are beneficial under ordinary circum- 
stances or during the greater part of 
the year, may do considerable injury 
during periods of scarcity of food, 
or under special circumstances, as 
during the sowing of grain, the rip- 
ening of early fruits, or when grain 
is in the stook or ear. A special 


remedy for each such injury should 
be sought according to the circum- 
stances, rather than the destruction 
of the birds themselves. 

To enumerate the kinds of birds 
whose feeding habits are beneficial to 
the gardener and orchardist would 
require a review of practically every 
existing species. On the contrary, a 
few words will suffice to draw atten- 
tion to the few species which are act- 
ually injurious and to indicate how 
their ravages may be prevented. In 
general, among the most useful birds 
are the quail, or bobwhite; all the 
woodpeckers including the flicker, 
but excepting the true sapsuclier, 
which is injurious; the night hawk; 
all of the fly catchers, including the 
king bird, Arkansas king bird and 
Phoebe; the blue jay, but not the 
Pacific Coast jays which are injuri- 
ous; the crow, the bobolink (in 
Northern latitudes), which is, how- 
ever, injurious to the Southern rice 
crops under the name of reed bird; 
all of the blackbirds; the orioles, 
larks, sparrows, finches; all of the 
grosbeaks, which are highly benefi- 
cial; all. of the swallows; the robin, 
cedar bird, cat bird, and brown 
thresher; the house wren and titmice, 
including the chickadees which are 
highly beneficial; and the humming 

Among larger birds, the prairie 
chicken, California quail, ruffed 
grouse, upland plover, killdeer, 
horned grebe, Franklin gull, and va- 
rious species of terns are all bene- 
ficial. Cooper's hawk — the well- 
linown chicken hawk — is injurious; 
but the rough legged hawk, the spar- 
row hawk, the long-eared owl and 
the screech owl are all beneficial. 
Their food consists chiefly of meadow 
mice and other small rodents injurious 
to crops or mischievous in and about 
farm buildings. 

Sapsuckers. — Only three of the 
twenty-three species of woodpeckers 
in the United States are properly 
classed as sapsuckers. Unlike the 
true woodpeckers who feed on wood 
borers and other enemies of trees. 

the sapsuckers live chiefly upon ants. 
But they also feed upon the inner 
bark of trees and drink a great deal 
of their sap. Sometimes they com- 
pletely girdle and thus destroy a tree 
with holes which go clear through the 
bark and even into tlie wood. These 
are usually made in rings around 
the trunk or limbs. They often fall 
in a vertical series and they may 
be either vertically or horizontally 
connected. These holes disfigure or- 
namental trees by causing pitch to 
exude and sometimes induce serious 
permanent injury. The evidence of 
their work depreciates the value of 
forest trees as lumber to the extent 
of many thousand dollars a year. 
The two species which do most in- 
jury are the red-breasted sapsucker 
and the yellow-bellied sapsucker. 
The first lives west of the Rocky 
Mountains and is the only wood- 
pecker of that region having the 
whole head and throat red. The sec- 
ond has a transcontinental range and 
is the only woodpecker having the 
front of the head, i. e., from bill to 
crown, red in combination with a 
black patch on the breast. The ma- 
jority of woodpeckers seen are not 
sapsuckers but are among the birds 
most beneficial to both orchard and 
forest. Hence great care should be 
taken to distinguish them. To de- 
stroy sapsuckers, mix thoroughly -J 
ounce powdered strychnine (alka- 
loid) with one pint of honey or thick 
sugar. Apply to the injured tree 
just above the rows of fresh punc- 
tures. Or put small pinches of the 
powdered strychnine directly into the 
freshest sap pits. 

The King Bird. — This bird is often 
accused of feeding upon honey bees 
but the examination of their stom- 
achs prove that extremely small num- 
bers of worker bees are eaten and 
that any loss from this source 
is far more than ofPset by the de- 
struction of great numbers of in- 
jurious insects. More than 90 
per cent of the diet of the king 
bird is shown to belong to the latter 



Blue Jay. — The common blue jay 
of the Eastern States is often ac- 
cused of eating the eggs and young 
of small birds and of stealing corn. 
While both accusations are doubtless 
true to a limited extent, investigation 
has proved that, roughly sjieaking, 
half of the blue jay's diet consists 
of nuts and acorns, about one-fifth 
of injurious insects and the remain- 
der of a great miscellany of foods. 
Only a small fraction consists of 
corn, most of which is gleaned from 
the fields after harvest. The blue 
jay may occasionally rob the fields 
of corn at planting time but this 
may be prevented by coating the 
corn with tar. Such other sins as he 
may commit do not appear to jus- 
tify his extirijation. Tlie well known 
California jay of the Pacific Coast, 
however, is a notorious fruit stealer 
and robber of hens' nests. He is so 
prolific in that region that efforts to 
reduce his numbers are not without 

The Crow. — The crow pulls up 
sprouting corn, destroys chickens, 
robs the nests of small birds and 
sometimes eats beneficial toads and 
small snakes. But in his diet tlie 
crow makes amends by eating large 
number?, of grasshoppers, bugs and 
caterpillars and many cut worms. 
The crow rarely, if ever, eats hard, 
dry corn or otherwise robs the har- 
vest field; but he sometimes does 
great injury at planting time and 
occasionally attacks corn before it is 
ripe and while still in milk. The best 
way to prevent crows from pulling 
up corn is by coating it with tar 
before planting. 

Experience has also shown that 
crows and many other birds may 
be kept from the corn throughout 
the season by "stringing" the field. 
Use for this purpose common twine 
supported by a row of light poles. 
Saplings 10 or 13 feet long, 3 inches 
in diameter at the base, make suit- 
able poles for this purpose. Thrust 
these into the ground in holes made 
by a crowbar around the edge of 
the garden or other field. Set them 

at considerable distance apart and 
suspend the twine high enough from 
the ground to be out of the way 
during horse cultivation. If these 
and other ordinary precautions are 
taken to protect corn and young 
poultry against the dei^redation of 
crows, it is believed that the season's 
balance will be found overwhelmingly 
in their favor. 

The crow blackbird sometimes 
steals grain and fruits and robs the 
nests of other birds. But about one- 
third of his food consists of injuri- 
ous insects. The amount of damage 
done is small except when large 
flocks settle upon the grain crops at 
harvest time. For this there seems 
to be no adequate remedy, except 
shooting which is ordinarily too ex- 

Swallows. — The various kinds of 
swallows are especially useful birds. 
Their diet consists almost wholly of 
injurious or annoying insects. Their 
presence may be encouraged in case 
of eave swallows, by providing a 
quantity of mud to be used by 
them as mortar. Cut small holes 
in the gables of barns for barn 
swallows and furnish suitable boxes 
for the white-bellied swallows and 
martins. Place these preferably 
upon a tall pole or other high loca- 

Cedar Bird, Cat Bird and Hobins. 
— These birds are most often accused 
of stealing cherries, strawberries or 
other small fruit. The first is some- 
times called the "cherry bird" on ac- 
count of this well known propensitJ^ 
Close observation indicates that the 
damage done by these and other 
small birds is confined chiefly to 
very early fruit crops, since tliese 
mature in advance of the wild fruits 
which form their ordinary summer 
diet. Most of this damage can be 
prevented by planting near the gai*- 
den or orchard a few such trees as 
the Russian mulberry, the fruit of 
which they ordinarily prefer. Dur- 
ing the remainder of the year these 
birds are highly beneficial. Hence 
their presence should be encouraged. 


The house wren is a particularly 
useful bird. To invite his company 
place suitable nesting boxes, or even 
gourds- or tin cans or empty jars 
about the house and orchard for his 
reception. An opening about 1 inch 
in diameter will admit the wren and 
yet afford him protection by exclud- 
ing the English sparrow. One pair 
of wrens annually rears from twelve 
to sixteen young. Hence each family 
consumes an enormous number of 
injurious insects. 

The blue bird is another species 
not only harmless but highly bene- 
ficial. It does not eat fruit but de- 
stroys large numbers of injurious 
insects. Every householder can af- 
ford to provide suitable nesting 
boxes for his occupancy. 

English Sparrows. — The English 
sparrow among birds, like the rat 
among animals, is cunning, destruc- 
tive and filthy. It was introduced 
into America about sixty years ago. 
It is now widely distributed through - 
out the United States and Southern 
Canada. Its ability to live every- 
where, upon all sorts of food and to 
fight its own way, together with its 
extraordinary fecundity, make it a. 
dangerous rival of such native birds 
as blue birds, purple martins and 
the different kinds of swallows. It 
drives these away by destroying their 
eggs and usurping their nesting 
places. It also drives off other at- 
tractive species as the robin, wren, 
red-eyed vireo, cat bird and mocking 
bird. It injures and destroys all 
sorts of fruit, garden and farm 
crops, and also the buds and flowers 
of cultivated trees, shrubs and vines. 
It defiles buildings and ornamental 
trees and shrubs with its excrement 
and bulky nests. It has no song, but 
is noisy and vituperative. Nowhere 
is it included among the birds pro- 
tected by law. 

To protect blue birds, martins and 
wrens from English sparrows, con- 
struct bird houses having a hinged 
top, bottom or side to admit of 
removing the nests and eggs of the 
sparrow as soon as the latter have 

been laid. A convenient method is 
to make a hinged bottom which will 
fall when unhooked. This allows the 
contents to drop to the ground. Take ' 
care to construct a tight nest box 
and cleat the hinged side so as to 
prevent warping. In common with 
other birds, the sparrow does not 
like drafty nesting places and will 
not occupy a box the inside of which 
is exposed to drafts. 

To destroy sparrows or clear them 
from any neighborhood, drive them 
from their roosts at night by turn- 
ing upon them a stream of water 
from a garden hose, or balls of fire 
from small Roman candles. Or de- 
stroy their nests at intervals of ten 
to twelve days throughout the breed- 
ing season. These can be readily torn 
down by means of a long pole having 
an iron hook at the tip. But take 
care to have this work done by com- 
petent persons. Otherwise the nests 
of useful native birds may be de- 

Or capture the sparrows by pro- 
viding one-room bird houses and driv- 
ing them thence into a net held over 
the opening by means of a long pole. 
This may be done by tapping on the 
side of the box after they have gone 
to roost at night. 

Or scatter grain over a long nar- 
row area and shoot the sparrows at 
this feeding place. If they infest 
poultry yards, place the bait on a 
horizontal board so that they can 
be safely shot over the heads of the 

Or trap the birds alive, for which 
purpose a number of ingenious 
plans are recommended. One sim- 
ple device is the use of an ordinary 
square wire sieve such as are com- 
monly used for screening ashes. 

Or, preferably, construct large 
boxes not less than 4 feet square 
open upon one side and covered with 
wire on the other. Place a small 
sliding door near one corner. Ad- 
just the trap supported by a stick 18 
inches long with a chip between the 
top and the stick and carry it around 
a neighboring corner or to any con- 



venient point of observation. Or an 
old door or similar device may be 
employed as a dead fall. It is a 
good plan to keep the trap set and 
baited for a few days until the spar- 
rows have become accustomed to it. 
Meantime to avoid its being sprung 
prematurely, hold it firmly by a stake 
driven into the ground. This trap 
is very effective but has the disad- 
vantage of requiring attendance. 

Funnel trap. {Side raised to show in- 
terior.) (Ned Dearborn.) 

Or a more convenient device is the 
funnel trap shown in the illustration. 
This is easy to construct and the 
cost of material is very slight. It 
weighs little and when painted green 
or gray is inconspicuous. 

The following directions are given 
by the Department of Agriculture: 
"The essential parts of this trap are: 
(1) A half funnel leading into (2) 
an antechamber, which ends in (3) 
a complete funnel leading into (4) 
a final chamber. It is made of wov- 
en-wire poultry netting of f-inch 
mesh and is reinforced around the 
open end and along the sides at the 
bottom by No. 8 or No. 10 wire. 
This is used also around the aper- 
ture for the door and around the 
door itself. The angles between the 
first funnel and the walls of the an- 
techamber are floored with netting. 
The final chamber is floored with 
the same material. The accompany- 
ing drawings will enable anybody 
handy with tools to construct one of 
these traps in a few hours. These 
plans are for a trap 3 feet long, a 
foot and a half wide, and a foot 
high. At ordinary retail prices the 
cost of material will be about 70 

"Paper patterns for the two fun- 
nels can be made by first drawing 
the concentric circles, as shown in 
the illustrations, and then laying off 
the straight lines, beginning with the 
longest. The wavy outlines indicate 
that the pattern is to be cut half 
an inch outside of the straight lines. 

Outline of funnel trap. 
{Ned Dearborn.) 

This allows extra wire for fastening 
■ the cones to the top and sides of 
the trap. The illustrations also show 
how all parts of a trap having the 
above dimensions may be cut from a 
piece of netting 4 feet wide and 6 feet 
long. The full lines in this figure 
indicate where the netting is to be 
cut and the broken lines where it 

Diagram for cutting out the parts of a 
funnel trap 36x18x12 inches. (Ned 

is to be bent. The numbers at the 
angles in the pattern correspond 
with those in the illustration which 
shows in outline the relation of the 
different parts as they appear when 

"A trap of the above dimensions 
is as small as can be used satisfac- 
torily. Where sparrows are very nu- 
merous a larger size is recommended. 


A trap 4 feet long, 3 feet wide, 
and 15 inches high may be made 
from a piece of netting 4 by 10 feet. 
This is a very good size for parks 
and large private grounds. 

"In setting a funnel trap select a 
place where sparrows are accustomed 
to assemble. Often there are several 
such places in a neighborhood. In 
this case it is advisable to move the 
trap daily from one of them to an- 
other. The birds appear to associate 
the locality rather than the trap 
with the distress of their imprisoned 
comrades. Canary seed, hemp seed, 
wheat, oats and bread crumbs are 
excellent baits. Scatter the bait in 
the antechamber and first funnel and 
also, sparingly, outside about the en- 
trance. A live sparrow kept in the 
trap as a decoy will facilitate a 
catch. In case native birds enter a 
trap they may be released without 
harm. Trapping may begin at any 
time after young sparrows are able 

Receiving box for removing sparrows 
from traps. {Ned Dearborn.) 

to take care of themselves. This is 
usually by July 1. Remove each 
day's catch from the trap at night- 
fall, and if a decoy is used, house 
it comfortably and otherwise care for 
it when oflF duty. 

"In removing sparrows from either 
a funnel or a sieve trap the receiving 
box illustrated will be found useful. 
It should be about 6 inches square 
and 18 inches long, inside measure- 
ments. The door, hinged at the bot- 
tom and turning inward, is controlled 
by the part of its wire frame ex- 
tending through the side of the box 
to form a handle. The box as it 
appears in the figure is ready to be 

placed before the open door of a 
trap from which birds are to be 

To poison sparrows, where this is 
not prohibited by law, put i ounce 
of pulverized strychnia in three- 
fourths of a gill of hot water. Add 
li teaspoonfuls of starch or wheat 
flour moistened with a few drops of 
cold Avater and heat. Stir constantly 
until the mixture thickens. Now 
place a quart of whole wheat, such 
as is sold for jDoultry food, in a 2- 
quart glass fruit jar or other re- 
ceptacle and pour on it the hot poi- 
soned starch. Shake or stir until 
every kernel is coated. Spread out 
thin on a flat surface and use when 
dry. Or put into jars to keep for 
future use. Mark "Poison" and take 
care to cleanse all dishes employed 
for this purpose by careful washing. 

Or spread thin slices of bread with 
the strychnia-starch mixture. 

Choose preferably the early morn- 
ing after a snow storm when other 
food is covered. Clear the ground of 
snow and scatter the poisoned bait 
over a considerable surface. Remove 
and destroy promptly all dead and 
dying birds, as some are sickened 
but do not die. Change the feeding 
grounds at intervals. To avoid dan- 
ger to poultry, use preferably en- 
closed back yards, roofs or unused 
poultry runs. Or to keep out doves 
or poultry, make small pens of 
coarse wire netting and raise the 
sides li inches above the ground. 
The best plan is to use various kinds 
of traps until the sjiarrows are 
thinned out and become wary. Then 
poison the survivors. 

English Sparrows as Food. — These 
birds have been utilized for food in 
the old world for centuries. Their 
flesh is palatable and wholesome, 
especially when broiled or baked in 
the form of pies. Any recipe for 
pigeon or chicken pies, or for broil- 
ing small birds may be adapted for 
cooking sparrows. The birds may be 
trapped and kept alive, sheltered 
from storms and cold winds, in large 
outdoor cages, until wanted. But re- 



member that they eat daily more 
than half their own weight. Feed 
table scraps or any food suitable 
for chickens, and provide a supply 
of clear water. 

To kill them mercifully, place the 
thumb nail at the base of the skull 
and dislocate the neck by hard and 
quick pressure. Cut oflF the legs, the 
wings at the outer joint and the 
neck close to the body. Strip off the 
skin beginning at the neck. Now 
make a cut through the body wall 
extending from the neck along the 
backbone till the ribs are severed, 
then around between the legs to the 
tail, and remove the viscera. If spar- 
rows are to be broiled, save only 
the breasts. This method of cooking 
so shrivels and parches the lesser 
parts as to render them worthless. 
In this case tear off a strip of skin 
from wing to wing across the back; 
grasp the wings, in front of the 
body, in one hand and the neck in 
the other, and by a quick pull sepa- 
rate the breast from the ribs. Turn 
the breast out of the skin that cov- 
ers it, and sever the wings at the 
second joint. The whole operation 
requires but a fraction of a minute 
and can be done by the fingers alone. 

Sparrows may be cooked by any 
of the methods employed for reed- 
birds or quail. When boned, broiled, 
buttered, and served on toast they 
are particularly good and compare 
favorably with the best kinds of 
small game. 

Toads. — Many strange prejudices 
and traditions attach to toads such 
as the unfounded notion that they 
cause warts on the hands, poison 
infants by their breath, bring good 
fortune to the house in whose new- 
made cellar they take up their abode, 
or cause bloody milk in cows if killed 
by accident or design. 

Toads feed chiefly on insects, a 
large percentage of which are in- 
jurious to gardeners and orchardists. 
Analysis of the contents of their 
stomachs prove that they are among 
the most useful friends to orchard 
and garden. They are very sensitive 

to heat and hence secrete themselves 
in rubbish during the day. This fact 
suggests means by which they may 
be encouraged to frequent gardens 
and vineyards. Place a number of 
large flat stones or pieces of 3-inch 
plank about the edge of the garden 
supported a couple of inches from 
the ground by means of half brick 
or small stones. Throw a sack or 
square of old carpet or matting over 
these to exclude the light. Leave an 
entrance only on the north side. 

Or dig shallow holes in the earth 
and partially cover them with boards 
or flat stone. 

Encourage children to feed toads 
with captured flies and other insects. 
This may be readily done when they 
come to the entrance of their lairs 
about twilight. This will impress 
upon children the value of the serv- 
ices of the toad and the importance 
of their protection. Many English 
and some other gardeners purchase 
young toads and colonize them to rid 
greenhouses and gardens of insects 
and snails. A shallow pool having a 
small but constant water sujjply will 
encourage their breeding on the 

rield Mice and Moles. — There are 
a large number of species of field 
mice and moles, ground squirrels and 
other small rodents throughout the 
United States which do great injury 
to lawns, orchards, gardens and farm 
crops by burrowing through the soil 
and eating the roots of plants, bark 
of trees and the like. Orchard and 
shade trees are often completely 
girdled by field mice in winter and 
destroyed. In some localities the 
number of mice increases at times to 
enormous proportions as during the 
celebrated plague of mice in the 
Humboldt Valley, Nevada, in 1907. 
All field crops and trees were largely 
destroyed. The damage so done 
amounted to many hundred thou- 
sands of dollars. Experiments dur- 
ing this and other plagues indicate 
that the most effective mode of de- 
stroying mice is by poisoning. Yel- 
low phosphorus and carbon bisul- 


phide are sometimes employed. But 
the former is dangerous to handle 
and may cause disastrous fires. The 
latter is highly explosive. Wheat and 
grain poisoned by these substances 
are also eaten readily by many useful 
birds. The most effective method 
employed was the use of alfalfa hay, 
or crushed wheat, poisoned with 
strychnia sulphate. The advantage 
of the former when available is that 
it is without danger to birds. 

Choose for this purpose alfalfa 
hay which is fresh and green, rather 
than bleached. Chop into 2-inch 
lengths in an ordinary feed cutter 
and mix in a large metal receptacle 
such as a galvanized iron pail or tub. 
Use one ounce of strychnia sulphate 
to 30 pounds of chopped alfalfa hay, 
moistened in five or six gallons of wa- 
ter, or as much as the hay will absorb. 
Place the chopped hay in the recep- 
tacle and moisten with about half 
of the water. Dissolve the poison 
in the rest of the water by heating 
in a closed vessel. Now sprinkle over 
the dampened hay, mix until the 
moisture is all taken up, and sack 
for use. Use within two or three 
days as it spoils quickly. Distribute 
by hand. Place a small pinch equal 
to a teaspoonful near the entrance 
of each burrow or scatter along the 
surface trails. Place the poison a 
little to one side of the entrance to 
prevent its being covered by the 
earth thrown out. Or in winter drop 
into the entrance of the burrows. 
The amount of poison likely to be 
taken up by stock is small. No such 
accidents have been reported. But 
for safety, stock may be kept out 
of the fields a few days after the 
poison has been distributed. 

Or in summer use green alfalfa at 
the rate of 45 pounds of hay to one 
ounce of strychnia sulphate moist- 
ened in IJ gallons of water. Dis- 
solve the strychnia in J gallon of 
water by heating in a closed ves- 
sel. Add one gallon of cold 
water, sprinkle slowly over the al- 
falfa and mix until the moisture is 
all taken up. Distribute in the same 

manner, placing the bait in the holes 
or along runways. 

Or use crushed wheat at the rate 
of 60 pounds to the ounce of strych- 
nia sulphate, dissolved in 3 gallons 
of water. Heat and stir the sulphate 
in the water in a closed vessel until 
completely dissolved. Sprinkle over 
the wheat and mix well. Add two 
teaspoonfuls of powdered borax to 
prevent fermentation. Place prefer- 
ably near the burrows and along run- 
ways. But remember that poisoned 
grain will be taken up freely by 
birds. Hence the use of alfalfa is 

To protect trees from mice and 
moles use thin wooden wrappers 
called "tree protectors." Or apply 
liberally to the exposed roots and 
trunks the lime and sulphur wash 
used for spraying. Do this with a 
brush at the beginning of winter. 

Great numbers of field mice are 
destroyed by owls, hawks and other 
natural enemies, especially skunks 
and weasels. The two latter animals 
are especially worthy of protection. 

Woodchucks. — These animals hole 
up in August and hibernate until the 
following March. The young — usu- 
ally five in a litter — are born during 
the latter part of April and are able 
to eat green vegetables by early 
June. They are very injurious to 
clover and hay and also to early 
truck and garden crops. In many lo- 
calities they also act as hosts of the 
wood tick which is the source of 
spotted fever. Hence for many rea- 
sons they merit complete extermina- 
tion. To poison woodchucks, use a 
mixture of about 2 gallons of dande- 
lion heads, clover tops or alfalfa 
hay. Coat either of these with one 
pint of flour paste containing 3 
ounces of arsenic. This spoils quick- 
ly. Hence mix in the afternoon and 
place after dark at the entrance of 
the woodchucks' burrow. It will 
then be at hand when they come out 
in the morning. 

Or employ steel traps which may 
be set in the mouths of the burrows 
or about the entrance, preferably 



concealed with paper or dry grass. 
Use a rather large size "jump" trap, 
preferably No. lA. 

Insect Pests. — To control insects 
and diseases that infest garden crops 
gather all refuse from crops, pile at 
some convenient place and burn 
promptly. Many injurious insects 
find protection for the winter under 
loose material remaining in the gar- 
den. Moreover, the dead vines of 
plants are likely to be covered with 
spores of various diseases. Such 
refuse has little or no value as a fer- 
tilizer. Tlie gain from prompt burn 
ing will more than offset any loss of 
humus to the soil, 


Such conditions as remodeling old 
farm houses and surrounding them 
with attractive lawns and gardens, or 
the purchase of homesites on land 
which is more or less timbered, often 
require clearing away trees, stumps 
and under-brush. The quickest and 
simplest way to remove large stumps 
is by the use of dynamite. The cost 
will vary from ten to twenty cents 
for each stump. Dynamite is a mix- 
ture of nitroglycerine with a granu- 
lar absorbent in varying proportions. 
It comfes in cylindrical sticks of dif- 
ferent sizes. Pure nitroglycerine is 
one of the most powerful and dan- 
gerous of all explosives. While dy- 
namite is somewhat less liable to 
cause accident from careless handling 
it is always better to employ an ex- 
perienced person to handle it. 

To blow up a stump with dyna- 
mite dig down beside the stump far 
enough to admit of boring a hole into 
it with an auger so that the charge 
will explode as nearly as possible in 
the middle of the stump at the bot- 
tom. Select a low grade dynamite 
containing about 30 per cent nitro- 
glycerine. Tliis explodes more slowly 
and tends rather to upheave than to 
shatter. Insert a suitable charge in 
the auger liole with cap and fuse at- 
tached. Cover with earth to the level 
of the ground a,nd tamp gently. 

Light the fuse and retreat to a safe 
distance. Should the stump be lo- 
cated near buildings or greenhouses, 
the danger of breaking window glass 
may be lessened by covering it with 
earth in cloth bags or throwing over 
it a number of logs chained together 
surmounted by pieces of heavy can- 

Showing dynamite cartridge in 'position. 
{Franklin Williams, Jr.) 

vas or an old horse blanket. Or a 
-dynamite cartridge may be exploded 
against the side of a stump, without 
boring, in a hollow dug in the earth. 
The resulting fragments may then be 
readily dug up with the mattock. 

To Pull Stumps. — There are nu- 
merous stump-pulling machines on the 
market and sometimes one can be 
hired to advantage to remove the few 
large stumps. But such machines as 
a rule are expensive to operate as 
compared with other methods. There 

Uprooting sapling with horse and chain. 
(Franklin Williams, Jr.) 

are three principal types of root de- 
velopment: the tap root, semi-tap 
root and root with lateral branches. 
The first goes straight down into the 
ground without branching. The sec- 
ond forms branches just helow the 


surface which go somewhat deeply 
into the ground at various angles. 
The third forms branches which ex- 
tend parallel with the surface in all 
directions, but do not penetrate deep- 
ly. The best method of removing a 
stump depends, therefore, upon the 
character of its root system. The 
hickory, black gum and white oak 
have a typical tap root. The pines, 
papaw and chestnute have semi-tap 
roots. The elm, soft maple, locust, 
dogwood and elder have lateral root 

The best way to clear the ground 
of small trees and young saplings is 
to pull them over with one or more 
horses or oxen by means of a long 
log chain fastened as high above the 
ground as the stiffness of the trunk 
will admit. The object is to secure 
as good leverage as possible. A 
steady horse or team, or preferably 
a pair of oxen, is required. While 
the tree is bent forward with a 
steady pull, separate the roots 
on the opposite side with a 
sharp axe. This method can be 
used successfully to remove quite 
dogwood and elder have lateral root 

Or to pull out the stumps of large 
trees having lateral or semi-tap 
root systems, with a team of 
horses or pair of oxen, first re- 
move the sod and loosen the earth 
about the principal roots. Then 
attach a log chain to one of the 
largest branch roots at some distance 
from the stump, carry the chain 
across the top of the stump and pull 
•in a direction opposite to that in 
which the root extends. The object 
is to secure a leverage over the top 
of the stump. This leverage can be 
increased by means of two pieces of 
timber about six feet high bolted to- 
gether in the form of the letter A 
or ordinary harrow. To the top of 
this is attached a chain or wire rope 
four or five feet long terminating in 
a hook. The A leans against one 
side of the stump and the hook is 
attached to a large root on the other 
side. The power is then applied 

slowly and steadily to the top of the 
A- and, as this is raised up, the stump 
is tilted over. 

Or to secure greater leverage when 
necessary, use two triple blocks and 
200 or 300 feet of one-inch rope. 
Anchor one block to a solid stump 
and the other to the stump it is de- 
sired to pull. 

Or bore a hole in the center of a 
large stump in the fall with a 1-inch 
auger. Pour into it a half pound of 
vitriol and drive in a tight wooden 
plug. In the spring, the whole stump 
and roots will be found so thoroughly 
rotted that they can easily be dug or 
plowed up. 

Or bore a hole 18 inches deep in 
the center of the stump in the fall. 
Put in an ounce of saltpeter, fill up 
the hole with water and drive in a 
tight wooden plug. In the spring, 
pour in a half gill of kerosene and 
set it on fire. The whole stump will 
be burned out. But take care not to 
use this method in dry, mucky or 
peaty soil or in forests surrounded 
by dry leaves, else it may cause a 
disastrous forest fire. 

Or to pull out brush and stumps, 
attach a log chain around the trunk 
or stem close to the ground and carry 
the chain up and over a grooved 
wheel, such as the wheel of an old 
corn planter and start the team. 
The wheel gives a good leverage and, 
by turning, lessens friction. The 
same device may be used to jjull up 
fence posts. 

To Remove Underbrush. — Use the 
mattock. Give this tool a sharp edge 
with a file and keep it in good worlv- 
ing condition. 

Pasturing, — Another means of 
clearing tracts of new land is by 
pasturing with any kind of stock. 
The angora goat is the best land 
clearer. And goats or sheep are al- 
ways to be preferred. But horses 
and cattle, or even hogs, will assist 
in clearing land if confined to small 
tracts so as to be forced to obtain a 
considerable part of their food by 
browsing. All sjjrouts and green 
bushes which stock fail to subdue 



should be cut clown with the axe or 
mattock in the late summer. 

If time is not an object, trees of 
considerable size may be removed by 
natural forces. To use this method 
dig a trench around the base of the 
tree and cut all the lateral roots, 
leaving only the tap root, and await 
the action of wind and rain. The 
water which accumulates in the 
trenches softens the soil and causes 
it to be upheaved by frosts. The 
wind pressing against the top of the 
tree will then sway the trunk, in 
course of time, with sufficient force 
to throw it and thus pry the tap root 
completely out of the ground. 

A few trees, notably the sassafras, 
persimmon and locust are very per- 
sistent. The entire root system 
should be removed from the ground. 

After all trees, saplings and un- 
derbrush have been removed and the 
stumps pulled, new ground may be 
completely subdued by fall plowing 
one way and cross plowing the fol- 
lowing spring. Carry an axe at- 
tached to the handle-bars of the plow 
and sever every root which the plow 
cannot break through. New land 
should preferably be cultivated for a 
year or two before being laid down as 
a permanent lawn or other green- 
sward,. Good crops for new land 
perhaps are corn, tomatoes or pota- 

Or the land may be sown to clover 
or other crops suitable for green ma- 


The growing scarcity of timber in 
many localities and its constantly in- 
creasing cost, have led to a wide- 
spread revival of interest in concrete 
construction. This material was an- 
ciently used very much more than in 
modern times, notably among the 
Romans. Many of the most famous 
buildings and public works in ancient 
Rome were thus built. The materials 
for making concrete — Portland ce- 
ment, sand, gravel and water — are so 
cheap and readily available in most 

localities, and the process is so sim- 
ple, that this material promises to 
come into well-nigh universal appli- 
cation. It is suitable for walks and 
drives; fence posts and garden 
benches; cellar walls and floors; 
foundation walls and floors for all 
sorts of outbuildings; partition walls 
for cisterns and store rooms in cel- 
lars; privy vaults and bins for the 
accumulation of stable manure to 
prevent access of flies; watering 
troughs, and countless other uses too 
numerous to mention. 

The two chief problems in the use 
of concrete are mixing the materials 
and the construction of the necessary 
forms or retaining walls. 

To mix concrete properly requires 
a suitable mixing board and a few 
ordinary utensils. The construction 
of forms calls merely for a small 
_ quantity of cheap lumber, the most 
common carpenters' tools and very 
ordinary skill in carpentry. Excel- 
lent results can be secured by any 
householder by the application of 
good common sense with ordinary 
care and sagacity. Concrete is fan- 
superior to lumber, brick or other 
building stone on account of its dura- 
bility, economy and safety from fire 
loss. It is also the best possible ma- 
terial for rat-proof construction. 

Concrete is simply a manufactured 
stone formed by mixing cement, 
sand and crushed stone or gravel 
(i. e., pebbles) together with water. 
Cement is, therefore, only one part 

Required quantities of cement, sand, and 
stone or gravel for a 1:2:^ concrete 
mixture and the resulting quantity of 
concrete. (Office of Public Roads.) 

of a concrete mixture. The great 
bulk of concrete is gravel and sand. 
The object to be obtained in mixing 
is to fill all the spaces or voids be- 
tween the stone or gravel with sand, 
and the spaces between the particles 


of sand with cement. And such is an 
ideal mixture. In other words, only 
sufficient cement is required, in the- 
ory, to cover the surface of the parti- 
cles of sand, gravel and stone with a 
thin coating of wet cement sufficient 
to stick or glue them firmly together. 
To secure such an ideal mixture it 
is necessary to observe the proper 
proportions of the different ingredi- 
ents. These proportions have been 
determined by experience and if the 
following rules are followed, good 
results will be assured. 

Cement. — Buy, preferably, Port- 
land cement in cloth sacks, rather 
than in paper bags or wooden bar- 
rels. Keep dry until ready for use 
by storing on boards raised from 
the floor by means of wooden blocks 
and covered with canvas or roofing 
paper. Keep indoors in a dry place. 
Otherwise cement will absorb moist- 
ure from the atmosphere and become 
lumpy or often a solid mass. Such 
cement is worthless and must be 
thrown away. But lumps caused by 
pressure may be easily broken up and 
such cement is perfectly good. Dry 
cement mixed with water forms a 
soft sticky paste. This begins to 
"set" or harden in about half an 
hour. Any disturbance of concrete 
after it begins to set weakens it, or 
if the set is well under way, destroys 
it. Hence, Portland cement concrete 
must be mixed in small quantities, as 
needed, and placed in position within 
twenty or thirty minutes after first 
being wet. 

Cautions. — Avoid extremes of heat. 
Portland cement concrete is weak- 
ened by exposure to a hot sun dur- 
ing the first four or five days after 
being placed in position. Or it may 
be injured by freezing while being 
mixed and before being placed in po- 
sition, or even after having been 
placed, if subjected to a heavy load. 
Hence, avoid mixing in freezing 
weather, i. e., if the temperature is 
below 33° F. Do not cover when 
green with fresh manure to protect 
it from freezing as this will soil the 
surface and weaken the concrete, 

Sand and Gravel. — The term sand, 
as used by concrete mixers, includes 
all grains and small pebbles that pass 
through a wire screen with J-inch 
mesh and are retained upon a screen 
having 40 meshes to the linear inch. 
Gravel in general is pebbles and 
stone retained upon a j-inch screen. 
It is quite commonly supposed 
that any kind of sand or gravel will 
make a good concrete mixture but this 
is far from being the case. Sand 
from pits or gravel banks varies 
greatly in character. Hence to se- 
cure the best results, care must 
be exercised in selecting materials. 
Coarse, hard sand, free from clay or 
dirt, produces the best and strongest 
concrete and requires much less ce- 
ment than if fine, soft or dirty. 

To procure good sand and gravel, 
screen the material at the bank twice. 
First use a J-inch screen to keep 
out the gravel. Set the screen up- 
right at an angle of 45°. Then screen 
a second time, on a 40-mesh screen, 
the sand which has thus been freed 
from gravel. Reject all the fine sand 
and earth which will pass through the 
40-mesh screen. The result will be 
material, both sand and gravel, of 
known character. By mixing these 
in exact proportions, not only will the 
finished work be more reliable, but 
enough cement can be saved to more 
than pay for the labor of screening. 

Or fine loam and clay can be re- 
moved from the sand by washing. To 
test the material, fill a pint preserv- 
ing jar with an average sample to 
the depth of 4 inches. Fill the jar 
with clear water to within 1 incli of 
the top, fasten on the lid and shake 
vigorously. Now set the jar upright 
and let the contents settle. The sand 
will fall to the bottom, next the clay, 
next the loam, and the water will 
come to the top. If there is a layer 
of more than ^ inch of clay or loam 
the sand must be rejected or 

To Wash Sand or Gravel. — Build 
a loose board platform 10 or 15 feet 
long. Have one end 13 inches higher 
than the other. Nail 3 by 6-inch 


plank across the lower end and along 
both sides to hold the sand. Spread 
out the sand on this platform in a 
layer 3 or 4 inches thick and wash 
with a f-inch garden hose. Begin 
at the upper end and let the water 
run through the sand and over the 
3 by 6 edge at the bottom. 

Reinforced Concrete. — For rein- 
forced concrete and most ordinary 
purposes, reject stones over 1 inch in 
diameter. But for heavy foundation 

ture means 1 part cement, 2i times 
as much sand and 5 times as much 
stone or gravel. The whole consists 
of 8^ parts. In other words ^ 
of a 1:2:4) mixture is cement and 
somewhat less than J of a 1:2J:5 
mixture. The 1:2:4 mixture is, there- 
fore, stronger and is to be preferred 
for foundations and other work car- 
rying heavy loads. 

The accompanying table, prepared 
by the national Office of Public Roads, 




Sizes of measuring boxes (inside 


by parts 


<0 Ml 

Kinds of 

























Stone or gravel 









2 feet by 2 feet by 
llj inches. 

2 feet by 4 feet by 
llf inches. 


1 :2i :5 








2 feet by 2 feet 6 
inches by 1 1 J- 

2 feet 6 inches by 
4 feet by 11 -J 





or abutment work, include larger 
stones and pebbles up to 2 inches or 
more in diameter. For best results 
use a mixture of sizes of gravel from 
i to 1 inch or more in diameter. In 
ordering crushed stone specify the 
size of the stone and screenings 
wanted. The crusher dust should be 
washed out. 

Measurements of Materials. — 
First figure the number of cubic feet 
of concrete that will be required for 
the job. Next determine the propor- 
tions of material, i. e., the kind of 
concrete you will employ. Finally 
figure the amount of each kind of 
material that will be necessary. The 
two most usual formulae are 1:2:4 and 
1:22:5. The proportions are always 
measured by volume. A 1:2:4 mix- 
ture means 1 part cement, twice as 
much sand and 4 times as much stone 
or gravel. The whole mixture thus 
consists of 7 parts. A 1:2^:5 mix- 

gives the size of measuring boxes re- 
quired for a two-bag batch of con- 
crete. These boxes are made with 
straight sides of any kind of rough 
boards. They have no top or bottom. 
A bag of Portland cement is prac- 
tically one cubic foot. A barrel con- 
tains four cubic feet or bags. The 
sand, stone or gravel are measured 
loosely in the box, not packed. For 
a four-bag batch of concrete double 
the quantities given in this table. 

To determine the total quantities 
of material required, multiply the 
total number of cubic feet of con- 
crete needed for the job by the num- 
ber given under the proper column as 
shown by the table on the next page, 
given by the Office of Public Roads. 
This will give the amount of cement, 
sand and stone or gravel needed. 

Example: Let us suppose that the 
work consists of a concrete silo re- 
quiring in all 935 cubic feet of con- 

OUTDOOR Problems of th£ householder ^ss 

Crete, of which 750 cubic feet are to 
be 1:3:4 concrete, and 185 cubic feet 
are to be l:2i:5 concrete. Enough 
sand and cement are also needed to 
paint the silo inside and outside, 
amounting in all to 400 square yards 
of surface, with a 1:1 mixture of 

sheet iron bed; garden rake, water 
barrel, two 3-gallon water buckets; 
4 by 4-inch tamper, 3 feet 6 inches in 
length with handles nailed to it; gar- 
den spade; and 3 screens, one a 5- 
inch mesh, the other 40 meshes to the 
inch. These may be made by nailing 


Mixture of Concrete 

(by barrels) 

Said (by 

Stone or 
gravel (by 
cubic yards) 

1 : 2J : 5 . 




sand and cement. One cubic foot of a section of screen 3i by 5 feet in 

1 :1 mortar paints about 15 square size to a frame made of Iboards 3 by 

yards of surface and requires 0.1856 4 feet. 

barrel of cement and 0.0363 cubic To make a concrete board for two 

yard of sand. The problem thus men to mix a 3'bag batch, order 9 

works out as follows: pieces ^ by 13 inches by 10 feet 

Cement: Barrels 

For the 750 cubic feet of 1 : 2 : 4 concrete (750x0.058) 43 . 5 

For the 185 cubic feet of 1 : 2^ : 5 concrete (185x0.048) 8.9 

For painting (400-1 5.x0. 1856) 4.9 

Total amount of cement 57 . 3 

Sand: Cubic yards 

For 750 cubic feet of 1 : 2 : 4 concrete (750x0.0163) 12.23 

For 185 cubic feet of 1 : 2^ : 6 concrete (185x0.0176) 3 .26 

For painting (400-15x0.0263) .70 

Total amount of sand 16.19 

Stone or gravel: Cubic yards 

For 750 cubic feet of 1:2:4 concrete (750x0.0326) 24 . 5 

For 185 cubic feet of 1 : 2| : 5 concrete (185x0.0352) 6.5 

Total amount of stone or gravel 31.0 

Thus the necessary quantities of 
materials are about 57^ barrels of 
Portland cement, about 16J cubic 
yards of sand, and 31 cubic yards of 
stone or gravel. It is always wise to 
order two or three extra barrels of 
cement if the dealer is at considera- 
ble distance, as this avoids any pos- 
sible trouble that a shortage might 

Equipment for Mixing. — This con- 
sists of a concrete mixing board, 
board "runs" for wheelbarrows, 
measuring boxes for sand, stone 
and gravel, a No. 3 square point 
shovel for each workman; at l^ast 
two wheelbarrows, preferably having 

boards, preferably tongue and groove 
roofers, planed and fre€ from knots. 
Also 5 pieces 3 inch by 4 inch by 9 
feet rough boards for cleats; 3 pieces 
3 inch by 3 inch by 10 feet rough, 
for edge boards at the sides; and 3 
pieces 3 inch by 3 inch by 9 feet 
rough, for edge boards at the two 
ends. The object of the edge boards 
is to prevent the loss of concrete 
grout by running over the edges. 

For the same reason plug or close 
all knot holes by a strip nailed across 
them on the under side. The board 
must be tight to prevent waste of 
concrete grout, smooth to permit of 
easy shoveling — which should always 


be in the direction that the cracks 
run — firm and level. A board for a 
4-bag batch of concrete should be 13 
feet by 10 feet in size and will 
require a correspondingly larger 
amount of lumber. Have the boards 
run the shorter or 10-foot way. 

Place the concrete board as handy 
to the job as may be and store the 
piles of sand, stone and pebbles close 
by. Support the board on blocks so 
that it will be level and cannot sag 
under the weight of the concrete. 
Build wheelbarrow "runs" of good 
smooth plank 2 to 3 inches in thick- 
ness and from 12 to 30 inches wide, 
depending upon the distance above 
the ground. 

The following are specifications for 
measuring boxes for sand, stone or 

For a 2-bag batch with the 1:2:4 
mixture : 

4 pieces 1 inch by 11^ inches by 
2 feet, rough (for ends of the sand 
and stone boxes). 

2 pieces 1 inch by 11 J inches by 
4 feet, rough (for the sides of the 
sand lx?x). 

2 pieces 1 inch by Hi inches by 
6 feet, rough (for the sides of the 
stone box). 

(It should be noted that the 2 
pieces $ feet long and the 2 pieces 6 
feet long have an extra foot in length 
at each end for the purpose of serv- 
ing as a handle.) 

For a 2-bag batch with the 1:2^:5 
mixture : 

2 pieces 1 inch by IIJ inches by 
2 feet (for the ends of the sand 

2 pieces 1 inch by 11 il inches by 
2* feet (for the ends of the stone 

2 pieces 1 inch by Hi inches by 
4^ feet (for the sides of the sand 

2 pieces 1 inch by 11^ inches by 
6 feet (for sides of the stone box). 

(As in the preceding case, the 2 
pieces 4i feet long and the 2 pieces 
6 feet long have an extra foot in 
length at each end to serve as han- 

Mixing Concrete. — First place the 
mixing board and wheelbarrow runs 
in position and wheel two loads of 
sand upon the board. Place the sand 
measuring box about 2 feet from one 
of the 10-foot sides of the board. 
Fill the box, lift it off and spread 
the sand over the board with a rake 
in a layer 3 or 4 inches thick. Now 
spread 2 bags of cement as evenly as 
possible over the sand. Station two 
men facing one another at opposite 
ends of the board and let them start 
mixing the sand and cement in such 
a way that each man may turn over 
the half on his side of a line dividing 
the board in two. Let each man 
start at his feet and shovel away 
from himself taking a full shovel 
load and, in turning the shovel, not 
merely dumping off' the sand and ce- 
ment but shaking the materials from 
'the end and sides of the shovel so 
that they will be mixed as they fall. 
Then let the men turn and work back 
from the board a second time in the 
same manner. Thus the material will 
be thoroughly mixed while being 
shoveled from one side of the board 
to the other. 

After the sand and cement have 
thus been well mixed, spread them 
out carefully and add the gravel or 
stone. Place the proper measuring 
boxes on one side of the board and 
fill from the gravel pile. Now shovel 
the gravel on top of the sand and 
cement and spread out evenly. Or 
place the gravel measuring box on 
top of the level sand and cement 
mixture and with great care spread 
the gravel on top without extra shov- 
eling. But this requires more experi- 

Now dash about three-fourths of 
the required amount of water over 
the top of the pile as evenly as pos- 
sible from a bucket. Take care not 
to get too much water near the edges 
lest it flow off' and wash away some 
of the cement. Now start two men 
in the same way as with the sand and 
cement and shovel over the mixture. 
But let the men dump the whole 
shovel load instead of shaking it 


from the shovel and drag it back 
towards them with the square shovel 
point. This causes the wet gravel to 
pick up the sand and cement and in- 
sures a thorough mixture. Add 
water, as required, to the dry spots, 
until the total amount needed has 
been used. Now turn the mass back 
again as was done with the sand and 
cement. Experienced men will mix 
the concrete sufficiently in three such 
turnings but if it shows streaky or 
dry spots, turn it a fourth time and 
finally shovel in a compact pile. It 
is now ready for plajcing, which must 
be done promptly. 

Only two men are required for 
mixing, but a third man can assist by 
supplying water and serving other 
materials and by raking dry or un- 
mixed spots. Four men will be re- 
quired for the 4-bag batch. This re- 
quires a board 10 feet by 12 feet. 
Start in the middle of the board and 
let each pair of men mix as for a 
3-bag batch. But have them shovel 
the whole into a big mass each time 
the concrete is turned upon the cen- 
ter of the board. 

Placing Concrete. — Place the con- 
crete at once when mixed, since it will 
set within 20 or 30 minutes. Employ 
any means of conveying the concrete 
to the job that is most convenient. 
Deposit it in layers about 6 inches 
thick by means of a shovel or by 

Three kinds of concrete mixtures 
are used. Each requires slightly dif- 
ferent treatment. (1) A very wet 
mixture, which will run off a shovel 
when handled, is used for reinforced 
work, thin walls and the like. No 
ramming is necessary. (3) An ordi- 
nary or medium weight mixture of 
jelly-like consistency is in most gen- 
eral use for foundation floors and 
most other purposes. This should be 
rammed with a tamper enough to re- 
move all air bubbles and fill voids. 
(3) A dry mixture about like damp 
earth is used for foundations when 
quick work is desirable. Spread this 
in layers 4 to 6 inches thick and tamp 
until the water flushes to the surface. 

The chief difference is that the dryer 
mixture sets more quickly. 

Finishing Concrete. — To give the 
exposed surface of a concrete wall a 
smooth finish, run a spade or flattened 
shovel between the concrete and face 
of the form and work it up and 
down. This pushes the stone and 
gravel back slightly and causes ce- 
ment grout to flow against the face 
of the form and harden in a smooth 
even surface. The same effect can 
be produced on thin side or partition 
walls by the use of a board 1 by 4 
inches sharpened on one side like a 
chisel. The flat side should be placed 
against the form. 

To protect new concrete from the 
sun while hardening, sprinkle it with 
water both morning and evening for 
the first five or six days. Or hang 
pieces of old canvas, sheeting, or 
burlap an inch or so from the face 
of the concrete and keep them wet. 
Or leave the forms in position for a 
week or ten days. The object of this 
precaution is to prevent the outside 
from drying more rapidly than the 

Concrete Forms. — These are merely 
boxes or retaining walls of boards 
which serve to hold concrete in place 
until it is hardened. They thus fix 
its shape and give it a surface finish. 
Almost any kind of material which 
will hold the concrete will serve as 
a form. Sometimes foundations for 
buildings can be poured in shallow 
trenches dug for the purpose in the 
soil. The earth up to the ground line 
will serve as a form. Molds of wet 
sand are used for ornamental work. 
And metal molds may be had for 
certain purposes. But most forms 
are made of wood because it is both 
cheaper and easier to handle. Use 
preferably green lumber for forms, 
either rough or planed as desired. If 
the forms are to be used many times, 
as in casting fence posts, or if a 
handsome smooth surface is desired, 
matched boards with planed surfaces 
are to be preferred. But for ordi- 
nary work when the forms are to be 
used but once rough green lumber 



will answer every purpose. In such 
cases, use as few pieces of lumber 
and nails as possible. The forms 
may then be easily taken apart and 
the lumber used for other purposes. 
If nails are used do not drive them 
all the way in. Screws are prefer- 
able, since they can be more easily 

Build the forms strong enough to 
hold the concrete without bulging. 
Otherwise there will be leakage 
through the cracks. This will cause 
hollows on the surface and weaken 
the concrete. As a rule time and 
money will be well spent in making 
the forms rigid and true, and giving 
them an even surface. The oftener 
they are to be used the more nearly 
perfect they should be. Fill cracks 
and knot holes with stiff clay and 
tack strips over them on the out- 

Cleaning Tools and rorms. — Clean 
the concrete board at the beginning 
of each half day's work. Give the 
forms a dressing of linseed or cylin- 
der oil or soft soap to prevent the 
concrete from sticking. Never use 
kerosene. Go over them before they 
are erected to protect them from dust 
and dirt. Remove all objects which 
fall inside the forms while being 
erected, else they will be cast in the 
concrete and may weaken it. On 
taking down the forms, clean them 
and scrape off the concrete which 
adheres to them with a sharp short 
handled hoe. Follow with a wire 
brusli. But talve care not to spoil 
the surface. Repaint with oil or 
soft soap any spots which appear 

Concrete Fence Posts. — Concrete 
is the best possible substance for 
ornamental gate and fence posts 
since they may be cast in any desir- 
able shape or size. Tlie same mate- 
rial may also be used for walks, re- 
taining walls and similar purposes. 
Thus a uniform and harmonious dec- 
'orative scheme can be carried out. 
Crncrete posts usually cost less than 
first class wooden posts, according 
to locality, but are far more durable 

since their strength increases with 
age. They never need repairs as 
they are injured neither by fire nor 
weather. Barring unusual accident, 
concrete posts, once properly sea- 
soned, will last forever. 

Molds for line fence posts may be 
of steel or wood and either single or 
built in sets or "gangs." There are 
many patented steel molds on the 
market which have some advantages. 
If the posts are simple in form, 
these are light and easy to handle and 
give a post of neat finish and of any 
desired shape. But wooden molds 
made of ordinary white pine are in 
very common use. Two-inch plank 
dressed on both sides are to be pre- 
ferred. But lighter lumber may be 
used if well braced. Molds for 
square posts are the simplest and 
easiest to make. They are merely 
long boxes and are often built in 
sets or gangs, side-by-side, with con- 
tinuous bottom and end pieces. Any 
person having the tools can construct 
such molds without difficulty. They 
are usually laid flat. Thus when the 
concrete is poured into them, the 
two ends and three sides of the 
post are shaped by the mold. The 
fourth or top side is then smoothed 
with the trowel. Thus no lid or 
cover for the fourth side of the mold 
is required. To avoid sharp ragged 
corners, strips of canvas may be 
tacked along the two lower corners 
of the mold so that the corners of 
the finished post will "be slightly 
rounded. The two upper corners can 
be similarly shaped by the use of a 
trowel or special tool called an 
"edger." Or clay may be plastered 
in the corners of the mold, or wooden 
strips may be tacked to the side 
boards and shaped properly with a 
gouge to answer the same purpose. 
The end pieces may be hinged to ad- 
mit of the ready removal of the fin- 
ished posts. Other forms are pre- 
ferred by many such as posts taper- 
ing either on two or all four sides. 
A suitable size for this purpose are 
molds 4i inches deep, 6 inches wide 
at the butt, ii inches square at the 


top and 7 feet long. Or molds 5 
inches by 6 inches wide at the butt, 
3 inches deep by 4 inches wide at the 
top and 7 feet long. Triangular 
posts are also a favorite style. These 
are easily constructed in sets or 

with steel in the form of rods or wire 
properly buried in the concrete. 
Rods ^6 or i inch in diameter 
are most used in posts. The kind 
especially made for this purpose is 
preferable to the ordinary stock kept 




Gang mold for posts icitJiout taper. {Office of Public Roads.) 

gangs. The corners should be slightly 

Oiling Molds. — Apply soft soap or 
crude oil, not kerosene, rather spar- 
ingly. Pour a quart of oil into a 
pail of water, stir, and apply the 
mixture with a mop or stiff broom 

by blacksmiths and hardware mer- 
chants. Ordinary ungalvanized fenc- 
ing wire either single No. 8 or 2 No. 
13 wires twisted is a suitable rein- 
forcement for ordinary line posts. 
But this must be obtained straight 
from dealers, in the necessary 

Molds for triangular posts. (Office of PWblic Roads.) 

to scrub out the molds after they 
have been used five or ten times. 
Or apply more often if necessary to 
prevent sticking. 

Reinforcement. — Concrete posts 
are somewhat brittle and may be 
greatly improved by reinforcing them 

lengths, and not in coils. The rein- 
forcement should be placed within 
3 to 1 inch of the outside of the 
post. Care must be taken that it is 
not so located as to be exposed when 
the corners are rounded off. 

"Fool-Proof Spacer." — To keep the 


reinforcement in place use the little 
device known as the "fool-proof 
spacer." This consists of a No. 10 
wire cut to such a length that, when 
twisted once around each of the two 
reinforcing wires or rods, the ends 
will nearly touch the sides of the 
molds. The distance from the twists 
to the end of the short wire or spacer 
is equal to the distance from the re- 
inforcement to the side of the mold. 
On triangular molds such a spacer 
can be used only on the two rods or 
wires near the top of the mold. A 
shorter and similar device with only 

"Fool-proof spacer" for reinforcement. 
{Office of Public Beads.) 

one twist may be used on the lower 
reinforcement. Place at least three 
spacers on each piece of reinforce- 
ment; one at the middle and the 
other two not far from the ends of 
the post. Metal slightly rusted may 
be used. Galvanizing is not neces- 
sary. There will be no rusting once 
the metal is encased in concrete. 

It is a good plan to have the rein- 
forcing wire 3 inches longer than 
the posts and turned back an inch on 
each end in the form of a hook. 
For posts subject to rubbing and 
crowding as in barn-yards, short ex- 
tra reinforcing pieces 2 feet long are 
sometimes placed in the lower end to 
prevent the posts from snapping at 
the surface of the ground. 

Mixing a Six-post Batch of Con- 
crete. — The table on the next page, 
prepared by the Office of Public 
Roads, gives the approximate quan- 
tities of material for six posts 7 feet 
long and of the sizes named. To 
make larger numbers of posts in- 

crease the quantities in like propor- 

Molding Posts. — Oil or soap the 
molds and pour the concrete in them 
as soon as it has been mixed. If it 
stands thirty minutes after mixing 
throw it away. It is worthless. Fill 
the molds evenly to the depth of | 
or 1 inch as desired and lay in the 
reinforcement properly spaced by 
means of at least 3 "fool-proof" wire 
spacers. Now pour in concrete until 
the molds are filled within f to 1 
inch of the top. Add the remaining 
reinforcement and fill the mold. Now 
place a crow bar or pinch bar under 
each outer corner of the molds, by 
turns, and move it up and down 
quickly. This vibration shakes out 
the air bubbles and makes the con- 
crete more compact. Now level the 
exposed corners, if desired, with the 
-edger. Finish the surface with the 
trowel as soon as the surface water 
has been absorbed but before the con- 
crete has become hard. Use green 
lumber and soak the materials with 
water so the concrete will not cause 
them to swell and crack the posts. 
Do not work in hot sun or wind. In 
freezing weather work under cover. 

Curing Posts. — Leave green posts 
in the mold two or three days to 
harden. The molds proper may then 
be removed from square posts and 
used on another bottom board but 
the posts must lay on their own bot- 
tom board, in the shade, undisturbed, 
for at least a week or ten days. Tri- 
angular posts may be slid gently 
from the molds to a smooth floor cov- 
ered evenly with a cushion of sand 
but remember that the strain of lift- 
ing or the slightest jar may cause 
invisible cracks. These will greatly 
weaken the posts. During the first 
two days keep green posts wet and 
covered with wet canvas, burlap or 
any similar material. Wet sand may 
be used after the concrete has become 
hard. But manure will stain green 
posts and otherwise injure them. 
Continue sprinkling up to the tenth 
day. Then pile on end, leaning 
slightly together. But remember that 


a drop of 6 inches may break a green 
post. Or the jar of hauling them to 
the field over rough roads may injure 
them. Concrete posts gain strength 
rapidly up to a year or more. They 
should never be used until they have 
seasoned three months. The longer 
they can be made in advance, before 
using, the better. 

Use of Concrete Posts. — Set 7 ft. 
concrete posts about 2J feet deep 
and compact the soil about them by 
tamping. Attach the wire by means 
of short pieces of wire, one size small- 

up the expansion and contraction 
from heat and cold. Hence do 
not hesitate to make a tight fasten- 
ing. There are other methods of 
fastening wire, such as setting sta- 
ples in the green cement, casting 
holes in the post or imbedding 
wooden strips in them. But all 
others than the above are unsatis- 

Special Posts. — Corner posts, gate 
posts, hitching posts and the like may 
be made of any desired design from 
special molds which can easily be 




Size of post 

Proportions of materials by 
parts, measured in volume 




Materials in cubic'feet, 
measured loose 











Heavy . , 
Light . . . 








Straight, 5 by 5 . . . 

Taper on two sides, 
4i by 6, 4i by 4J 

Full taper, 5 by 6, 
4 by 3 


""2 " 








er than the fence wire, in either of 
two ways: (1) carry the wire fastener 
around the post and then twist it 
first upon itself and then around the 
fence wire; (2) or twist one end 
around the fence wire, carry it 
around the post and twist on the oth- 
er side to the same wire. This is 
known as the "Western Union Twist." 
Draw the fastener tight to keep the 
fence wire from sagging and from 
being slipped up or down by stock 
thrusting their heads through them. 
If necessary roughen the posts at the 
fastening point with a cold chisel. 
The kinks in woven wire fence take 

constructed by anyone having ordi- 
nary skill in carpentry. Holes may 
be made for bolt hinges and fasten- 
ers by inserting a piece of gas pipe 
in the concrete. But wrought iron 
clamp straps going completely 
around the posts are to be preferred. 
These can be obtained to order from 
any blacksmith. Concrete makes ex- 
cellent arbor posts and posts for 
vineyards, and trellises for all sorts 
of vines and clinging jjlants. "Woven 
wire may be strung from post to 
post to support the vines and fas- 
tened in the manner above suggested. 
Warning. — Do not buy molds or 



means for mixing or molding concrete 
in blocliS, posts or otherwise, or pat- 
ent rights for the sale of such ma- 
terials or processes, from traveling 
agents concerning whom you know 
nothing. Pay no attention whatever 
to assertions of such persons that 
you have been infringing their pat- 
ent rights or that you may do so in 
future. Refer all such claimants to 
your attorney. You will never hear 
anything more about them. The 
methods above recommended are not 

Methods of attaching fence ivire to con- 
crete posts. (Office of Public Roads.) 

patented and are equally as useful 
for all ordinary purposes as any pat- 
ented process or processes whatever. 


When concrete is not available 
some method of preserving fence 
posts and other timbers from decay 
will add greatly to their life and will 
be found a valuable economy. Decay 
consists in the destruction of wood 
tissue by low forms of plant life 
called fungi. These require air, 
warmth and moisture. Wood decays 
most rapidly when in contact with 
the surface of the ground because the 
conditions of heat and moisture are 
there most favorable to fungous 
growth. Hence the objects of treat- 
ment for preservation of timber are 
to exclude air and moisture, to keep 

the fungi from coming in contact 
with the wood or to destroy them by 
antiseptics. Among the most com- 
mon methods are peeling and season- 
ing, charring, painting, whitewash- 
ing, or the application of various 
coal-tar products, either by painting 
or dipping. The method to be em- 
ployed will depend in part upon cli- 
matic conditions, and in part upon 
the use to which the timber is to be 
put. A more thorough and extensive 
method of preservation is justified 
for warm, moist climates than would 
be required for cool and dry locali- 
ties. Those timbers, or portions of 
timbers, which come in contact with 
the soil — as the sills of buildings or 
the lower part of fence posts — re- 
quire most thorough treatment. 

All fence posts and similar timbers 
should be peeled and seasoned before 
used. Bark retards the evaporation 
of moisture and encourages the work 
of insects and fungi. Sometimes 
green posts are set surrounded by 
stone upon the theory that they will 
season in the ground. But experience 
does not indicate that the expense of 
this method is justified by the re- 
sults. Moisture will reach timbers 
set among stone about as readily as 
if in actual contact with the soil. 
The most desirable preservatives are 
petroleum-tar creosote, by-products 
of the manufacture of water gas; 
coal-tar creosote, by-products of the 
manufacture of coal gas, and of 
coke; and various products of these. 
Both have antiseptic properties. But 
creosote, and some other products, 
made from coal-tar, are more effi- 
cient than petroleum products. 
Therefore, they are to be preferred 
although they are somewhat more ex- 

Charring. — To obtain good results 
by charring, first season the wood, 
then hold over an open fire. Take 
care not to let it check or split from 
the heat and do not char deeji enough 
to weaken the post. It does not pay, 
as a rule, to char the entire post, but 
only the lower end up to about a 
foot above the ground and also the 


top of the 

brush, first 

post where water may 

-To treat posts with the 
peel and season them 
Then apply whitewash, 
any good paint or any of the coal-tar 
or petroleum-tar products. This 
method is not eifective unless the 
posts have been thoroughly seasoned. 
Otherwise the surface coating will be 
cracked as the wood shrinks and 
moisture will enter. However, no 
such coatings are really durable. The 

method. The plan of dipping the 
butts of posts in cement is not rec- 

Still better results can be obtained 
by soaking the timbers in the preser- 
vative for ten hours at ordinary tem- 
peratures. Coal-tar and crude pe- 
troleum are not as suitable for this 
purpose as creosote. This is liquid 
at ordinary temperatures, soaks into 
the timber readily and has strong an- 
tiseptic properties. Coal-tar creosote 
must be warmed slightly to liquefy 





Sections of posts of various woods treated with creosote by the open-tank process. 
All the posts are drawn to the same scale, and are approximately 5 inches across. 
The Mack areas show the creosote penetration, which corresponds generally to 
the sapivood. (G. P. Willis.) 

various antiseptic coal-tar products 
are best suited to this purpose. Two 
or more coats should be applied hot. 
A fifty gallon barrel of creosote will 
give 300 posts 3 coats for the butts 
and 3 for the tops. 

Dipping. — A somewhat better re- 
sult may be secured by dipping the 
timbers so that the preservative can 
soak into the cracks and checks. 
This plan takes less labor than paint- 
ing but consumes more of the pre- 
servative, since the tank or barrel 
must be kept full to the proper 
depth. Either petroleum-tar or coal- 
tar creosote may be applied by this 

it. AH timber thus treated must be 
thoroughly seasoned and dried to get 
as much water as possible out of 
the cells and thus allow the oil to 
come in and take its place. The 
kinds of woods most suitable to this 
treatment are beech, cottonwood, the 
gums, pin and red oak, the pines, 
sycamore and tulip tree. 

Impregnation with Creosote. — Un- 
doubtedly the best method is the im- 
pregnation of timbers with creosote 
by the so-called "open tank proc- 
ess." This consists in heating the 
wood so as to expand its cells and 
drive out of them a portion of the 



air and water they contain and then 
emersing the timber in a preserva- 
tive bath to cool. As the air and 
water remaining in the cells contract 
during the cooling process, a par- 
tial vacuum is formed. The cool pre- 
servative is then forced into this by 
atmospheric pressure. The illustra- 
tions show sections of diiferent kinds 
of woods treated by this process. 

Materials and Equipment. — To 
thoroughly impregnate posts and oth- 
er farm timbers with creosote re- 
quires one or more barrels or tanks 
with some suitable provision for 
heating their contents. Two common 
creosote barrels may be used. Set 
these about 7 or 8 feet apart and 
connect them by a 3 or 4-inch iron 
pipe fitted with lock (jamb) nuts. 
Build a fire under the middle of the 
pipe. Shield the sides of the barrel 
from direct heat by an apron of 
screen, preferably of some kind of 
metal as an old piece of sheet iron, 
tin or zinc. This outfit is inexpensive 
and, while the barrels are neither 
large nor deep enough for the best 
results and will usually leak after a 
few days, they answer well enough 
for a small number of posts or other 
timbers or shingles. A single barrel 
may be heated by means of a U made 
of K-inch pipe. Set the barrels in 
shallow boxes or on a platform pro- 
vided with a gutter to carry off the 
oil to a neighboring tub, if the bar- 
rels suddenly spring a leak. 

But if many posts are to be treat- 
ed, and especially if one desires to 
preserve timber for sale or do this 
class of work for others on a com- 
mercial basis, the best plan is to pur- 
chase a light (14 gauge) cylindrical 
galvanized iron tank. Such a tank 
3 feet in diameter by 4 feet high, 
fitted with a U of 3-inch pipe, will 
cost about twelve or fifteen dollars. 
With good care it will last indefinite- 
ly. Or a similar tank can be set in 
brick or masonry in such a way as to 
be heated from beneath like a set 
kettle. In addition, a rectangular 
tank for the cold bath about 8 feet 
long, 8 feet wide and 3 feet deep will 

be necessary if the entire post is to 
be immersed. Provision must be 
made to heat this, when necessary, 
to a temperature of about 100° or 
120° F. to liquefy the creosote and 
cause it to penetrate freely. A ther- 
mometer reading to 250° F. is neces- 

Preparation of Posts. — Select pref- 
erably round posts not exceeding 5 
inches average diameter, of soft and 
porous wood as gum, pine, maple and 
the like. These are cheaper than 
hard wood, easier to treat, yet when 
properly treated are equally as dura- 
ble. Do not attempt to treat hard 
woods which are naturally durable in 
contact with the ground such as ce- 
dar, locust, white oak and black wal- 
nut. Do not treat split posts having 
highly colored heart wood such as oak 
and yellow pine. The creosote will 
not penetrate hard wood and such 
posts will readily decay. In fact 
the advantage of this process is to 
make cheap posts of small size and 
soft wood, durable. Bevel the top of 
the post, preferably with an axe, so 
as to leave a smooth slanting surface 
to shed rain. Peel carefully. Re- 
move even the papery inner bark, es- 
pecially from pine and basswood. 
Season at least five weeks. Treat 
only when bone dry and not less than 
three or four days after exposure to 
heavy rains. To test posts when sea- 
soning, weigh an average sample at 
intervals of five days. If the loss of 
moisture in that period is less than 
one pound per post of 5-inch average 
diameter, it may be safely used. 

Treatment. — This differs according 
to the kind of wood and the method 
employed. Soft wood absorbs more 
than hard wood. But, as a rule, limit 
the absorption to 0.4 gallon per post, 
if only the butt is treated, or 0.6 gal- 
lon, if the top is also impregnated. 
The best method is that which gives 
the deepest penetration in the short- 
est time. 

To treat posts with creosote fill 
the tank with oil to such a point that 
the butts will be submerged 6 inches 
higher than they will stand in the 


ground when set. Raise the tem- 
perature to 220° F. before putting in 
the post, and keep it there through- 
out the bath. If only one tank is 
used, the cold bath is brought about 
by removing the fire and leaving the 

Barrel Outfit. (C. P. Willis.) 

posts in the tank to cool until suf- 
ficient oil has been absorbed. More 
oil must be added from time to time 
to keep them submerged to the prop- 
er depth. 

If two tanks are used, liquefy the 
oil in the cold bath by warming to a 
temperature of from 100° to 120° F. 
Transfer the posts from the hot to 
the cold bath as quickly as possible. 
Immerse to the same point as the 
post stood in the hot liquid. Add 
more oil from time to time to keep 
the posts immersed at that level. Or, 
if desired, only the butts may be 
heated but the whole post may be 
submerged in the cold bath. Thus the 
butts will receive a heavy, and the 
tops a light treatment. The cost va- 
ries with the kind of wood, cost of 
materials and method of treatment 
employed. It may be estimated at 
from twelve to fifteen cents per post 
exclusive of fuel and labor. If posts 
are properly creosoted they will last 
twenty years. Roughly speaking, 
this process will result in a net sav- 
ing equal to the original value of the 

The best results may be secured by 
treating the various woods about as 
follows, assuming that all posts are 
round, peeled, seasoned and average 
about 5 inches in diameter. Use the 
single tank treatment as follows for 

the following woods, viz., white ash, 
iminerse in hot oil 5 hours, cooling oil 
13 hours; Cottonwood, hot oil 1 hour, 
cooling oil 13 hours; butternut, 
white elm and bitternut hickory, hot 
oil 6 hours, cooling oil 12 hours. Use 
the double tank treatment as follows: 
basswood, sweet (bay) magnolia and 
sycamore, hot oil 1 hour, cold oil A 
hour; for beech, sweet (red) gum, 
pin oak and red oak, hot oil 1 hour, 
cold oil f hour; for black gum, 
cotton (tupelo) gum, hot oil 1 hour, 
cold oil 1 hour; for loblolly and lodge- 
pole pine, hot oil lA hours, cold oil 1 
hour; for slippery elm, hot oil 1^ 
hours, cold oil 1| hours; for tulip 
tree, hot oil 2 hours, cold oil ^ hour; 
for river birch, pitch jjine and short 
leaf pine, hot oil 3 hours, cold oil 1 
hour; for sugar maple and scrub 
pine, hot oil 2 hours, cold oil 3 hours ; 
for white willow, hot oil 4 hours, cold 
oil 1 hour; for red maple, hot oil 3 
hours, cold oil 3 hours; for white 
poplar, hot oil 6 hours, cold oil 12 

Light iron tank heated ty the pipe 
method of direct heating. {0. P. Willis.) 

hours. White willow requires an es- 
pecially thorough seasoning. 

Preserving Shingles. — Shingles are 
sometimes preserved from warping 
and decay by painting or applying 
other preservatives with a brush. 
But this process is not to be recom- 
mended. To diji the shingles sepa- 
rately in paint or coal-tar derivatives 



is a better method. But far more 
satisfactory results can be had by 
impregnating shingles with creosote 
by the above plan. Cheap pine sliin- 
gles, clear and free from knots, can 
by this process be made superior to 
the best cedar shingles. And the life 
of the best shingles can be much 
prolonged. An apparatus similar to 
that used for posts may be employed 
or any kind of tank used in which 
one or more bundles of shingles can 
be immersed. But choose a deep tank 
rather than a shallow one to prevent 
loss of oil from volatilization. The 
exact treatment required for a given 
lot of shingles can be determined 
only by experiment. "Weigh a sample 
bundle before and after treatment 
and time the treatment so that the 
shingles will absorb from twelve to 
thirteen pounds of oil per bundle or 
six gallons per 1,000 shingles. The' 
cost should range from $1.25 to $1.50 
per thousand. Have the hot bath 
relatively longer than the cold. Ob- 
jections to this process are that creo- 
sote has a strong odor, contaminates 
cistern water and gets on shingle 
nails so that the workmen cannot 
hold them in their mouths. All these 
difficulties may be obviated by treat- 
ing the shingles a few weeks in ad- 
vance. Or a shingle nailing machine 
may be employed. The water may 
be diverted from the cistern for three 
or four days or a week; no taint will 
then be observed. The odor also 
passes away after a few days. 

To color creosote shingles red or. 
reddish brown, mix eight to twelve 
ounces of the required pig-ment 
ground in oil with an equal bulk 
of linseed oil and add to each gallon 
of the preservative. To color green, 
it is necessary to dip or paint the 
shingles. The green pigment is too 
expensive to mix with the creosote. 

Other Timbers. — In addition to 
posts and shingles, the life of other 
timbers which come in contact with 
the soil or are exposed to moisture 
may be greatly increased by the 
above method. Among these may be 
mentioned foundations, sills, beams. 

wooden walks and planking, the lower 
portion of board fences, and all lum- 
ber used near the ground in sheds 
or barns. The treatment to be given 
is similar to that for posts. 

Creosoted Wood Pavement. — Creo- 
soted wood blocks are in many re- 
spects the most satisfactory material 
for walks and drives. They are far 
superior to planking. While some- 
what more expensive than brick or 
concrete, they cost less than a good 
grade of asjihalt and under ordinary 
conditions about the home are prac- 
tically indestructible. The cost in 
quantities is from $3.50 to $3.00 per 
superficial square yard laid. Wood 
blocks may be sawed from any well- 
seasoned lumber of the kinds above 
mentioned and treated with creosote 
by the open tank process. But the 
commercial product treated by the 
vacuum pressure method is to be pre- 

To lay wood block j)avement first 
prepare a foundation of concrete 
four to six inches in thickness de- 
pending upon the amount of wear 
to which it will be subjected. Bring 
the surface to a true level, cover 

Method of cutting planks from logs. 
(C. L. Hill.) 

with a thin layer of Portland cement 
mortar, mixed slightly, damp and 
lay the blocks in the damp cement 
with pains to keep the surface true 
and even. Or let the cement harden 
and cover with a layer of tar in 


which set the blocks. Or lay over 
them a cushion of sand. But do not 
use sand on hillsides or other steep 
grades where it may be washed out 
and derange the pavement. The 
blocks must be sawed to uniform 
height. The illustration shows the 
method of cutting the planks from 

Cover the pavement when laid 
with a layer of fine sand to fill the 
interstices. Or cover with coal-tar 
pitch heated to about 300° F. to in- 
sure perfect fluidity and scatter over 
this a top dressing of screened sharp 
sand or finely crushed stone about 
one-half inch in thickness. Should 
the pitch become soft in hot weather 
cover with a light dressing of sand. 


A nation-wide movement is on 
foot for improved roads throughout 
the United States. This has been 
brought about in part by the rapid 
extension of the use of the automo- 
bile among farmers and other rural 
residents. But it is also due to a 
better understanding both of the 
economic value of good roads and 
the principles of true economy in 
road making. The decreased cost of 
hauling resulting from better roads 
is not only a direct saving of time 
and money to farmers and rural mer- 
chants. It also increases farm val- 
ues. Other advantages are the in- 
crease of tourist travel, improvement 
of schools by combining district 
schools in one central graded system, 
improvement of the rural delivery 
service and general social betterment. 

The chief improvements required 
are the betterment of the road sur- 
face, reduction of grades, and short- 
ening the length of roads by chang- 
ing their location. The results sought 
are increased speed in hauling and 
ability to carry increased loads, or 
both. The average load which a 
horse can draw on a muddy earth 
road varies from nothing up to 800 
pounds; on a smooth dry earth road, 
from 1,000 to 2,000 pounds; on a 
gravel road in bad condition, from 

1,000 to 1,500 pounds or, if in good 
condition, about 3,300; on a macadam 
road, from 2,000 to 5,000 pounds; 
and on a brick road, from 5,000 to 
8,000 pounds. The effect of a good 
macadam road is therefore to in- 
crease the capacity of every horse 
from three to five times. The actual 
monetary loss in the United States 
from bad roads if computed in dol- 
lars and cents would stagger the 
imagination. Several states have 
adopted the policy of building high 
grade macadam roads under state 
supervision in localities where coun- 
ties or other local civil divisions 
agree to share the cost. All such 
movements should have the co-opera- 
tion of every good citizen. But since 
the cost of first class macadam roads 
is prohibitive in many localities from 
lack of available material and many 
other reasons, a knowledge of cheap- 
er methods of road making is of 
universal importance. 

Earth Roads. — A considerable ma- 
jority of all the public roads in the 
United States are of earth. These 
vary in character according to the 
soil of each locality. Some communi- 
ties are favored by nature with a 
convenient supply of gravel, or of 
stone suitable for road making when 
treated by the stone crusher. But 
elsewhere are large tracts of country 
in which no such materials are to be 
had. Reliance must usually be placed 
upon means of treating the native 
soils over which the road passes. 
These vary from pure sand, through 
all sorts of admixture of sand, loam, 
marl and clay, to solid beds of clay. 
Pure sand or pure clay present 
among the most diflBcult of all condi- 

Sand Clay and Burnt Clay Roads. 
— While pure sand or pure clay are 
extreme types of bad roads, a proper 
combination of the two materials 
makes a type of road surface almost 
equal to macadam. Natural sand and 
clay roads are sometimes found. But 
more often there is a deficiency of 
either sand or clay. One or the 
other must then be supplied to pro- 



duce a satisfactory surface. Clays 
vary in binding power between two 
extreme types. One kind is very 
"plastic" or sticky when wet. This 
is called "ball clay" because a lump 
of it placed in water will keep its 
shape. The opposite type is less 
sticky but will readily crumble when 
wet. Ball clay is somewhat more 
difficult to handle but makes a better 
road because it has more binding 
power. Some clays contain more or 
less sand, loam, Or other constituents. 
Hence the method of road making 
varies somewhat according to the 
available materials. It is a good 
plan to experiment with clays from 
different beds and choose those which 
give the best results, even if they 
must be hauled greater distances. 

The ideal combination of sand and 
clay is in proportion such that the 
voids or spaces between the grains ' 
of sand are just filled with the finer 
clay particles. Any excess of clay 
defeats the object of the mixture by 
enabling the particles of sand to slip 
loosely over one another. 

To test the soil and ascertain the 
exact proportion of clay required, 
fill one of two glass tumblers level 
full of an average sample of sand 
from the roadbed and the other level 
full 'of water. Now gently pour 
enough of the water over the sand 
to fill the voids between the particles 
of sand up to the brim of the glass. 
Measure the quantity of water re- 
maining. The proportion taken up 
by the sand to the quantity remain- 
ing will show the proportion of clay 
which will make an ideal combination. 
In practice, the mixture of sand and 
clay should be about four or five 
inches in depth. Thus by measure- 
ments of the road surface to be cov- 
ered, the quantity of material re- 
quired can be readily estimated. But 
somewhat larger proportions of sand 
or clay will usually have to be added 
from time to time to take the place 
of that lost by washing and to mix 
with clay brought up from below in 
the process of road making, or by 

To Make a Sand Clay Road Over 
a Sandy Sub-soil. — First provide 
proper drainage. Then crown the 
roadbed slightly beginning nearest 
the source of clay. Now dump the 

Cross section of road, showing clay 
cover on "deep" sand sulhsoil. (Wm. 
L. Spoon.) 

first load of clay at the point near- 
est the clay bed and spread it out 
evenly before driving over it. Fin- 
ally crown the clay to a depth of 
six or eight inches in the middle of 
a twelve-foot road and taper to a 
thin edge at each , side. Cover to 
the required depth with a layer of 
clean sand. If the clay tends to 
crumble when wet it may not require 
any further treatment, except to add 
more sand from time to time to keep 
the surface smooth and prevent the 
formation of mud. But if it is of a 
plastic and lumpy character it will 
be necessary to plow or harrow it by 
turns to break up the lumps and 
thoroughly mix the clay and sand 
together. Choose for this purpose a 
time when the road has been thor- 
oughly wet by heavy rains and turn 
the surface to a depth of about four 
or five inches witli the plow. Follow 
with a cutaway or disc harrow. This 
is a hard job since the clay forms a 
thick, pasty mud. But if properly 
done, it produces a surface which 
will stand traffic almost as well as 
first class macadam and at about 
one-sixth the cost. 

The best clays for road making 
are usually red or mottled red and 
white. If such can be found it will 
pay to haul them considerable dis- 

To Construct a Sand Clay Road 
Upon a Clay Sub-soil. — Take special 
care to provide proper drainage. 
Crown the clay at the rate of at least 
one-half inch per foot. Now turn 
over the surface to a depth of at least 
four inches with the plow and thor- 
oughly pulverize with the harrow. 
Choose for this purpose a time when 


the road is comparatively dry. Apply 
clean sharp sand to a depth of six 
to eight inches in the middle of the 
road and slope at the rate of one- 
half inch per foot, toward each side. 
Mix with the plow and harrow. Fin- 
ish the road by puddling with the 
harrow after a rain. Apply more 
sand to the surface from time to 
time, to keep it smooth and prevent 
its becoming sticky. 

To maintain a sand clay road, 
shape the surface with the scraper 
while wet and soft, but defer rolling 
until it has been thoroughly puddled 
by means of the harrow or by traffic. 
A sand clay road is not finished until 
a proper combination of the sand 
and clay has been effected under the 
influence of care and traffic, however 
long this may require. Hence, the 
cost of maintenance during the 
early stages may be projierly includ- 
ed in the cost of construction. But 
when a proper combination is ef- 
fected, the surface will be found 
practically as hard and durable as 
macadam. The total cost will be 
much less, usually at the rate of 
about $600.00 a mile. 

Burnt Clay Roads. — Where sand 
is not available, clay roads may be 
improved by burning or "clinkering" 
the clay to destroy its plasticity or 
sticky quality. Instructions for this 
process will be furnished by the Of- 
fice of Public Roads connected with 
the Department of Agriculture at 
Washington, D. C, on request. 

The Split Log Drag. — The best and 
cheapest means of maintaining all 
kinds of earth roads is the use of 
the split log drag. The average an- 
nual cost of maintenance of earth 
roads by other methods is from forty 
to fifty dollars a mile. Whereas earth 
roads can be kept in first class condi- 
tion under ordinary circumstances 
with the split log drag at from two 
to five dollars a mile. The cost of 
such a drag is nominal. There is no 
reason why any householder, who 
owns a team and has private roads to 
maintain upon his own lands, should 
not have a drag of his own. Inci- 

dentally, he can work the public road 
in front of his own premises, both 
with an eye to his own convenience 
and as an object lesson to others. 

To Make a Split Log Drag. — Se- 
lect preferably a dry red cedar log 
ten or twelve inches in diameter and 
seven or eight feet long. Split it 
carefully down the middle. Red elm 
or walnut when thoroughly dry are 
suitable, and either box elder, soft 
maple or weeping willow are pre- 
ferable to oak, hickory or ash. Se- 
lect the heavier and better slab for 
the front. Bore three holes with a 
two-inch auger; one, four inches 
from the end that is to be in the 
middle of the road, another twenty- 
two inches from the opposite end, 
and the tliird half way between the 
two. These are to receive the cross 
stakes. Now bore three correspond- 
ing holes in the back slab; the first, 
twenty inches from the end which is 
to be at the middle of the road, the 
second six inches from the opposite 
end, and the third in the middle as 
before. Take care to hold the auger 
plumb so that the stakes will fit prop- 

Perspective vieio of split-log drag. 
(D. Ward King.) 

Select for the stakes straight 
grained timber, which will fit snugly 
in the two-inch holes. Cut these to 
such a length that the slabs will be 
kept thirty inches apart. Taper them 
gradually toward the end so that 
there will be no shoulder at the point 
where they enter the slab. Now 
bring the holes opposite one another, 
insert the stakes and fasten them 
solely by means of wedges. Insert 
a two-by-four brace diagonally to 
the stakes at the ditch end, as shown 
in the illustration. Drop this on the 



front slab so that the lower edge will 
be within one inch of the ground. 
Rest the other end between the slab 
and the end stake. 

Shoe the ditch end of the front 
slab with a strip of i inch iron or 
steel about 3J feet long and 4 inches 
wide. Bolt this to the front slab 
with flat head bolts, countersunk. Lo- 
cate this shoe half an inch below the 
lower edge of the slab at the ditch 
end and flush with the edge of the 
slab at the middle of the road. In- 
sert a wedge between the lower edge 
of this shoe and the slab so as to 
give it a set like the bit of a plane. 
Lay a platform of 1 inch boards, 
held together by three cleats, on the 
stakes between the slabs. Separate 
the boards an inch or more apart 
to let the earth fall through them. 
Let the cleats clear the stakes and ex- 
tend them an inch on either side of ' 
the finished platform. 

Bore another 2 inch auger hole 4 
inches from the ditch end of the 
front slab to receive one end of a 
trace chain and hold it by a pin 
passed through a link. Pass the 
other end of the trace chain over the 
front slab and wrap it around the 
rear stake. This allows the earth 
to drift past the face of the drag. 

Plank may be used instead of split 
logs if preferred by strengthening 
them along their middle line by a 
2 inch by 6 inch strip of timber. 

To maintain an earth road in 
good condition use the drag when the 
soil is moist but not sticky, and will 
move freely along the faces of the 
slabs. Drive the team with one horse 
on either side of the right hand wheel 
pit or rut for the full length of the 
portion to be dragged. Return upon 
the other half of the roadway. This 
moves the earth toward the center, 
gives it a proper crown and fills the 
ruts. The fresh earth will be packed 
by traffic. 

There are many fine points about 
the use of the split log drag which 
can best be learned by experience. 
In general, fasten the snatch link or 
clevis nearer the ditch end, so that 

the drag will follow the team at an 
angle of 45°, To deepen the cut 
lengthen the hitch and vice versa. 
As a rule, 1* trace chains will be 
sufficient. Ride the drag standing 
and observe how to deepen or lesserj 
the cut, pass over obstructions and 
the like, by shifting your position. 

Ditch Cleaner. — To make a ditch 
cleaner select a 3 inch guide plank 
12 feet long and 12 inches wide and 
attach to it a mold board of 2 inch 
plank 12 inches by 8 feet. Brace 
these with a 3 foot cross piece. 

Shoe the mold board with a i 
inch iron plate 4 inches wide by 3 
feet long fastened by f inch bolts, 
countersunk. Hollow the cross 
boards 3 inches on each side of the 
middle beginning not less than 4 
inches from each end, so as not to 
shorten its bearing against the guide 
plank or mold board, or decrease the 
nailing space. This will keep the 
earth from heaping up against it. 
Hitch one end of the trace chain to 
a bolt about mid-way the intersection 
of the mold board and guide plank, 
carry the other over the top of the 
mold board and fasten to a hook or 
staple. Add a weight of about 200 
pounds over the front end. Use two 
or more horses according to condi- 
tions. Endeavor to maintain a 
smooth, even surface at the bottom 
of the ditch over which water can 
flow smoothly. Hence, pass lightly 
over soft spots, but cut hard places 
down to an equal level. To do this 
ride the ditcher standing and shift 
your weight forward to depress the 
point or back to raise it. This type 
of ditcher should precede the split 
log drag. It will assist in preserv- 
ing an even slope from the crown of 
the road to the bottom of the ditch. 
It thus facilitates drainage and pre- 
vents accidents from ditches with too 
abrupt slopes. 


The words "lightning rod agent" 
have become a by-word from the 
fact that while the need of protec- 


tion against loss from fire, or death 
of persons or stock from lightning 
strokes, is universally felt, yet the 
subject, in the minds of most per- 
sons, is surrounded with mystery. It 
has been easy for designing men to 
play upon this combination of ignor- 
ance and fear. Not only have many 
supposed contracts for lightning rods 

Method of placing lightning rods on a 
iuilding having no cupola or chimney. 
Length, of tuilding, aiout 25 feet. 
(Alfred J. Henry.) 

turned out to be cleverly devised 
promissory notes. Most often the 
equipment provided, if any, has 
proved ineflBcient, although the price 
paid was ruinously high. Hence there 
is a general prejudice against light- 
ning rods and a widespread belief 
that, if not precisely worthless, they 
will not justify the expense of in- 
stallation. Owing to recent experi- 
ments and discoveries any household- 
er who is handy with tools can now 
equip his premises with efficient 
lightning conductors at very low cost. 
The materials can be purchased from 
any of the large electrical supply 
houses in the principal cities or from 
the big mail order concerns. 

To wire a building with lightning 
conductors requires only a sufficient 
length of No. 3 or No. 4 double- 
galvanized iron telegraph wire, a 
pound, more or less, of galvanized 
iron s-taples, and a few connecting 
tees, known as "Tee conductors of 
J inch rod." There are three grades 
of galvanized iron wire known as 

Extra Best Best (E. B. B.), Best 
Best (B. B.) and steel. The "extra 
best best" is to be preferred to either 
of the cheaper grades of iron wire 
or to copper. It is a wise economy 
to pay the difference for the "extra 
best best" double-galvanized. Ob- 
serve that there are three standards 
of wire gauges: Brown and Sharp 
(B. & S.), Roebling, and the Bir- 
mingham wire gauge of England. 
Observe also that the size of the wire 
increases as the numbers diminish, 
i. e.. No. 4 wire is smaller than No. 
3. Use for small buildings such as 
hen houses, sheds and small barns 
or dwellings. No. 4 wire, B. & S. 
gauge. Or for large barns and resi- 
dences. No. 3 of the same gauge or 
their equivalent in other gauges. If 
a building is large enough to require 
two vertical wires down each side of 
the building and wire along the ridge 
of the roof, it is advisable to use 
No. 3 wire. 

To protect from lightning' a 
building having a wooden roof, sim- 
ply run a wir^ along the ridge pole 
and connect with this, by means of 
tees, one or more side wires. Ex- 
tend these down the slope of the 
roof and sides of the building and 
sink their lower ends in the ground. 
Fasten the wires to the building by 
galvanized iron staples about 1 inch 
long. It is not necessary to insulate 
them in any way. 

Or tack a row of small wooden 
blocks IJ inches thick, 2^ inches 
wide and 4 inches long down the 
slope of the roof and side of tlie 
building at intervals of 10 feet or 
less, insert in each a stout screweye 
and pass the wire through these. 

The length of wire required will 
depend upon the size of the building 
and the number of side wires em- 
ployed. The rule is to space the side 
wires about 25 or 30 feet apart. Thus 
a barn 50 or 60 feet long should 
have at least two vertical conductors 
on each of its opposite sides. The 
simplest way to measure the length 
of wire required is to toss a ball of 
stout cotton twine over the ridge 



pole. Hold one end and let it un- 
ravel as it goes. Fasten the end of 
the cord you hold to the sill, go 
around to the other side of the build- 
ing, and draw it taut directly oppo- 
site. But take care not to stretch it 
more than is necessary. Cut it off, 
pull it down and measure it with a 
tape, yardstick or any similar de- 
vice. It is well to order a few yards 
extra to cover any possible stretch- 
ing of the cord. Allow also for the 
ridge pole wire and the necessary 

Terminals. — At every chimney, 
cupola or other obstruction of the 
roof, erect a "terminal" or vertical 
rod of wire about 20 inches long. 
Also erect terminals at each end of 
the ridge pole by making a right 
angle bend in the wire which runs 
along the ridge at intervals of 20' 
inches from the respective ends. 
Also erect similar terminals at each 
junction of a side wire with the 
ridge wire and elsewhere, so that 
there will be a terminal about every 
18 or 20 feet along the ridge of the 
roof. Fasten each of these to the 
ridge wire by a tee connector. 

or no resistance to the wind. Do 
not leave the ends of the terminals 
blunt. File them to a cone shape. 

Two types of tee connections. 
(Alfred J. Henry.) 

To put up the wires first slip the 
necessary tees on to the horizontal 
ridge wire and erect them at the 
points of junction with the down- 
ward direct wires and at other points 
where required. Fasten the horizon- 
tal wire with staples. Now insert 
the side wires and terminals in the 
tee conductors. Slip the side wires 
through the screweyes or fasten them 
by means of staples, and ground 
them as hereafter directed. The ter- 
minals are short and will oflFer little 

Shoiving method of running horizontal 
conductor around a chimney or cupola. 
(Alfred J. Henry.) 

And as this removes the galvanizing, 
coat the tips heavily with aluminum 
paint to prevent rusting. 

Earth Connections. — The ends of 
the side wires must be sunk in the 
ground deep enough to reach per- 
manently moist earth at the shortest 
possible distance. Coil the end of 
the wire in a spiral about 1 foot in 
diameter and bury this in moist earth 
at whatever depth it may be found. 

Or drive a IJ inch galvanized 
iron pipe into the ground at the foot 
of the main conductors deep enough 
to encounter permanently moist soil. 
Thrust the wire into this and fill the 
interstices with powdered charcoal. 
But before inserting the wire, pro- 
vide a cap for the top of the pipe, 
with a hole through it big enough to 
admit the wire and also to allow wa- 
ter to drip down the wire into the 
inside of the pipe. Pass the wire 
through the cap, insert the charcoal 
and finally screw the cap firmly in 

It is a good plan to bring the rain 
spouts down from the eaves to a 


point near these earth connections to 
keep the ground moist. Or if there 
are no down rain spouts bore holes, 
or insert a short spout over these 
points, in the eaves so that the 
ground connections will catch the 
drip from the roof. 

To Wire a Building Having' a 
Metallic Roof. — Simply connect each 
corner of the roof with a side wire 
running to the ground and grounded 
as above described. Or provide me- 
tallic rain spouts and connect them 
with the ground in the same manner. 
But observe that to afford protec- 
tion, there must be an unbroken me- 
tallic path from the ridge of the 
roof to permanent moist earth with- 
in the ground. Hence observe that 
there must be a good metallic joint 
between the rain spout or wire and 
the metal of the roof. Also pro- 
vide a similar joint between the 
metal rain spout and the wire con- 
nection to the ground. To make 
such a joint hammer the end of the 
wire into a flat tape and both bolt 
and solder it to the roof and also 
to the rain spout. Since this process 
destroys the galvanizing, keep the 
joint well coated with aluminum 

In putting up lightning conduc- 
tors avoid bending the wire a^ sharp 

angles when passing chimneys and 
cupolas and also in passing around 
the eaves. A gooseneck bend is al- 
ways to be preferred to a sharp one. 
Or preferably bore a hole through 
the overhang of the roof so as to 
let the wire pass the eaves close to 
the wall of the building. 

Cautions. — Keep the lightning con- 
ductors as far as possible from gas 
pipes in the building, if any, but 
preferably connect them with water 
pipes, provided the latter are in good 
connection with the ground. See that 
the joints are mechanically perfect. 
Examine them frequently, especially 
after thunder storms, to make sure 
that they are not broken. Give the 
whole system two coats of aluminum 
paint when installed and repaint 
every two or three years. 

To Mend leaky Roofs. — A cor- 
respondent furnishes the following 
recipe for mending leaks in old tin 
or other metal roofs, or about chim- 
neys, eaves or gutter spouts where 
the flashing has given out. He states 
that this formula alone has earned 
for him more than $300: 

Mix equal parts, by bulk, of fine 
sifted coal ashes and whiting with 
boiled linseed oil to the consistency 
of thin mortar. Apply liberally to 
the holes and leaks with a trowel. 





Care of Kitchen Range. — Remove 
cinders and ashes each morning, 
brush out the inside of fire box and 
flues, and brush oiF the outside with 
wings or a hair brush; wash off the 
stove, if greasy, with soda and water 
and a piece of flannel. Blacken and 

Clean steel fittings from rust with 
sweet oil or kerosene and polish with 
emery. Clean brass fittings with em- 
ery or bath brick by means of flannel, 
and polish with chamois. Clean the 
hearth with hot water and soda by 
means of a flannel cloth. 

Care of Stoves. — The cook stove or 
range may be kept in good order by 
a daily brushing or rubbing and by 
a thorough blacking and polishing 
once a week. 

Cook Stove — To Keep Clean. — 
Sprinkle a little salt over anything 
burning on the stove to remove the 
dirt. Have at hand small sheets of 
sandpaper to remove whatever ad- 

To Keep the Hands Clean. — Be- 
fore polishing the stove rub lard un- 
der the finger nails. 

Dilute the polish in a saucer with 
water or vinegar, and apply with a 
common dishwashing mop. Draw 
over the hand a small paper bag, and 
polish with a flannel or other cloth. 

Or use a polishing mitten, but the 

liquid blacking will work through the 
polishing mitten and soil the hands, 
whereas the paper bags can be 
changed as fast as they become 

If the hands become soiled with 
blacking, first rub them thoroughly 
with lard, then wash with soap and 

Stove Blacking. — Dissolve i 
ounce .of alum in 1 gill of soft water. 
Add 6J pounds of plumbago mixed 
with 12 ounces of lampblack. Stir 
vigorously. Stir in IJ gills of mo- 
lasses, next ^ bar of white soap dis- 
solved in 3 pints of water, and lastly 

1 ounce of glycerin. This is a com- 
mercial article which has a great rep- 

Or beat up the whites of 3 eggs 
and mix in J pound of black lead. 
Dilute with sour beer or ale to the 
consistency of cream, and boil gently 
for 15 or 30 minutes. 

Or mix 8 ounces of copperas, 4 
ounces of bone black, and 4 ounces of 
black lead with water to the consist- 
ency of cream. 

Or melt 1 pound of hard yellow 
soap with a little boiling water, and 
while hot stir in 1 pound of pow- 
dered soft coal. Cool, and preserve 
in tight fruit jars or wide-mouthed 
bottles for use. 

Or mix 4 ounces of black lead with 

2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, 1 tea- 
spoonful of sugar, and a piece of yel- 
low soap the size of a butternut> 




Melt the soap with gentle heat and 
reduce while hot to the consistency 
of cream with coffee strained through 
a cheesecloth. Stir in J teaspoonful 
of alum. 

Or use vinegar instead of water 
for mixing any of the above. The 
work of polishing will not be so hard, 
and the polish will last longer. 

Or mix with oil of turpentine. 
This prevents and removes rust. 

Or add a little sugar or alum to 
any of the above; or a little benzine 
or naphtha to help cut the grease. 
If these are added the stove must be 
polished cold. 

To Apply Polish. — Apply stove 
polish in liquid form by softening 
with a little vinegar or turpentine, 
and spread on with a dishwashing- 
mop or wide painter's brush. 

Or rub a piece of flannel with wet 
yellow soap. Dip it into dry pow- 
dered blacking and apply. This 
saves friction and makes the labor of 
polishing much easier. 

Or, if a stove is much covered 
with grease, mix powdered blacking 
with gasoline and rub it on rapidly 
with flannel. Clean the stove thor- 
oughly as you go, as the gasoline 
evaporates quickly. Of course the 
stove must be entirely cold. 

To Polish Stoves. — Polishing cloths 
may be purchased, or a substitute 
may be made from any old glove or 
mitten by sewing to the palm several 
thicknesses of outing flannel, velvet- 
een, or a piece of sheepskin with the 
wool on. 

Or polish the stove with newspa- 

Or take a large paper bag, insert 
the hand part way, and crumple up 
the remainder to polish with. 

Or use the paper that electric-light 
globes are cleaned with. This can be 
bought of any electrical plant, and 
will give a fine polish as well as 
economize blacking. 

To Clean Nickel. — Clean the nickel 
or other metal trimmings on stoves 
with whiting. Mix to a thin paste 
with aqua ammonia or water, or both. 
Cover the parts with this and allow it 

to dry. Afterwards rub it off and 
polish with dry flannel or polishing 

Or apply baking soda diluted to a 
thin paste with aqua ammonia. 

Care of New Stoves. — A new stove 
should be heated gradually, and the 
oven door should be left open for 
half a day or more before it is used. 
If a new stove is allowed to become 
too hot there is danger that it may 
be cracked or warped. If an oven 
is overheated the first time it will not 
retain the heat well afterwards. 
Ironware of all kinds should first be 
tempered by gradual heat. 

Stove Holders. — Few homemade 
gifts will be more appreciated than 
a generous supply of kitchen holders. 
A half dozen is not too many to have 
at hand in the kitchen at all times, 
and two or three times as many 
should be provided, as there will al- 
ways be some in the wash. They can 
be made of odd pieces that would 
otherwise go to waste. Stove holders 
containing a thin sheet of asbestos 
between two pieces of canvas or oth- 
er cloth are perhaps the best noncon- 
ductors. Thin asbestos cloth comes 
by the yard at a small price, and a 
single thickness, protected by two 
pieces of cloth, makes a holder that 
is quite fireproof. 

A large pair of loose mittens of 
canvas or outing flannel lined with 
asbestos will be found very useful to 
take hot dishes out of the oven, and 
for other use about the stove. 
Fasten to these a stout cord or piece 
of tape about 3 feet long, and when 
much cooking is to be done slip one 
of them under the apron band or 
belt. Thus both will be suspended so 
that they will always be at hand. 

Old stocking legs, especially of 
wool, which is a nonconductor, make 
good holders. Fold the legs inward- 
ly three times to form a square, 
stitch across it, and also stitch it 
diagonally in a crisscross pattern, 
an inch or two apart, on the sew- 
ing machine, to prevent wrink- 
ling in the wash. Two old stock- 
ings prepared in this way and 



stitched together at the sides and ends 
so as to admit of a removable square 
of asbestos between make the best 
kitchen holders. Or they may be cov- 
ered with strong washable material, 
as denim or duck. Attach loops of 
strong tape at one or more corners, 
or sew on brass curtain rings and 
hang them on a nail or hook near the 

Or cover the holders with pieces of 
ticking or cretonne or worn-out over- 
alls. Two holders fastened together 
by a piece of tape about 18 inches 
long and hung by the apron belt are 
a great kitchen convenience. 

Uses for Asbestos. — Asbestos is a 
fireproof substance which is found in 
the earth in a natural state. It has a 
short fiber, but whether it is of animal 
or mineral origin is not known. The 
commercial article can be purchased 
in the form of cloth or boards of vary- 
ing degrees of thickness, or mixed with 
cement in strong, smooth plates. As- 
bestos is the best protection possible 
against heat, and has numberless uses 
in the household. A piece of hard, 
smooth asbestos board under the range, 
cook stove, parlor stove, gas stove, or 
small oil stove, is superior to iron or 
zinc because it is durable, easier to 
keep olean, and presents a better ap- 
pearance. The woodwork near stoves 
may be protected by the same mate- 
rial, also the collars above stovepipes 
where they pass through the ceiling 
and side walls. 

Candle lamp shades may be pro- 
tected by a collar or lining of asbes- 
tos ; dinner mats, either square or oval, 
made of two thicknesses of linen, with 
an opening at one end to admit a 
square of asbestos, will prevent the 
hot tea or coffee pot or dishes con- 
taining hot food from injuring the 
tablecloth or the polished surface of 
the table. Holders of washable ma- 
terial containing a removable square 
of asbestos are light, fireproof, and 
convenient, and asbestos mats lined 
with wire have many uses about the 
stove. They may be placed in a hot 
oven to prevent cakes and pies from 
burning on the bottom, and also on 

the top of the stove to prevent the 
contents of kettles and saucepans 
from burning. A small asbestos mat, 
wire lined, with a hole cut through 
the asbestos in the center, but not 
through the wire, will be found useful 
for warming milk and other things in 
cups and small saucepans with round- 
ed bottoms. The heat is applied to 
the bottom instead of the sides, and 
the vessel will not tip over. 

To Clean Grates. — ^When stirring the 
coal or wood in an open grate fire, 
spread a newspaper in front of the 
grate, or clear across the hearth if it 
is a small one, and work while the 
paper burns. The flames will cause 
a rushing draught that will carry the 
dust up the chimney. 

Or, to prevent the dust flying, if 
the fire is out, sprinkle a handful of 
- wet tea leaves over the ashes. 

To Clean a Hearth. — Cover grease 
spots on the hearth with hot ashes or 
live coals, or sprinkle fuller's earth 
on the spots. Cover with live coals 
and brush away after the grease has 
been absorbed. 

To Black a Hearth. — Shave | bar 
of yellow soap into 1 pint of boil- 
ing water and stir in | pound of black 
lead. Boil 10 or 15 minutes, stirring 
vigorously. Dilute with water if nec- 
essary, and apply with a brush. 

Or beat up black lead with white of 
eggs. Lay on with a brush and polish. 

Care of Matches. — Keep a stock of 
matches on a high and dry shelf in a 
covered earthen jar or tin box with 
a tight lid where they will be out of 
the way of children and safe from 
rats and mice. These animals are fond 
of phosphorus, and will gnaw match 
heads if they can, and often set them 
on fire. Have a covered match safe 
in each room where they are in fre- 
quent use. A match safe fastened to 
a piece of sandpaper will be found a 
great convenience. To hold burnt 
matches, a wineglass suspended with 
a bit of ribbon and hung on the gas 
jet or near the stove will be found 

To Clean, a Gas Range. — Do not 
black a gas range, but wash the 



greasy parts in a strong solution of 
potash lye or sal soda, afterwards 
thoroughly clean and dry. Do not 
put blacking or anything else on the 
burners, as it is likely to clog them 
and interfere with the flame. 

Care of a Gas Range. — Keep the 
gas stove clean both inside and out. It 
is not hot enough to burn off or absorb 
P vegetable or animal matter. Hence 
^ it should never be blacked, as the 
blacking is likely to rub off on the 
f, clothing. As soon as it is dry and 

P while still warm rub evevy portion, 
inside and out, thorouglily with an 
oily cloth. Use kerosene for this pur- 
pose, or a very little lard or suet, but 
olive oil is prolaably the most desirable. 
Do not wash the stove or apply an 
oily cloth while it is cold or while the 
burners are in use. To do so will 
cause rust, cakes of fat, or disagree- 
able odors when the stove is next 

If the stove is to be detached and 
stored away, it should be thoroughly 
cleaned and given a coat of some rust- 
proof varnish. 

Care of Burners. — Never black 
the top of a perforated or any other 
burner. Clean it with a damp cloth, 
and while warm wipe it off with an 
oily cloth to make the red burned 
appearance less pronounced. If the 
burners are removable boil them from 
time to time in borax water. But 
some burners cannot be removed un- 
less taken apart. When this is done 
take care to get the burners back in 
their right places. Especially the 
giant or large burner must be attached 
to its right key or gas outlet, other- 
wise it will not get the proper flow 
of gas. 

The burners should always be warm 
when washed, and after being dried 
should be replaced on their keys, 
lighted at once, and burned a few 
seconds or until the flame is clear. If 
particles that have been released in 
the pipe leading to the burner lodge 
in the pipe, tap the pipe leading from 
the key to the burner. This dislodges 
the particles and allows the gas to 
carry them on and out through the 

burner. When sweeping cover the 
range well, or else particles of dust 
may lodge on or in the burners, and 
be carried into the air mixture, 
whence they produce flames full of 
red specks. 

Care of Air Mixers. — Just back of 
the keys in every gas range is a round 
device with from 3 to 5 slots or open- 
ings. This regulates the air supply. 
These may be called the lungs of the 
gas stove, since through them the burn- 
ers take in the air necessary to insure 
perfect combustion. Hence these parts 
must be kept free and clear of any 
accumulation of dirt, or the flame 
will have a white luminous tip, which 
will smut pans and lessen the amount 
of heat. Too much care cannot be 
taken to keep these air spaces clear 
and free. They must be frequently 
wiped out. 

Care of the Oven. — Great care must 
be taken to keep the racks of the oven 
clean, especially if they are of sheet 
iron or heavy wire, since they may be 
utilized in many ways. Remove them 
occasionally and scrub them with pot- 
ash lye or strong solution of sal soda 
by means of a stiff fiber brush. Rinse 
with boiling water and dry thoroughly 
before returning to the oven. Never 
broil anything on the top of the stove, 
as the unconsumed food and grease 
will drop down and clog up the burn- 
ers, and can only be removed by boil- 
ing in strong lye. 

To clean oven doors lined with alu- 
minum, mix whiting and potash or sal 
soda with water and scrub by means 
of a stiff brush. After baking or 
roasting, wipe out the oven while still 
warm. Use an old newspaper for this 
purpose. This will save much future 
trouble in scrubbing. 

To wash the drip trays, take them 
out while warm, fill them with boiling 
water in which a little caustic potash 
or sal soda is dissolved, and scrub 
with a coarse fiber brush. 

To kill the odors of cooking, put a 
few pieces of charcoal tied with a 
piece of white cheese cloth in cabbage, 
onions, or similar dishes. This will be 
a great help in reducing the odor. 



To Light Gas Stoves. — In lighting 
the top burners do not be in a hurry. 
Locate the burner you wish to use, 
and with your eye follow the pipe 
from the burner down to the keys in 
front of the range, so as to be sure 
you turn the proper key. When you 
turn on the gas count five; meanwhile 
strike a match. After the fifth count 
apply the match to the back of the 
burner, bringing it forward over the 
burner. This method of lighting is 
almost sure to prevent the snapping 
sound sometimes heard. 

If spurts of flame are not seen at 
all the holes in a burner, a slight 
breath directed across the flames will 
cause all the jets to light. 

To prevent snapping and burning 
of gas in the air mixers, loosen the 
front of the air mixer just behind the 
key, and reduce the opening until the 
burner can be lighted. There should 
never be a white tip on the flame. 

Waste of Gas. — Turn down the 
burner as soon as the food begins to 
cook. When water bubbles the burner 
should be turned down. It is a com- 
mon mistake to suppose that when the 
water in a dish or vessel reaches the 
boiling point it will continue to get 
hotter if the gas is left turned on full. 
In fact, water turns to steam at the 
boiling point, 212° F., and does not 
get any hotter, but merely evaporates 
more quickly; and there is not only 
waste of gas but additional trouble in 
replacing the water lost by evapora- 
tion, as well as the liability of food 
burning or cooking into a sticky mass 
on the bottom of the saucepan. When 
food begins to cook, the valve or cock 
can be turned off two thirds. Do not 
turn on the gas and go hunting for 
a match in another room. Do not 
light the burners, and then stop to 
prepare vegetables or hunt up sauce- 
pans. Light the burner just as you 
reach the range, saucepan in hand, 
ready to begin cooking, and turn off 
the gas as soon as the saucepan is 

Obtain a set of two semicircular or 
three triangular saucepans that can 
be placed on a single burner at the 

same time. They economize space and 
gas, as two or three vegetables can be 
cooked at the same time over the same 

Ironing with Gas. — Get a, strip of 
metal large enough to hold four or 
five flatirons, and heat the irons on 
this. A single gas burner will heat 
the metal from end to end, and thus 
do the work of three or four. The 
same strip of metal can be used for 
making griddlecakes. Turn over the 
irons a metal pan so as to save the 
top heat, and turn the gas down low. 
With care, four or five flats can be 
kept hot at a cost of about ten cents 
for an ordinary ironing. Do not put 
flatirons directly over a gas flame, as 
the watery vapor from the flame will 
rust and consequently roughen them. 

Or get a flatiron heated with gas, 
y^hich can be connected with rubber 
gas tubing. Several of these irons 
are on the market, and with proper 
adjustment will give satisfactory re- 

Broiling with Gas. — To broil with 
gas, light the burner about ten min- 
utes before the meat is put into the 
broiling compartment. Take off the 
excess of fat, wipe the meat with a 
damp cloth, slice the gristle to keep 
the edge from curling, and lay the meat 
on the gridiron as close to the fire as 
possible. Always leave the broiling- 
oven door open to prevent the meat 
from taking fire. 

Put a little water in the drip pan to 
catch and cool the melted fat. 


There is no single operation of 
housekeeping in which system will save 
so much time as in dishwashing. Sys- 
tem is only force of habit and soon 
becomes second nature. The follow- 
ing suggestions are condensed from 
the practical experience of a large 
number of intelligent housewives. 

(1) Wash the cooking utensils as 
soon as the food is emptied out of 
them and before it is placed on the 
table. Or, if this is not convenient, 
fill them with hot water and leave 



them to soak. (2) After the meal is 
finished, and before clearing the table, 
prepare a place in the kitchen to re- 
ceive the soiled dishes. (3) Scrape off 
all bits of food into one dish, using 
preferably a good plate scraper of 
sheet rubber. This will remove all 
food and grease, and will not injure 
the most delicate china. If greasy 
dishes are not scraped, the dishwater 
will become too foul, and it will be 
difficult to wash or wipe the dishes 
clean. Greasy dishwater also makes 
the sink difficult to clean, and tends 
to stop up the spout. If a little lye 
is scattered over very greasy dishes, it 
will cleanse them readily by partially 
transforming the grease into soap. Be 
careful not to use lye strong enough 
to injure the skin. (4) Sort the dishes 
and stack them up in an orderly way, 
with the smallest articles on top ; place 
the glass, small china articles, silver, 
and other delicate pieces together; 
next, cups and saucers, sauce dishes 
and the like, and finally plates, plat- 
ters, and larger objects. (5) Load 
these lots on a large tray in the above 
order, carry them to the kitchen, and 
keep them separate until they are 
washed, wiped, and put away. This 
method saves frequent steps to the 
kitchen as well as confusion in sorting 
them there. Lay a newspaper or piece 
of wrapping paper over a large pan, 
scrape all the garbage into that, and 
if possible burn it in the range. Or 
use a small garbage burner. Or ob- 
tain a good, odorless garbage can that 
can be thoroughly disinfected and 
cleaned. Keep at hand a grease kettle 
in which to preserve scraps of grease. 
Sprinkle a little lye on the most greasy 
cooking utensils, as skillets, iron ket- 
tles, and platters, and rinse them into 
the grease pot. The lye will keep the 
grease sweet and assist in the process 
of soap making. Save the tea leaves 
to be used for sweeping. (6) Next 
prepare a suds with soap or any wash- 
ing compound. Borax is good. Wash 
first in hot suds the silver, glass, and 
delicate china, using a swab with a 
long wooden handle. Wipe the silver 
as soon as it is washed. Put the glass 

and china in a wire basket, and pour 
hot water over them. (7) Place the 
second lot of dishes — cups and saucers, 
vegetable and side dishes — in the dish- 
water, and allow them to soak while 
the first lot are being wiped. (8) Add 
hot water if necessary, wash the sec- 
ond lot of dishes, set them in the 
drainer, and place the third lot in the 
suds, or make new suds for it if neces- 
sary. (9) Next make fresh suds for 
milk pans, if any, and other tinware. 
Finally, wash the ironware — roaster, 
gridiron, pots, and kettles. Use for 
this purpose a little lye and scrape 
with a stiff fiber brush. 

Conveniences for Dishwashing. — 
The process of dishwashing will be 
much simplified if a large bench or 
table can be arranged to stand beside 
the sink, with the china cabinet or 
pantry for the ordinary tableware 
placed just above it. In many mod- 
ern kitchens (especially in city apart- 
ment houses) an arrangement which is 
ideal allows the dishwasher to wash, 
dry, and put away most of the dishes 
without leaving the sink. The time 
and steps lost in walking from the 
sink to the table, even if but a few 
feet distant, and thence to pantry or 
closet, is a waste of energy that can 
never be justified. If, for any reason, 
a permanent bench or table cannot be 
placed near the sink, get a movable 
folding table like a sewing table, or 
a shelf arranged to let down against 
the wall. A small shelf or cupboard 
above the sink to contain soap, borax, 
washing powder, and various utensils 
will be found convenient. 

The sink should be placed high 
enough so that the dishes may be 
washed without stooping. The top of 
the adjacent table should be slightly 
above and overlapping the sink, and 
with just enough slope to let the wa- 
ter drain back into it. Or a small 
cleat may be tacked on the edges of 
the table, front and back, projecting 
about a quarter of an inch, and the 
whole covered with oilcloth. This will 
let the drainage water flow back into 
the sink, and the top of the table can 
be easily kept both dry and clean. 



Provide a strong stool, high enough 
to allow sitting down at the sink to 
pare vegetables and for other pur- 

"Air ts Admitted to Every Part. 

Convenient utensils are: a swab 
made by fastening strips of linen or 
cotton to the end of a wooden handle; 
a small brush, like a nail brush, and 
a larger scrubbing brush for cleaning 
vegetables; a soap shaker, which may 
be homemade; a pot scraper, which 
may be ^ ordinary clam shell; and a 
wire dish drainer, either bought or 
homemade, which may be hung on a 
neighboring wall. A closet under the 
sink is not advisable. It is better to 
have the plumbing exposed and paint 
the under portion of the sink white, 
or cover it with white enamel. This 
may be done by any member of the 
family. The wall behind the sink 
should be protected by zinc, and if 
the table is covered with zinc instead 
of oilcloth, so much the better. 

Or a curtain of any soft, cheap ma- 
terial may be hung against the wall 
so that the lower edge will just reach 
the table top. This should be of 
washable material so that it can be 
changed weekly. A line of strong cord 
or picture wire should be strung near 
at hand to hold the dishcloths and 
towels. The garbage can may be 
placed under the sink or to the right. 

A three-cornered wire drainer, fas- 
tened in the corner of the sink, will 
be found convenient to receive vege- 
table parings, and also to strain the 
dishwater. A small shovel of cast 
iron, similar in shape to a fire shovel, 
will be a great convenience to lift 
scraps from the sink to the garbage 

Have one or more wood fiber brushes 
to clean dishes, kettles, a,nd pans. The 
fibers are stifPer than bristles, and 
hence do more eflFective work. A whisk 
or two will clean an empty potato or 
gravy kettle as soon as the vessel is 
emptied. A convenient size for brush 
is 3 by 2i inches. 

Washboard. — Hang beside the sink 
a small washboard. Use this to rub 
out dishcloths, and to keep towels 
sweet and clean. 

- Hinged Table. — A hinged table or 
bench that can be let down, and lifted 
up against the wall when not in use, 
is often convenient in a small kitchen, 
or where an ordinary table would be 
in the way. Have tliis bench or table 
just high enough to let down over 
one's lap when sitting in a chair. A 
great deal of work can thus be done 

Or use an ordinary collapsible sew- 
ing table for this purpose. 

Dishwashing Machines. — ^Many un- 
successful attempts were made in the 
past to invent dishwashing machines. 
Some of these took more time to clean 
than was required to wash the dishes 
themselves. Good ones can now be 
purchased, however, that will wash 
the dishes not only quicker, but bet- 
ter, than by the old-fashioned way. 
These machines are simple in construc- 
tion, are easily cleaned, and, if given 
proper attention, will last many years. 
They are constructed with a galvan- 
ized iron cylinder, which is to be half 
filled with water containing any good 
washing compound and brought to a 
boil. The dishes are put in a cylin- 
drical basket or tray, the plates and 
platters placed on edge and held 
by brackets. Saucers, cups, and side 
dishes are placed beside them, the 
basket is lowered into the cylinder. 



revolved two or three times by means 
of a crank, reversed, and the dishes 
are cleansed. The tray is then taken 
out, and if the dishes are scalded 
with boiling water, very little wiping 
will be required. Wiien we reflect 
that in many families of average size 
upward of three hours a day are de- 
voted to washing dishes, or that ap- 
proximately one fifth of the waking 
moments of thousands of intelligent 
women are occupied in this manner, 
we cannot but earnestly urge the aver- 
age family to make whatever sacrifices 
may be necessary to provide the house- 
wife with tliis and all other improved 
labor-saving devices. This, we think, 
will also be found a key to the solu- 
tion of the much-vexed problem of 
domestic help. 

Dish Draining. — If the table be cov- 
ered with oilcloth or zinc, the edges 
raised, and the whole slightly tilted 
so as to empty into the sink, a wire 
basket may be the only dish strainer 
required. A homemade article may 
be prepared from an ordinary soap 
box by lining the bottom with zinc. 
A cleat may be tacked on the bottom 
at one end to tilt the box, and by 
boring auger holes a slit may be made 
at the opposite end to allow the water 
to escape. Place this dish drainer on 
the table in such a way that the open 
end will proj ect over the sink. Through 
holes bored at intervals in the sides 
of the box thrust old broomsticks or 
other rods to hold plates and saucers 
upright to dry. Cover the box with 
oilcloth or stain it to match the kitchen 

Or an old dish pan may be used 
by perforating the bottom witli holes 
by means of a hammer and round wire 
nails. Place the draining basket, pan, 
or box to the left of the dish pan to 
avoid unnecessary handling. If the 
handles are front and back, as you 
face the dish pan you will have fewer 
pieces of nicked china. If lye is used, 
and the dishwater is fairly hot and 
soapy, dishes rinsed with cold water 
will dry in the rack bright and shiny 
and not require wiping. 

Or, if thoroughly rinsed with hot 

water, they may be allowed to dry in 
the same way. 

Or, if the table is not wanted for 
immediate use, lay a large dr